The recently identified cytokines-interleukin (IL)-35 and interleukin (IL)-37-have been described for their anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions in numerous inflammatory diseases, auto-immune disorders, malignancies, infectious diseases and sepsis. Either cytokine has been reported to be reduced and in some cases elevated and consequently contributed towards disease pathogenesis. In view of the recent advances in utilizing cytokine profiles for the development of biological macromolecules, beneficial in the management of certain intractable immune-mediated disorders, these recently characterized cytokines (IL-35 and IL-37) offer potential as reasonable targets for the discovery of novel immune-modulating anti-inflammatory therapies. A detailed comprehension of their sophisticated regulatory mechanisms and patterns of expression may provide unique opportunities for clinical application as highly selective and target specific therapeutic agents. This review seeks to summarize the recent advancements in discerning the dynamics, mechanisms, immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of IL-35 and IL-37 as they relate to disease pathogenesis.
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated skin disorder associated with severe systemic comorbidities. Whereas IL-36 is a key disease driver, the pathogenic role of this cytokine has mainly been investigated in skin. Thus, its effects on systemic immunity and extracutaneous disease manifestations remain poorly understood. To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of excessive IL-36 activity in circulating immune cells. We initially focused our attention on generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a clinical variant associated with pervasive upregulation of IL-36 signaling. By undertaking blood and neutrophil RNA sequencing, we demonstrated that affected individuals display a prominent IFN-I signature, which correlates with abnormal IL-36 activity. We then validated the association between IL-36 deregulation and IFN-I over-expression in patients with severe psoriasis vulgaris (PV). We also found that the activation of IFN-I genes was associated with extracutaneous morbidity, in both GPP and PV. Finally, we undertook mechanistic experiments, demonstrating that IL-36 acts directly on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, where it potentiates toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 activation and IFN-α production. This effect was mediated by the upregulation of PLSCR1, a phospholipid scramblase mediating endosomal TLR-9 translocation. These findings identify an IL-36/ IFN-I axis contributing to extracutaneous inflammation in psoriasis.
Prominent skin involvement is a defining characteristic of autoinflammatory disorders caused by abnormal IL-1 signaling. However, the pathways and cell types that drive cutaneous autoinflammatory features remain poorly understood. We sought to address this issue by investigating the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, a model of autoinflammatory disorders with predominant cutaneous manifestations. We specifically characterized the impact of mutations affecting AP1S3, a disease gene previously identified by our group and validated here in a newly ascertained patient resource. We first showed that AP1S3 expression is distinctively elevated in keratinocytes. Because AP1S3 encodes a protein implicated in autophagosome formation, we next investigated the effects of gene silencing on this pathway. We found that AP1S3 knockout disrupts keratinocyte autophagy, causing abnormal accumulation of p62, an adaptor protein mediating NF-κB activation. We showed that as a consequence, AP1S3-deficient cells up-regulate IL-1 signaling and overexpress IL-36α, a cytokine that is emerging as an important mediator of skin inflammation. These abnormal immune profiles were recapitulated by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy and verified in patient keratinocytes, where they were reversed by IL-36 blockade. These findings show that keratinocytes play a key role in skin autoinflammation and identify autophagy modulation of IL-36 signaling as a therapeutic target.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has long been associated with bacteremia and/or endocarditis by Streptococcus gallolyticus member bacteria (SGMB) but the direct colonization of SGMB along with its molecular carcinogenic role, if any, has not been investigated. We assessed the colonization of SGMB in CRC patients with history of bacteremia (CRC-w/bac) and without history of bacteremia (CRC-wo/bac) by isolating SGMB from feces, mucosal surfaces of colorectum, and colorectal tissues and detecting SGMB DNA, via PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays targeting SodA gene in colorectal tissues. Moreover, mRNA of IL1, IL-8, COX-2, IFN-γ, c-Myc, and Bcl-2 in colorectal tissues of studied groups was assessed via ISH and RT-PCR.
Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
Gastric cancer (GC) is a progressive process initiated by Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation. Initial recognition of H. pylori involves Toll-like receptors (TLRs), central molecules in the host inflammatory response. Here, we investigated the association between novel polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR signalling pathway, including TLR2, TLR4, LBP, MD-2, CD14 and TIRAP, and risk of H. pylori infection and related GC.