Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Azlan UK, Cheong FW, Lau YL, Fong MY
    Parasitol Res, 2022 Dec;121(12):3443-3454.
    PMID: 36152079 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-022-07665-7
    Plasmodium knowlesi utilizes the Duffy binding protein alpha (PkDBPα) to facilitate its invasion into human erythrocytes. PkDBPα region II (PkDBPαII) from Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo has been shown to occur as distinct haplotypes, and the predominant haplotypes from these geographical areas demonstrated differences in binding activity to human erythrocytes in erythrocyte binding assays. This study aimed to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms in PkDBPαII to immune responses in animal models. The recombinant PkDBPαII (~ 45 kDa) of Peninsular Malaysia (PkDBPαII-H) and Malaysian Borneo (PkDBPαII-S) were expressed in a bacterial expression system, purified, and used in mice and rabbit immunization. The profile of cytokines IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in immunized mice spleen was determined via ELISA. The titer and IgG subtype distribution of raised antibodies was characterized. Immunized rabbit sera were purified and used to perform an in vitro merozoite invasion inhibition assay. The PkDBPαII-immunized mice sera of both groups showed high antibody titer and a similar IgG subtype distribution pattern: IgG2b > IgG1 > IgG2a > IgG3. The PkDBPαII-H group was shown to have higher IL-1ra (P = 0.141) and IL-6 (P = 0.049) concentrations, with IL-6 levels significantly higher than that of the PkDBPαII-S group (P ≤ 0.05). Merozoite invasion inhibition assay using purified anti-PkDBPαII antibodies showed a significantly higher inhibition rate in the PkDBPαII-H group than the PkDBPαII-S group (P ≤ 0.05). Besides, anti-PkDBPαII-H antibodies were able to exhibit inhibition activity at a lower concentration than anti-PkDBPαII-S antibodies. PkDBPαII was shown to be immunogenic, and the PkDBPαII haplotype from Peninsular Malaysia exhibited higher responses in cytokines IL-1ra and IL-6, antibody IgM level, and merozoite invasion inhibition assay than the Malaysian Borneo haplotype. This suggests that polymorphisms in the PkDBPαII affect the level of immune responses in the host.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  2. Lappin DF, Robertson D, Hodge P, Treagus D, Awang RA, Ramage G, et al.
    J. Periodontol., 2015 Nov;86(11):1249-59.
    PMID: 26252750 DOI: 10.1902/jop.2015.150149
    BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between glycated hemoglobin and circulating levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5) in non-smoking patients suffering from T1DM, with and without periodontitis. In addition, to determine the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in the presence and absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression by THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells.

    METHODS: There were 104 participants in the study: 19 healthy volunteers, 23 patients with periodontitis, 28 patients with T1DM, and 34 patients with T1DM and periodontitis. Levels of blood glucose/glycated hemoglobin (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry [IFCC]) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Levels of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 in plasma were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In vitro stimulation of OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes was performed with combinations of AGE and P. gingivalis LPS. Changes in expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 were monitored by ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and periodontitis had higher plasma levels of IL-8 than patients with periodontitis alone. Plasma levels of IL-8 correlated significantly with IFCC units, clinical probing depth, and attachment loss. AGE and LPS, alone or in combination, stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 expression in both OKF6/TERT-2 cells and THP-1 monocytes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma levels of IL-8 potentially contribute to the cross-susceptibility between periodontitis and T1DM. P. gingivalis LPS and AGE in combination caused significantly greater expression of IL-6, IL-8, and CXCL5 from THP-1 monocytes and OKF6/TERT-2 cells than LPS alone.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  3. Abdullah D, Ford TR, Papaioannou S, Nicholson J, McDonald F
    Biomaterials, 2002 Oct;23(19):4001-10.
    PMID: 12162333
    Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  4. Goh YC, Chan SW, Siar CH
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Dec;41(3):303-311.
    PMID: 31901915
    INTRODUCTION: Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally invasive odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high recurrence rate after treatment. The two main subsets encountered clinically are unicystic (UA) and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (SMA). Currently neoplastic progression of many tumour types are believed to be related to parenchyma-stromal cell-cell interactions mediated by cytokines notably interleukins (IL). However their roles in ameloblastoma remain ill-understood.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ameloblastoma cases comprising unicystic ameloblastoma (n=19) and solid/multicystic ameloblastoma (n=20) were subjected to IHC staining for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. A semi-quantitative method was used to evaluate the expression levels of these cytokines according to cell types in the tumoural parenchyma and stroma.

    RESULTS: Major findings were upregulations of IL-1α and IL-6 in SMA compared to UA. Both cytokines were heterogeneously detected in the tumoural parenchyma and stroma. Within the neoplastic epithelial compartment, IL-1α expression was more frequently detected in PA-like cells in UA whereas it was more frequently encountered in SR-like cells in SMA. IL-6 demonstrated higher expression levels in the stromal compartment of SMA. IL-1β and IL-8 were markedly underexpressed in both tumour subsets.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of IL-1α in SMA suggests that this growth factor might play a role in promoting bone resorption and local invasiveness in this subtype. The expression levels of IL-1α and IL-6 in three cellular localizations indicate that parenchymal-stromal components of ameloblastoma interact reciprocally via IL-1α and IL-6 to create a microenvironment conducive for tumour progression.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  5. Kardia E, Mohamed R, Yahaya BH
    Sci Rep, 2017 09 15;7(1):11732.
    PMID: 28916766 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11992-6
    Airway stem/progenitor epithelial cells (AECs) are notable for their differentiation capacities in response to lung injury. Our previous finding highlighted the regenerative capacity of AECs following transplantation in repairing tracheal injury and reducing the severity of alveolar damage associated acute lung injury in a rabbit model. The goal of this study is to further investigate the potential of AECs to re-populate the tracheal epithelium and to study their stimulatory effect on inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines, epithelial cell migration and proliferation, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process following tracheal injury. Two in vitro culture assays were applied in this study; the direct co-culture assay that involved a culture of decellularised tracheal epithelium explants and AECs in a rotating tube, and indirect co-culture assay that utilized microporous membrane-well chamber system to separate the partially decellularised tracheal epithelium explants and AEC culture. The co-culture assays provided evidence of the stimulatory behaviour of AECs to enhance tracheal epithelial cell proliferation and migration during early wound repair. Factors that were secreted by AECs also markedly suppressed the production of IL-1β and IL-6 and initiated the EMT process during tracheal remodelling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  6. Pang KL, Chin KY, Nirwana SI
    PMID: 36597600 DOI: 10.2174/1871530323666230103153134
    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of plants have been utilised to enhance the immunity of humans against infections. However, evidence of such effects of agarwood leaves is very limited despite the long tradition of consuming the leaves as tea.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the immuno-modulatory effects of agarwood leaf extract (ALE) derived from Aquilaria malaccensis using RAW264.7 murine macrophages.

    METHODS: In this study, RAW264.7 macrophages were incubated with ALE alone for 26 hours or ALE for 2 hours, followed by bacterial lipopolysaccharide for 24 hours. The nitrite and cytokine production (tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression in the macrophages were assayed.

    RESULTS: The study showed that ALE alone was immunostimulatory on the macrophages by increasing the nitrite, TNFα, and IL-6 production and COX2 expression (p<0.05 vs. untreated unstimulated cells). Pre-treatment of ALE suppressed nitrite level and iNOS expression but enhanced TNFα and IL-6 production and COX2 expression (p<0.05 vs. untreated lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated cells). ALE also increased IL-10 production regardless of LPS stimulation (p<0.05 vs. untreated cells).

    CONCLUSION: ALE was able to promote the immune response of macrophages by upregulating pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and COX2 expression. It also regulated the extent of the inflammation by reducing iNOS expression and increasing IL-10 levels. Thus, ALE may have a role in enhancing the innate immune system against infection; however, its validation from in vivo studies is still pending.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  7. Lim YC, Quek H, Offenhäuser C, Fazry S, Boyd A, Lavin M, et al.
    J Neurooncol, 2018 Jul;138(3):509-518.
    PMID: 29564746 DOI: 10.1007/s11060-018-2838-0
    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly fatal disease with a 5 year survival rate of less than 22%. One of the most effective treatment regimens to date is the use of radiotherapy which induces lethal DNA double-strand breaks to prevent tumour growth. However, recurrence occurs in the majority of patients and is in-part a result of robust radioresistance mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that the multifunctional cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), confers a growth advantage in GBM cells but does not have the same effect on normal neural progenitor cells. Further analysis showed IL-6 can promote radioresistance in GBM cells when exposed to ionising radiation. Ablation of the Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated serine/threonine kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks reverses the effect of radioresistance and re-sensitised GBM to DNA damage thus leading to increase cell death. Our finding suggests targeting the signaling cascade of DNA damage response is a potential therapeutic approach to circumvent IL-6 from promoting radioresistance in GBM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*; Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism
  8. Wan Ahmad WN, Sakri F, Mokhsin A, Rahman T, Mohd Nasir N, Abdul-Razak S, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(1):e0116867.
    PMID: 25614985 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116867
    BACKGROUND: Inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress have been established as key events in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) is protective against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but its association with inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress is not well established.

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the concentrations of biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress in subjects with low HDL-c compared to normal HDL-c; (2) To examine the association and correlation between HDL-c and these biomarkers and (3) To determine whether HDL-c is an independent predictor of these biomarkers.

    METHODS: 422 subjects (mean age±SD = 43.2±11.9 years) of whom 207 had low HDL-c concentrations (HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L and <1.3 mmol/L for males and females respectively) and 215 normal controls (HDL-c ≥1.0 and ≥1.3 mmol/L for males and females respectively) were recruited in this study. The groups were matched for age, gender, ethnicity, smoking status, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Fasting blood samples were collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammation [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6)], endothelial activation [soluble Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and E-selectin)] and oxidative stress [F2-Isoprostanes, oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and Malondialdehyde (MDA)].

    RESULTS: Subjects with low HDL-c had greater concentrations of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress biomarkers compared to controls. There were negative correlations between HDL-c concentration and biomarkers of inflammation (IL-6, p = 0.02), endothelial activation (sVCAM-1 and E-selectin, p = 0.029 and 0.002, respectively), and oxidative stress (MDA and F2-isoprostane, p = 0.036 and <0.0001, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis showed HDL-c as an independent predictor of IL-6 (p = 0.02) and sVCAM-1 (p<0.03) after correcting for various confounding factors.

    CONCLUSION: Low serum HDL-c concentration is strongly correlated with enhanced status of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress. It is also an independent predictor for enhanced inflammation and endothelial activation, which are pivotal in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  9. Zulkifli I, Najafi P, Nurfarahin AJ, Soleimani AF, Kumari S, Aryani AA, et al.
    Poult Sci, 2014 Dec;93(12):3112-8.
    PMID: 25306460 DOI: 10.3382/ps.2014-04099
    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of corticosterone (CORT) administration on serum ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), ceruloplasmin (CPN), and IL-6 concentrations, and brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression in broiler chickens. From 14 to 20 d of age, equal numbers of birds were subjected to either (i) daily intramuscular injection with CORT in ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol) at 6 mg/kg of BW, or (ii) daily intramuscular injection with 0.5 mL ethanol:saline (1:1, vol/vol; control). Blood samples were collected before CORT treatment (14 d old), 3 and 7 d after CORT injections, and 4 d after cessation of CORT administration for determination of serum levels of CORT, OVT, AGP, CPN, and IL-6. Brain samples (whole cerebrum) were collected to measure HSP 70 density. Although CORT administration significantly increased feed intake, weight gain was significantly depressed. Administration of CORT also increased CORT, OVT, CPN, AGP, IL-6, and HSP 70 expression. Four days following cessation of CORT administration, OVT declined to the basal level but not CPN and AGP. In conclusion, an elevation in CORT can induce an acute-phase response and HSP 70 expression. Thus, APP and HSP 70 may be of value as indicators of stress in poultry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  10. Razali FN, Ismail A, Abidin NZ, Shuib AS
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e108988.
    PMID: 25299340 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108988
    The polysaccharide fraction from Solanum nigrum Linne has been shown to have antitumor activity by enhancing the CD4+/CD8+ ratio of the T-lymphocyte subpopulation. In this study, we analyzed a polysaccharide extract of S. nigrum to determine its modulating effects on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells since macrophages play a key role in inducing both innate and adaptive immune responses. Crude polysaccharide was extracted from the stem of S. nigrum and subjected to ion-exchange chromatography to partially purify the extract. Five polysaccharide fractions were then subjected to a cytotoxicity assay and a nitric oxide production assay. To further analyze the ability of the fractionated polysaccharide extract to activate macrophages, the phagocytosis activity and cytokine production were also measured. The polysaccharide fractions were not cytotoxic, but all of the fractions induced nitric oxide in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the five fractions tested, SN-ppF3 was the least toxic and also induced the greatest amount of nitric oxide, which was comparable to the inducible nitric oxide synthase expression detected in the cell lysate. This fraction also significantly induced phagocytosis activity and stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Our study showed that fraction SN-ppF3 could classically activate macrophages. Macrophage induction may be the manner in which polysaccharides from S. nigrum are able to prevent tumor growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  11. Zhang Y, Yan W, Collins MA, Bednar F, Rakshit S, Zetter BR, et al.
    Cancer Res, 2013 Oct 15;73(20):6359-74.
    PMID: 24097820 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-1558-T
    Pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest human malignancies, is almost invariably associated with the presence of an oncogenic form of Kras. Mice expressing oncogenic Kras in the pancreas recapitulate the stepwise progression of the human disease. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is often expressed by multiple cell types within the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that IL-6 is required for the maintenance and progression of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions. In fact, the lack of IL-6 completely ablates cancer progression even in presence of oncogenic Kras. Mechanistically, we show that IL-6 synergizes with oncogenic Kras to activate the reactive oxygen species detoxification program downstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling cascade. In addition, IL-6 regulates the inflammatory microenvironment of pancreatic cancer throughout its progression, providing several signals that are essential for carcinogenesis. Thus, IL-6 emerges as a key player at all stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential therapeutic target.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  12. Moktar NM, Yusof HM, Yahaya NH, Muhamad R, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2010;161(1):25-8.
    PMID: 20393674
    AIMS: The mRNA level for interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important marker of osteoarthritis (OA). The present study aimed to investigate the level of IL-6 mRNA in the cartilage of OA knee while comparing it to the normal cartilage obtained from the same patient.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 21 patients who underwent total knee replacement were recruited for this study. Sectioning of the destructive cartilage was performed in the medial part of the proximal tibiofemoral cartilage. The unaffected lateral part of the knee in the same patient, served as a control. The mRNA level for IL-6 was assessed using LightCycler 2.0 quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). actin mRNA was used as an endogenous control.
    RESULTS: Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1%) exhibited up regulation of IL-6 mRNA in the OA cartilage as compared to the normal cartilage. The rest of the patients (42.9%) showed down regulation of IL-6 mRNA. The statistical analysis showed there was insignificant level of IL-6 mRNA in the OA (1.91 +/- 0.45) as compared to the normal cartilage (1.13 +/- 0.44) (p > 0.05). The inter-individual variation in the level of IL-6 mRNA in the cartilage of idiopathic knee was in accordance with previous findings.
    CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest IL-6 could also act as a catabolic agent in some patients or its expression might be influenced by other cytokines.
    Study site: Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  13. Ellulu MS, Khaza'ai H, Rahmat A, Patimah I, Abed Y
    Int J Cardiol, 2016 Jul 15;215:318-24.
    PMID: 27128554 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.04.089
    BACKGROUND: To find out the differences on biomedical data between obese and non-obese participants, and to identify risk factors associated with systemic inflammation in healthy Palestinian adults.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study involved 105 apparently healthy adults. Interview questionnaire was used to collect personal information. Participants were excluded if they suffered from acute or chronic inflammatory diseases, or continued using medicines, which might affect the biomedical results.

    RESULTS: In association with increased Body Mass Index (BMI), the obese group displayed significant higher markers including: interleukin 6 (IL-6), high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol (TC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Obese group in association with increased waist circumference (WC) was higher significantly in inflammatory markers (IL-6, hs-CRP), lipid profile (TC) and triglyceride (TG), and blood pressure (SBP, DBP). A tertile of a feature of systemic inflammation (hs-CRP) was created, by Ordinal Logistic Regression, after adjusting for the age, gender, smoking habits, physical activity pattern, father and mother's health history; risk factors were the increased BMI [OR: 1.24] (95% CI: 1.005-1.548, P=0.050), IL-6 [OR: 3.35] (95% CI: 1.341-8.398, P=0.010), DBP [OR: 1.19] (95% CI: 1.034-1.367, P=0.015), and reduced Adiponectin [OR: 0.59] (95% CI: 0.435-0.820, P=0.001). Finally, BMI correlated with IL-6 and hs-CRP (r=0.326, P=0.005; r=0.347, P<0.001; respectively), and hs-CRP correlated with IL-6 (r=0.303, P=0.010), and inversely with Adiponectin (r=-0.342, P=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The increased level of IL-6 and reduced Adiponectin, which strongly associated with obesity, indicated that having high BMI is a useful marker in association with IL-6 and further developed systemic inflammation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  14. Lee HM, Sia APE, Li L, Sathasivam HP, Chan MSA, Rajadurai P, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 04 09;10(1):6115.
    PMID: 32273550 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-63150-0
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly metastatic cancer that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we identify for the first time a role for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) in NPC. MAOA is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes oxidative deamination of neurotransmitters and dietary amines. Depending on the cancer type, MAOA can either have a tumour-promoting or tumour-suppressive role. We show that MAOA is down-regulated in primary NPC tissues and its down-regulation enhances the migration of NPC cells. In addition, we found that EBV infection can down-regulate MAOA expression in both pre-malignant and malignant nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cells. We further demonstrate that MAOA is down-regulated as a result of IL-6/IL-6R/STAT3 signalling and epigenetic mechanisms, effects that might be attributed to EBV infection in NPE cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the tumour suppressive effects of MAOA and that loss of MAOA could be an important step in the pathogenesis of NPC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  15. Abdelwahab SI, Abdul AB, Zain ZN, Hadi AH
    Int Immunopharmacol, 2012 Apr;12(4):594-602.
    PMID: 22330084 DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2012.01.014
    Interleukin-6 is one of the factors affecting sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the role of IL-6 and IL6 receptors in the cytotoxic effects of zerumbone in ovarian and cervical cancer cell lines (Caov-3 and HeLa, respectively). Exposure of both cancer cells to zerumbone or cisplatin demonstrated growth inhibition at a dose-dependent manner as determined by the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,Sdiphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. Both laser scanning confocal microscopy and TUNEL assay showed typical apoptotic features in treated cells. The studies conducted seems to suggest that zerumbone induces cell death by stimulating apoptosis better than cisplatin, based on the significantly higher percentage of apoptotic cells in zerumbone's treated cancer cells as compared to cisplatin. In addition, zerumbone and cisplatin arrest cancer cells at G2/M phase as analyzed by flow cytometry. Our results indicated that zerumbone significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 secreted by both cancer cells. In contrast, HeLa and Caov-3 cells were still sensitive to cisplatin and zerumbone, even in the presence of exogenous IL-6. However, membrane-bound IL-6 receptor is still intact after zerumbone treatment as demonstrated using an immune-fluorescence technique. This study concludes that the compound, zerumbone inhibits both cancer cell growth through the induction of apoptosis, arrests cell cycle at G2/M phase and inhibits the secretion levels of IL-6 in both cancer cells. Therefore, zerumbone is a potential candidate as a useful chemotherapeutic agent in treating both cervical and ovarian cancers in future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  16. Najafi P, Zulkifli I, Soleimani AF
    Poult Sci, 2018 Apr 01;97(4):1441-1447.
    PMID: 29462352 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex364
    The aim of the current study was to elucidate whether inhibition of corticosterone (CORT) synthesis could modify stress response to feed deprivation and its possible interactions with feed restriction in the neonatal period in broiler chickens. Equal numbers of broiler chicks were subjected to either 60% feed restriction (60FR) or ad libitum (AL) on d 4, 5, and 6. On day 7, blood CORT, acute phase proteins (APP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and brain heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression were determined. On d 35, chickens in each early age feeding regimen were subjected to one of the following treatments: (i) ad libitum feeding (ALF), (ii) 24 h feed deprivation (SFR), or (iii) 24 h feed deprivation with intramuscular injection of 1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) at 100 mg/kg BW (SFR+DDT). The effect of SFR on CORT, APP, IL-6, and HSP 70 were determined on d 36. The results showed that subjecting chicks to 60FR significantly elevated CORT and brain HSP70 concentration compared to the AL group on d 7. The early feeding regimen had no significant effect on CORT, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP), ovotransferrin (OVT), ceruoplasmin (CP), IL-6, or brain HSP70 on d 36. The CORT, AGP, OVT, CP, IL-6, and brain HSP70 expression of SFR birds following 24 h of feed deprivation (d 36) were significantly higher than their ALF and SFR+DDT counterparts. Both ALF and SFR+DDT birds had similar values. Stress attributed to feed deprivation without concurrent increase in CORT had a negligible effect on serum levels of APP and IL-6 and brain HSP70 expression.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  17. Kow ASF, Khoo LW, Tan JW, Abas F, Lee MT, Israf DA, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2023 Mar 01;303:116003.
    PMID: 36464074 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2022.116003
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Allergy is mediated by the crosslinking of immunoglobulins (Ig) -E or -G to their respective receptors, which degranulates mast cells, macrophages, basophils, or neutrophils, releasing allergy-causing mediators. The removal of these mediators such as histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and interleukins (ILs) released by effector cells will alleviate allergy. Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans), an herbal plant in Southeast Asia, is used traditionally to treat skin rash, an allergic symptom. Previously, we have reported that C. nutans aqueous leaves extract (CNAE) was able to suppress the release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine but not interleukin-4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the IgE-induced mast cell degranulation model at 5 mg/mL and above. We also found that CNAE could protect rats against ovalbumin-challenged active systemic anaphylaxis (OVA-ASA) through the downregulation and upregulation of certain metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomics approach.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: As allergy could be mediated by both IgE and IgG, we further evaluated the anti-allergy potential of CNAE in both in vitro model of IgG-induced macrophage activation and in vivo anaphylaxis models to further dissect the mechanism of action underlying the anti-allergic properties of CNAE.

    MATERIAL & METHODS: The anti-allergy potential of CNAE was evaluated in in vivo anaphylaxis models of ovalbumin-challenged active systemic anaphylaxis (OVA-ASA) and IgE-challenged passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) using Sprague Dawley rats as well as IgG-challenged passive systemic anaphylaxis (IgG-PSA) using C57BL/6 mice. Meanwhile, in vitro model of IgG-induced macrophage activation model was performed using IC-21 macrophages. The release of soluble mediators from both IgE and IgG-mediated pathways were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The signaling molecules targeted by CNAE were identified by performing Western blot.

    RESULTS: IgG, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and IL-6 was suppressed by CNAE in OVA-ASA, but not IgE. In addition, CNAE significantly suppressed PAF and IL-6 in IgG-PSA but did not suppress histamine, IL-4 and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) in IgE-PSA. CNAE also inhibited IL-6 and TNF-α by inhibiting the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the IgG-induced macrophage activation model.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, our findings supported that CNAE exerts its anti-allergic properties by suppressing the IgG pathway and its mediators by inhibiting ERK1/2 phosphorylation, thus providing scientific evidence supporting its traditional use in managing allergy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  18. Selim K, Hüseyin C, Ibrahim KH, Hasan BU, Kazim U, Hüseyin K
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):391-4.
    PMID: 15727386
    Several pharmacological agents have been found to alter systemic concentrations and/or the activity of different cytokines via a variety of mechanisms, including changes in biosynthesis, secretion, and/or stability. Pentoxifylline (PTX), which is a methylxanthine derivative for example, has multiple effects on the immune system, but inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release predominates. In this study we aimed to evaluate the influence of PTX on plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in newborn infants with sepsis. The study included 20 infants with neonatal sepsis. In all subjects blood samples for serum C-reactive protein, TNF alpha and IL-6 determinations were received before giving PTX and at the 12th and 24th hours following PTX. In addition, white blood cell was counted before giving PTX and on the 3rd and 7th day following PTX. The infants were randomly divided into two groups. Firstly, PTX was used in infants who were successively admitted to the clinic and the subsequent infants were accepted as a control group. Of 20 infants, 13 infants received PTX and seven infants did not. We did not find any difference in the leukocyte count, serum C-reactive protein level, TNF alpha and IL-6 levels between the two groups of patients (P>0.05). While three infants died in the group of receiving PTX, death was not recorded in the group of non-receiving PTX (P>0.05). Our findings showed that PTX treatment did not affect leukocyte counts, serum CRP levels, TNF alpha and IL-6 levels and death ratio in newborn infants with sepsis. The last result may be due to the fact that the number of patients in the study was very small. We think that more extensive and controlled studies should be performed about this subject.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
  19. Ahmad NS, Khalid BA, Luke DA, Ima Nirwana S
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2005 Sep;32(9):761-70.
    PMID: 16173934
    1. Free radicals generated by ferric nitrilotriacetate (FeNTA) can activate osteoclastic activity and this is associated with elevation of the bone resorbing cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2 mg/kg FeNTA (2 mg iron/kg) on the levels of serum IL-1 and IL-6 with or without supplementation with a palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate in Wistar rats. 2. The FeNTA was found to elevate levels of IL-1 and IL-6. Only the palm oil tocotrienol mixture at doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg was able to prevent FeNTA-induced increases in IL-1 (P < 0.01). Both the palm oil tocotrienol mixture and alpha-tocopherol acetate, at doses of 30, 60 and 100 mg/kg, were able to reduce FeNTA-induced increases in IL-6 (P < 0.05). Therefore, the palm oil tocotrienol mixture was better than pure alpha-tocopherol acetate in protecting bone against FeNTA (free radical)-induced elevation of bone-resorbing cytokines. 3. Supplementation with the palm oil tocotrienol mixture or alpha-tocopherol acetate at 100 mg/kg restored the reduction in serum osteocalcin levels due to ageing, as seen in the saline (control) group (P < 0.05). All doses of the palm oil tocotrienol mixture decreased urine deoxypyridinoline cross-link (DPD) significantly compared with the control group, whereas a trend for decreased urine DPD was only seen for doses of 60 mg/kg onwards of alpha-tocopherol acetate (P < 0.05). 4. Bone histomorphometric analyses have shown that FeNTA injections significantly lowered mean osteoblast number (P < 0.001) and the bone formation rate (P < 0.001), but raised osteoclast number (P < 0.05) and the ratio of eroded surface/bone surface (P < 0.001) compared with the saline (control) group. Supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent all these FeNTA-induced changes, but a similar dose of alpha-tocopherol acetate was found to be effective only for mean osteoclast number. Injections of FeNTA were also shown to reduce trabecular bone volume (P < 0.001) and trabecular thickness (P < 0.05), whereas only supplementation with 100 mg/kg palm oil tocotrienol mixture was able to prevent these FeNTA-induced changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism
  20. Mohd MA, Ahmad Norudin NA, Muhammad TST
    Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2020 04 05;505:110702.
    PMID: 31927097 DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2020.110702
    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major mediator of the acute phase response (APR) that regulates the transcription of acute phase proteins (APPs) in the liver. During APR, the plasma levels of negative APPs including retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) are reduced. Activation of the IL-6 receptor and subsequent signaling pathways leads to the activation of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), which then modulate APP gene expression. The transcriptional regulation of RBP4 by IL-6 is not fully understood. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PPARα and C/EBP isoforms in mediating IL-6 regulation of RBP4 gene expression. IL-6 was shown to reduce the transcriptional activity of RBP4, and functional dissection of the RBP4 promoter further identified the cis-acting regulatory elements that are responsible in mediating the inhibitory effect of IL-6. The binding sites for PPARα and C/EBP present in the RBP4 promoter were predicted at -1079 bp to -1057 bp and -1460 bp to -1439 bp, respectively. The binding of PPARα and C/EBPs to their respective cis-acting elements may lead to antagonistic interactions that modulate the IL-6 regulation of RBP4 promoter activity. Therefore, this study proposed a new mechanism of interaction involving PPARα and different C/EBP isoforms. This interaction is necessary for the regulation of RBP4 gene expression in response to external stimuli, particularly IL-6, during physiological changes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Interleukin-6/metabolism*
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