This study aimed at utilizing ultrasound treatment to further enhance the growth of lactobacilli and their isoflavone bioconversion activities in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Strains of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus BT 1088, L. fermentum BT 8219, L. acidophilus FTDC 8633, L. gasseri FTDC 8131) were treated with ultrasound (30 kHz, 100 W) at different amplitudes (20%, 60% and 100%) for 60, 120 and 180 s prior to inoculation and fermentation in biotin-soymilk. The treatment affected the fatty acids chain of the cellular membrane lipid bilayer, as shown by an increased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05). This led to increased membrane fluidity and subsequently, membrane permeability (P<0.05). The permeabilized cellular membranes had facilitated nutrient internalization and subsequent growth enhancement (P<0.05). Higher amplitudes and longer durations of the treatment promoted growth of lactobacilli in soymilk, with viable counts exceeding 9 log CFU/mL. The intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase specific activities of lactobacilli were also enhanced (P<0.05) upon ultrasound treatment, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavones in soymilk, particularly genistin and malonyl genistin to genistein. Results from this study show that ultrasound treatment on lactobacilli cells promotes (P<0.05) the β-glucosidase activity of cells for the benefit of enhanced (P<0.05) isoflavone glucosides bioconversion to bioactive aglycones in soymilk.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8633 in parent and subsequent passages based on their growth and isoflavone bioconversion activities in biotin-supplemented soymilk. The treated cells were also assessed for impact of ultrasound on probiotic properties. The growth of ultrasonicated parent cells increased (P<0.05) by 3.23-9.14% compared to that of the control during fermentation in biotin-soymilk. This was also associated with enhanced intracellular and extracellular (8.4-17.0% and 16.7-49.2%, respectively; P<0.05) β-glucosidase specific activity, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavones glucosides to aglycones during fermentation in biotin-soymilk compared to that of the control (P<0.05). Such traits may be credited to the reversible permeabilized membrane of ultrasonicated parent cells that have facilitated the transport of molecules across the membrane. The growing characteristics of first, second and third passage of treated cells in biotin-soymilk were similar (P>0.05) to that of the control, where their growth, enzyme and isoflavone bioconversion activities (P>0.05) were comparable. This may be attributed to the temporary permeabilization in the membrane of treated cells. Ultrasound affected probiotic properties of parent L. fermentum, by reducing tolerance ability towards acid (pH 2) and bile; lowering inhibitory activities against selected pathogens and reducing adhesion ability compared to that of the control (P<0.05). The first, second and third passage of treated cells did not exhibit such traits, with the exception of their bile tolerance ability which was inherited to the first passage (P<0.05). Our results suggested that ultrasound could be used to increase bioactivity of biotin-soymilk via fermentation by probiotic L. fermentum FTDC 8633 for the development of functional food.
This study was aimed at an evaluation of the potential inheritance of electroporation effects on Lactobacillus fermentum BT 8219 through to three subsequent subcultures, based on their growth, isoflavone bioconversion activities, and probiotic properties, in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Electroporation was seen to cause cell death immediately after treatment, followed by higher growth than the control during fermentation in biotin-soymilk (P<0.05). This was associated with enhanced intracellular and extracellular beta-glucosidase specific activity, leading to increased bioconversion of isoflavone glucosides to aglycones (P<0.05). The growing characteristics, enzyme, and isoflavone bioconversion activities of the first, second, and third subcultures of treated cells in biotin-soymilk were similar to the control (P>0.05). Electroporation affected the probiotic properties of parent L. fermentum BT 8219, by reducing its tolerance towards acid (pH 2) and bile, lowering its inhibitory activities against selected pathogens, and reducing its ability for adhesion, when compared with the control (P<0.05). The first, second, and third subcultures of the treated cells showed comparable traits with that of the control (P>0.05), with the exception of their bile tolerance ability, which was inherited to the treated cells of the first and second subcultures (P<0.05). Our results suggest that electroporation could be used to increase the bioactivity of biotin-soymilk via fermentation with probiotic L. fermentum BT 8219, with a view towards the development of functional foods.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasound on the growth of probiotics and bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. Previous studies have shown that ultrasound elevated microbial enzymatic activity and growth by altering cellular membranes. The growth of probiotics was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) immediately after ultrasound treatment, attributed to membrane permeabilization, cell lysis, and membrane lipid peroxidation upon ultrasound treatment. The ultrasound treatment also caused alteration at the acyl chain, polar head, and interface region of the probiotic membrane phospholipid bilayers. The cells treated with ultrasound showed recovery from injury with subsequent increase in growth upon fermentation in soymilk (P < 0.05). Ultrasound treatment at 100 W for 2 and 3 min also enhanced (P < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of probiotics, leading to increased (P < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to aglycones in the prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that ultrasound treatment could produce bioactive synbiotic-soymilk with increased concentrations of bioactive aglycones.
This study analyzed the effect of pH (X1), temperature (X2) and inulin amount (X3) on transformation of isoflavones (daidzin and daidzein) to equol in soymilk fermented with Bifidobacterium spp. All responses significantly (p 0.05) difference between the experimental and predicted values, suggested the suitability of established models in explaining the daidzin and daidzein transformation to equol as a function of pH, temperature and inulin.
This study aimed at utilizing electroporation to further enhance the growth of lactobacilli and their isoflavone bioconversion activities in biotin-supplemented soymilk. Strains of lactobacilli were treated with different pulsed electric field strength (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kV/cm) for 3, 3.5 and 4 ms prior to inoculation and fermentation in biotin-soymilk at 37°C for 24 h. Electroporation triggered structural changes within the cellular membrane of lactobacilli that caused lipid peroxidation (p 9 log CFU/ml after fermentation in biotin-soymilk (p
The increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO(2) enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet C (UVC) at 30-90 J/m²) on the membrane properties of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and their bioconversion of isoflavones in prebiotic-soymilk. UV treatment caused membrane permeabilization and alteration at the acyl chain, polar head and interface region of membrane bilayers via lipid peroxidation. Such alteration subsequently led to decreased (p < 0.05) viability of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria immediately after the treatment. However, the effect was transient where cells treated with UV, particularly UVA, grew better in prebiotic-soymilk than the control upon fermentation at 37°C for 24 h (p < 0.05). In addition, UV treatment also increased (p < 0.05) the intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. This was accompanied by an increased (p < 0.05) bioconversion of glucosides to bioactive aglycones in prebiotic-soymilk. Our present study illustrated that treatment of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria with UV could develop a fermented prebiotic-soymilk with enhanced bioactivity.
Lactobacillus sp. FTDC 2113, L. acidophilus FTDC 8033, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. casei ATCC 393, Bifidobacterium FTDC 8943 and B. longum FTDC 8643 were incorporated into soymilk supplemented with fructooligosaccharides (FOS), inulin, mannitol, maltodextrin and pectin. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prebiotics on the bioactivity of probiotic-fermented soymilk. Proteolytic activity was increased in the presence of FOS, while the supplementation of inulin and pectin increased the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity accompanied by lower IC(50) values. The beta-glucosidase activity was also enhanced in the presence of pectin. This led to higher bioconversion of glucosides to aglycones by probiotics, especially genistin and malonyl genistin to genistein. Results from this study indicated that the supplementation of prebiotics enhanced the in-vitro antihypertensive effect and production of bioactive aglycones in probiotic-fermented soymilk. Therefore, this soymilk could potentially be used as a dietary therapy to reduce the risks of hypertension and hormone-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, prostate cancer and osteoporosis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of electroporation (2.5-7.5 kV cm⁻¹ for 3.0-4.0 ms) on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, membrane properties and bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (UVB; 90 J/m²) on growth, bioconversion of isoflavones and probiotic properties of parent and subsequent passages of L. casei FTDC 2113. UV radiation significantly enhanced (P < 0.05) the growth of parent cells in mannitol-soymilk fermented at 37°C for 24 h. This had led to an enhanced intracellular and extracellular β-glucosidase activity with a subsequent increase in bioconversion of isoflavones in mannitol-soymilk (P < 0.05). UV radiation also promoted (P < 0.05) the tolerance of parent cells towards acidic condition (pH 2 and 3) and intestinal bile salts (oxgall, taurocholic and cholic acid). In addition, parent treated cells also exhibited better (P < 0.05) adhesion ability to mucin and antimicrobial activity compared to that of the control. All these positive effects of UV radiation were only prevalent in the parent cells without inheritance by first, second and third passage of cells. Although temporary, our results suggested that UV radiation could enhance the bioactive and probiotic potentials of L. casei FTDC 2113, and thus could be applied for the production of probiotic products with enhanced bioactivity.