Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Seet WT, Manira M, Maarof M, Khairul Anuar K, Chua KH, Ahmad Irfan AW, et al.
    PLoS One, 2012;7(8):e40978.
    PMID: 22927903 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040978
    Skin plays an important role in defense against infection and other harmful biological agents. Due to its fragile structure, skin can be easily damaged by heat, chemicals, traumatic injuries and diseases. An autologous bilayered human skin equivalent, MyDerm™, was engineered to provide a living skin substitute to treat critical skin loss. However, one of the disadvantages of living skin substitute is its short shelf-life, hence limiting its distribution worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shelf-life of MyDerm™ through assessment of cell morphology, cell viability, population doubling time and functional gene expression levels before transplantation. Skin samples were digested with 0.6% Collagenase Type I followed by epithelial cells dissociation with TrypLE Select. Dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes were culture-expanded to obtain sufficient cells for MyDerm™ construction. MyDerm™ was constructed with plasma-fibrin as temporary biomaterial and evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after storage at 4°C for its shelf-life determination. The morphology of skin cells derived from MyDerm™ remained unchanged across storage times. Cells harvested from MyDerm™ after storage appeared in good viability (90.5%±2.7% to 94.9%±1.6%) and had short population doubling time (58.4±8.7 to 76.9±19 hours). The modest drop in cell viability and increased in population doubling time at longer storage duration did not demonstrate a significant difference. Gene expression for CK10, CK14 and COL III were also comparable between different storage times. In conclusion, MyDerm™ can be stored in basal medium at 4°C for at least 72 hours before transplantation without compromising its functionality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  2. Nair RS, Morris A, Billa N, Leong CO
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2019 Jan 10;20(2):69.
    PMID: 30631984 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-018-1279-6
    Curcumin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were synthesised and evaluated in vitro for enhanced transdermal delivery. Zetasizer® characterisation of three different formulations of curcumin nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) showed the size ranged from 167.3 ± 3.8 nm to 251.5 ± 5.8 nm, the polydispersity index (PDI) values were between 0.26 and 0.46 and the zeta potential values were positive (+ 18.1 to + 20.2 mV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images supported this size data and confirmed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. All the formulations showed excellent entrapment efficiency above 80%. FTIR results demonstrate the interaction between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and confirm the presence of curcumin in the nanoparticle. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of Cu-NPs indicate the presence of curcumin in a disordered crystalline or amorphous state, suggesting the interaction between the drug and the polymer. Drug release studies showed an improved drug release at pH 5.0 than in pH 7.4 and followed a zero order kinetics. The in vitro permeation studies through Strat-M® membrane demonstrated an enhanced permeation of Cu-NPs compared to aqueous curcumin solution (p ˂ 0.05) having a flux of 0.54 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 and 0.44 ± 0.03 μg cm-2 h-1 corresponding to formulations 5:1 and 3:1, respectively. The cytotoxicity assay on human keratinocyte (HaCat) cells showed enhanced percentage cell viability of Cu-NPs compared to curcumin solution. Cu-NPs developed in this study exhibit superior drug release and enhanced transdermal permeation of curcumin and superior percentage cell viability. Further ex vivo and in vivo evaluations will be conducted to support these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  3. Zakaria NNA, Okello EJ, Howes MJ, Birch-Machin MA, Bowman A
    Phytother Res, 2018 Jun;32(6):1064-1072.
    PMID: 29464849 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.6045
    The traditional practice of eating the flowers of Clitoria ternatea L. or drinking their infusion as herbal tea in some of the Asian countries is believed to promote a younger skin complexion and defend against skin aging. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of C. ternatea flower water extract (CTW) against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity and ultraviolet (UV)-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in human keratinocytes. The protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity was determined by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay, and mtDNA damage induced by UV was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Preincubation of HaCaT with 100, 250, and 500 μg/ml CTW reduced cytotoxicity effects of H2 O2 compared with control (H2 O2 alone). CTW also significantly reduced mtDNA damage in UV-exposed HaCaT (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  4. Teo SY, Yew MY, Lee SY, Rathbone MJ, Gan SN, Coombes AGA
    J Pharm Sci, 2017 01;106(1):377-384.
    PMID: 27522920 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2016.06.028
    Phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions were prepared spontaneously using the phase inversion method from a mixture of novel biosourced alkyds and Tween 80 surfactant. Exposure of human adult keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) for 48 h to alkyd nanoemulsions producing phenytoin concentrations of 3.125-200 μg/mL resulted in relative cell viability readings using tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide of 100% confirming nontoxicity and suggesting cell proliferation activity. Phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions generally resulted in higher mean cell viability compared with equivalent concentration of phenytoin solutions, suggesting that the nanoemulsions provided a controlled-release property that maintained the optimum phenytoin level for keratinocyte growth. HaCaT cell proliferation, measured by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine uptake, was found to increase following exposure to increasing phenytoin concentration from 25 to 50 μg/mL in solution or encapsulated in nanoemulsions but declined at a drug concentration of 100 μg/mL. An in vitro cell monolayer wound scratch assay revealed that phenytoin solution or nanoemulsions producing 50 μg/mL phenytoin concentration resulted in 75%-82% "scratch closure" after 36 h, similar to medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum as a cell growth promoter. These findings indicate that phenytoin-loaded alkyd nanoemulsions show potential for promoting topical wound healing through enhanced proliferation of epidermal cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  5. Pulingam T, Thong KL, Appaturi JN, Nordin NI, Dinshaw IJ, Lai CW, et al.
    Eur J Pharm Sci, 2020 Jan 15;142:105087.
    PMID: 31626968 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejps.2019.105087
    Graphene oxide (GO) has displayed antibacterial activity that has been investigated in the past, however, information on synergistic activity of GO with conventional antibiotics is still lacking. The objectives of the study were to determine the combinatorial actions of GO and antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the toxicological effects of GO towards human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). Interactions at molecular level between GO and antibiotics were analyzed using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Changes in the antibacterial activity of antibiotics towards bacteria through the addition of GO was investigated. Toxicity of GO towards HaCaT cells were examined as skin cells play a role as the first line of defense of the human body. The ATR-FTIR characterizations of GO and antibiotics showed adsorption of tested antibiotics onto GO. The combinatorial antibacterial activity of GO and antibiotics were found to increase when compared to GO or antibiotic alone. This was attributed to the ability of GO to disrupt bacterial membrane to allow for better adsorption of antibiotics. Cytotoxicity of GO was found to be dose-dependent towards HaCaT cell line, it is found to impose negligible toxic effects against the skin cells at concentration below 100 μg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  6. Lim CK, Yaacob NS, Ismail Z, Halim AS
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2010 Apr;24(3):721-7.
    PMID: 20079826 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2010.01.006
    Biopolymer chitosan (beta-1,4-d-glucosamine) comprises the copolymer mixture of N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine. The natural biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan have recently highlighted its potential use for applications in wound management. Chemical and physical modifications of chitosan influence its biocompatibility and biodegradability, but it is unknown as to what degree. Hence, the biocompatibility of the chitosan porous skin regenerating templates (PSRT 82, 87 and 108) was determined using an in vitro toxicology model at the cellular and molecular level on primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (pNHEK). Cytocompatibility was accessed by using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay from 24 to 72h. To assess the genotoxicity of the PSRTs, DNA damage to the pNHEK was evaluated by using the Comet assay following direct contact with the various PSRTs. Furthermore, the skin pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-8 were examined to evaluate the tendency of the PSRTs to provoke inflammatory responses. All PSRTs were found to be cytocompatible, but only PSRT 108 was capable of stimulating cell proliferation. While all of the PSRTs showed some DNA damage, PSRT 108 showed the least DNA damage followed by PSRT 87 and 82. PSRT 87 and 82 induced a higher secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the pNHEK cultures than did PSRT 108. Hence, based on our experiments, PSRT 108 is the most biocompatible wound dressing of the three tested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  7. Manira M, Khairul Anuar K, Seet WT, Ahmad Irfan AW, Ng MH, Chua KH, et al.
    Cell Tissue Bank, 2014 Mar;15(1):41-9.
    PMID: 23456438 DOI: 10.1007/s10561-013-9368-y
    Animal-derivative free reagents are preferred in skin cell culture for clinical applications. The aim of this study was to compare the performance and effects between animal-derived trypsin and recombinant trypsin for skin cells culture and expansion. Full thickness human skin was digested in 0.6 % collagenase for 6 h to liberate the fibroblasts, followed by treatment with either animal-derived trypsin; Trypsin EDTA (TE) or recombinant trypsin; TrypLE Select (TS) to liberate the keratinocytes. Both keratinocytes and fibroblasts were then culture-expanded until passage 2. Trypsinization for both cell types during culture-expansion was performed using either TE or TS. Total cells yield was determined using a haemocytometer. Expression of collagen type I, collagen type III (Col-III), cytokeratin 10, and cytokeratin 14 genes were quantified via RT-PCR and further confirmed with immunocytochemical staining. The results of our study showed that the total cell yield for both keratinocytes and fibroblasts treated with TE or TS were comparable. RT-PCR showed that expression of skin-specific genes except Col-III was higher in the TS treated group compared to that in the TE group. Expression of proteins specific to the two cell types were confirmed by immunocytochemical staining in both TE and TS groups. In conclusion, the performance of the recombinant trypsin is comparable with the well-established animal-derived trypsin for human skin cell culture expansion in terms of cell yield and expression of specific cellular markers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  8. Albaayit SF, Abba Y, Rasedee A, Abdullah N
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:3507-18.
    PMID: 26203223 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S84770
    Clausena excavata is a well-known plant used in folkloric medicine for the treatment of different ailments. This study aimed to determine the in vitro cytoxicity of its leaf solvent extracts as well as the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities of the methanolic extracts of C. excavata (MECE). HaCaT (keratocyte) and Vero cell lines were used for evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic effects, while the in vivo wound healing and antioxidant activities were determined in skin wounds inflicted on rats. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups of four animals each. Approximately 3.14 cm(2) excisional wound was inflicted on the nape of each rat following anesthesia. The treatment groups received topical application of MECE at 50 mg/mL (MECE-LD [low dose]), 100 mg/mL (MECE-MD [medium dose]), and 200 mg/mL (MECE-HD [high dose]), while the negative control group was treated with gum acacia in normal saline and the positive control group with intrasite gel. Wound contraction was evaluated on days 5, 10, and 15 after wound infliction, and tissue from wound area was collected at day 15 post-wound infliction for antioxidant enzyme evaluation and histopathological analyses. Generally, Vero cells were more resistant to the cytotoxic effects of the solvent extracts as compared with HaCaT cells. Chloroform (CH) and ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of C. excavata were toxic to HaCaT cells at 200 and 400 µg/mL, but the same concentrations showed higher (P<0.05) viability in Vero cells. There was significantly (P<0.01) greater wound contraction at days 10 and 15 post-wound infliction in all the treatment groups than in the control groups. Histopathologically, the MECE-HD-treated wound showed significantly (P<0.05) lesser inflammatory cell proliferation, degeneration, and distribution of granulation tissue than other groups. Similarly, the degree of collagen maturation, angiogenesis, and collagen distribution were significantly (P<0.05) lower in MECE-HD than in other groups. The MECE-HD, MECE-MD, and intrasite treatment groups showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher number of VEGF-positive and TGF-β1-positive cells in the skin wound than the control groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) higher in the MECE-HD and intrasite treatment groups than in the other groups. Lipid peroxidase activity of the treated groups was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that in the control group. The study showed that MECE is a potent wound healing agent through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that enhanced the rate of wound contraction, re-epithelialization, and collagen deposition. The effect of MECE is suggested to be due to its high polyphenolic compound content.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  9. Basar N, Oridupa OA, Ritchie KJ, Nahar L, Osman NM, Stafford A, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2015 Jun;29(6):944-8.
    PMID: 25779384 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5329
    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  10. Razali NA, Nazarudin NA, Lai KS, Abas F, Ahmad S
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 Jul 16;18(1):217.
    PMID: 30012134 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2223-8
    BACKGROUND: Histamine is a well-known mediator involved in skin allergic responses through up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Antihistamines remain the mainstay of allergy treatment, but they were found limited in efficacy and associated with several common side effects. Therefore, alternative therapeutic preferences are derived from natural products in an effort to provide safe yet reliable anti-inflammatory agents. Curcumin and their derivatives are among compounds of interest in natural product research due to numerous pharmacological benefits including anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we investigate the effects of chemically synthesized curcumin derivative, 2,6-bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)cyclohexanone (MS65), in reducing cytokine production in histamine-induced HaCaT cells.

    METHODS: Interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine production in histamine-induced HaCaT cells were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytotoxicity effects were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was carried out to determine the inhibitory effects of MS65 on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.

    RESULTS: Histamine enhanced IL-6 production in HaCaT cells, with the highest production of IL-6 at 97.41 ± 2.33 pg/mL after 24 h of exposure. MS65 demonstrated a promising anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting IL-6 production with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 4.91 ± 2.50 μM and median lethal concentration (LC50) value of 28.82 ± 7.56 μM. In gene expression level, we found that MS65 inhibits NF-κB and MAPK pathways through suppression of IKK/IκB/NFκB and c-Raf/MEK/ERK inflammatory cascades.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that MS65 could be used as a lead compound on developing new medicinal agent for the treatment of allergic skin diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
  11. Lim CK, Halim AS, Yaacob NS, Zainol I, Noorsal K
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2013 Apr;115(4):453-8.
    PMID: 23177217 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2012.10.010
    The effects of locally produced chitosan (CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate) in the intervention of keloid pathogenesis were investigated in vitro. A human keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture model was established to investigate the protein levels of human collagen type-I, III and V in a western blotting analysis, the secreted transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1's intracellular signaling molecules (SMAD2, 3, 4 and 7) in a real-time PCR analysis. Keratinocyte-fibroblast co-cultures were maintained in DKSFM:DMEM:F12 (2:2:1) medium. Collagen type-I was found to be the dominant form in primary normal human dermal fibroblast (pNHDF) co-cultures, whereas collagen type-III was more abundant in primary keloid-derived human dermal fibroblast (pKHDF) co-cultures. Collagen type-V was present as a minor component in the skin. TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 were expressed more in the pKHDF than the pNHDF co-cultures. Co-cultures with normal keratinocytes suppressed collagen type-III, SMAD2, SMAD4 and TGF-β1 expressions and CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate enhanced this effect. In conclusion, the CPSRT-NC-bicarbonate in association with normal-derived keratinocytes demonstrated an ability to reduce TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD4 expressions in keloid-derived fibroblast cultures, which may be useful in keloid intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  12. Mahendra CK, Abidin SAZ, Htar TT, Chuah LH, Khan SU, Ming LC, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Apr 01;26(7).
    PMID: 33916053 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26072000
    In this day and age, the expectation of cosmetic products to effectively slow down skin photoaging is constantly increasing. However, the detrimental effects of UVB on the skin are not easy to tackle as UVB dysregulates a wide range of molecular changes on the cellular level. In our research, irradiated keratinocyte cells not only experienced a compromise in their redox system, but processes from RNA translation to protein synthesis and folding were also affected. Aside from this, proteins involved in various other processes like DNA repair and maintenance, glycolysis, cell growth, proliferation, and migration were affected while the cells approached imminent cell death. Additionally, the collagen degradation pathway was also activated by UVB irradiation through the upregulation of inflammatory and collagen degrading markers. Nevertheless, with the treatment of Swietenia macrophylla (S. macrophylla) seed extract and fractions, the dysregulation of many genes and proteins by UVB was reversed. The reversal effects were particularly promising with the S. macrophylla hexane fraction (SMHF) and S. macrophylla ethyl acetate fraction (SMEAF). SMHF was able to oppose the detrimental effects of UVB in several different processes such as the redox system, DNA repair and maintenance, RNA transcription to translation, protein maintenance and synthesis, cell growth, migration and proliferation, and cell glycolysis, while SMEAF successfully suppressed markers related to skin inflammation, collagen degradation, and cell apoptosis. Thus, in summary, our research not only provided a deeper insight into the molecular changes within irradiated keratinocytes, but also serves as a model platform for future cosmetic research to build upon. Subsequently, both SMHF and SMEAF also displayed potential photoprotective properties that warrant further fractionation and in vivo clinical trials to investigate and obtain potential novel bioactive compounds against photoaging.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects
  13. Ong LC, Tan YF, Tan BS, Chung FF, Cheong SK, Leong CO
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2017 08 15;329:347-357.
    PMID: 28673683 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2017.06.024
    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are carbon-based nanomaterials that possess immense industrial potential. Despite accumulating evidence that exposure to SWCNTs might be toxic to humans, our understanding of the mechanisms for cellular toxicity of SWCNTs remain limited. Here, we demonstrated that acute exposure of short (1-3μm) and regular-length (5-30μm) pristine, carboxylated or hydroxylated SWCNTs inhibited cell proliferation in human somatic and human stem cells in a cell type-dependent manner. The toxicity of regular-length pristine SWCNT was most evidenced in NP69>CYT00086>MCF-10A>MRC-5>HaCaT > HEK-293T>HepG2. In contrast, the short pristine SWCNTs were relatively less toxic in most of the cells being tested, except for NP69 which is more sensitive to short pristine SWCNTs as compared to regular-length pristine SWCNTs. Interestingly, carboxylation and hydroxylation of regular-length SWCNTs, but not the short SWCNTs, significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. Exposure of SWCNTs also induced caspase 3 and 9 activities, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and significant apoptosis and necrosis in MRC-5 embryonic lung fibroblasts. In contrast, SWCNTs inhibited the proliferation of HaCaT human keratinocytes without inducing cell death. Further analyses by gene expression profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that SWCNTs induced a gene expression signature characteristic of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibition in MRC-5 cells, suggesting that SWCNTs may inhibit the HSP90 signaling pathway. Indeed, exposure of MRC-5 cells to SWCNTs results in a dose-dependent decrease in HSP90 client proteins (AKT, CDK4 and BCL2) and a concomitant increase in HSP70 expression. In addition, SWCNTs also significantly inhibited HSP90-dependent protein refolding. Finally, we showed that ectopic expression of HSP90, but not HSP40 or HSP70, completely abrogated the cytotoxic effects of SWCNTs, suggesting that SWCNT-induced cellular toxicity is HSP90 dependent. In summary, our findings suggest that the toxic effects of SWCNTs are mediated through inhibition of HSP90 in human lung fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Keratinocytes/drug effects*
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