Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 90 in total

  1. Teh GC, Chong WL, Manorammah L, Mah PKK, Abdullah K
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Jun;55(2):263-4.
    PMID: 19839157
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  2. Nayak SB
    Bratisl Lek Listy, 2009;110(11):736-7.
    PMID: 20120448
    Abnormal peritoneal folds near the liver are very rare. This case report presents an observation of an abnormal fold of peritoneum that extended from the upper right part of the greater omentum and stomach to the fossa for gallbladder. This fold merged with the lesser omentum on the left and extended to the right kidney when traced posteriorly. The epiploic foramen was entirely absent due to the presence of this fold. However, the lesser sac was there behind the liver, lesser omentum and stomach. The knowledge of abnormal folds like this may be important for surgeons (Fig. 3, Ref. 7). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  3. Ng YS, Vathsala A, Chew ST, Chiang GS, Woo KT
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):109-13.
    PMID: 18705440 MyJurnal
    Recurrent glomerular disease is an important cause of late allograft loss in renal transplant recipients. Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide and its recurrence has been reported in allografts. The present study examined outcomes following renal transplantation (RTX) in 101 patients with ESRD due to biopsy-proven IgAN, in comparison to non-IgA patients, and evaluated the incidence of recurrence. The study population (mean age 34.8 +/- 7.7 years; males 62.2%; Chinese 88.3%) underwent RTX under CsA immunosuppression between November 1984 and December 2004; as two patients underwent retransplantation during the study period, 103 allografts (56.3% cadaveric) were included for retrospective analysis. At time of analysis on 1 January 2005, 78 (75.7%) renal allografts (IgAN RTX) were functioning, of which 51 (49.5%) had normal serum creatinine, 27 (26.2%) had chronic allograft dysfunction, while 25 had graft losses, either due to patient death with functioning grafts (5.8%) or withdrawal to dialysis (18.5%). Persistent microscopic haematuria, not attributable to other causes or proteinuria > 1 g/day occurred in 42.7% and 13.6% of allografts respectively. Of 29 allografts biopsied for evaluation of proteinuria and/or renal dysfunction post-RTX, 8 (27.6%) had IgAN (overall histological recurrence, 7.8%). Of these, three had graft loss due to recurrent IgAN, three had elevated serum creatinine, while two had normal serum creatinine. Overall five and ten year patient survivals for IgAN RTX were 95.3% and 82.2%, and five and ten year actuarial graft survivals were 82.3% and 67.8% respectively. Five and ten year patient and graft survivals for IgAN RTX were not significantly different from that for non-IgAN RTX. In summary, RTX patients with IgAN have a low incidence of documented histological recurrence and recurrence contributing to graft loss occurs in only 2.9%. These results suggest that RTX is an excellent modality of renal replacement therapy in this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  4. Koh KB, Lam HS, Lee SH
    Br J Urol, 1993 May;71(5):609-11.
    PMID: 8518872
    Four cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis are reported and the pathogenesis, surgical implications and preferred mode of management are discussed. We have not found percutaneous drainage to be useful, but feel there is an important place for surgical drainage alone because of the potential for renal recovery and the risks of emergency nephrectomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  5. Segasothy M, Kamal A, Pang KS
    Med J Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):114-7.
    PMID: 6621439
    A 31 year old Chinese man developed the nephrotic syndrome, and wasfound to have some of the clinical features of renal vein thrombosis such as a rapid deterioration in renal function and great variability in proteinuria. Radiological studies confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis. The clinical features and pathogenesis of renal vein thrombosis are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  6. Cheong IK, Chong SM, Suleiman AB
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Mar;36(1):3-7.
    PMID: 7321935
    This paper reviews the pattern of glomeruler disease from 163 renal biopsies performed at the Institute of Urology and Nephrology. Nephrotic syndrome formed the largest group of patients. There is a high prevalence of SLE nephritis in our community. The histopathologic findings in our series were comparable to those from Western countries except for the lower incidence of membranous and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  7. Tan GC, Prasad V
    Int. J. Surg. Pathol., 2018 Feb;26(1):34.
    PMID: 28508688 DOI: 10.1177/1066896917709946
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  8. Ho CC, Hafidzul J, Praveen S, Goh EH, Bong JJ, Lee BC, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Jun;51(6):512-5.
    PMID: 20658113
    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is accepted as the gold standard treatment for renal stones that are smaller than 2 cm. Recently, retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) has been introduced as another form of treatment. We report our experience in dealing with renal stones smaller than 2 cm using RIRS as the primary treatment and following failed ESWL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  9. Salman IM, Sattar MA, Abdullah NA, Ameer OZ, Yam MF, Kaur G, et al.
    Ren Fail, 2010 Jan;32(1):96-102.
    PMID: 20113274 DOI: 10.3109/08860220903389196
    The role of renal sympathetic nerves in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure (ARF) and the immediate changes in the renal excretory functions following renal ischemia were investigated. Two groups of male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were anesthetized (pentobarbitone sodium, 60 mg kg(-1) i.p.) and subjected to unilateral renal ischemia by clamping the left renal artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion. In group 1, the renal nerves were electrically stimulated and the responses in the renal blood flow (RBF) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) were recorded, while group 2 was used to study the early changes in the renal functions following renal ischemia. In post-ischemic animals, basal RBF and the renal vasoconstrictor reperfusion to renal nerve stimulation (RNS) were significantly lower (all p < 0.05 vs. control). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), basal RVR, urine flow rate (UFR), absolute and fractional excretions of sodium (U(Na)V and FE(Na)), and potassium (U(K)V and FE(K)) were higher in ARF rats (all p < 0.05 vs. control). Post-ischemic animals showed markedly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (p < 0.05 vs. control). No appreciable differences were observed in urinary sodium to potassium ratio (U(Na)/U(K)) during the early reperfusion phase of renal ischemia (p > 0.05 vs. control). The data suggest an immediate involvement of renal sympathetic nerve action in the pathogenesis of ischemic ARF primarily through altered renal hemodynamics. Diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis due to impaired renal tubular functions are typical responses to renal ischemia and of comparable magnitudes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  10. Draman CR, Seman MR, Mohd Noor FS, Kelsom WM
    Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl, 2013 Jan;24(1):178-83.
    PMID: 23354221
    Kidney biopsy is indicated to confirm the clinical diagnosis or to evaluate prognosis of a renal problem. It is a reliable and safe procedure, especially with real-time ultrasound guidance. This is a single-center, retrospective review of the biopsies performed in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Pahang from 2000 to 2010. The demographic data, clinical parameters, and histological reports were extracted from clinic records and analyzed to determine the diagnostic adequacy of biopsy samples for both lupus and non-lupus patients. A total of 219 biopsies were performed throughout the period and only 74 were included in this review. Their mean age was 22.5 ± 10.5 years. 59.5% of the biopsies were performed on female patients. Malays comprised 79.7% (n = 59) of them, followed by Chinese (18.9%, n=14) and Indian (1.4%, n=1). About one-third of the biopsies(n = 25) were performed on patients with lupus nephritis and two-thirds (n = 49) on non-lupus nephritis patients. At the time of biopsy, their serum creatinine values were normal, serum albumin 28.4 ± 10 g/L and total cholesterol 8.9 ± 4.6 mmol/L (mean ± SD). The urine dipstick was 3+ for both proteinuria and hematuria and daily protein excretion was 3.6 ± 3.2 g. Sixty-seven specimens were considered adequate and only six (8%) were inadequate for histological interpretations. The mean number of glomeruli in the biopsy specimens was 16 ± 9.9 (range: 0-47 glomeruli). In non-lupus patients, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the commonest histological diagnosis (n = 15, 30.6%), followed by minimal change disease (n = 13, 26.5%) and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (n = 7, 14.3%). Membranous nephropathy was diagnosed in four (8.2%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in two (4.1%) specimens. Both post-infectious glomerulonephritis and advanced glomerulosclerosis were found in one specimen each. Among the lupus nephritis patients (n = 25), 88% of them were females (P <0.05) and lupus nephritis WHO class IV was the commonest variant (n = 12, 48%) followed by WHO class III (n = 7, 28%). Membranous glomerulopathy or lupus nephritis WHO class V was found in three (12%), and two (8%) had lupus nephritis WHO class II. Serum albumin, urinalysis findings, and daily urinary protein excretion were comparable for both lupus and non-lupus patients. In conclusion, renal biopsy in our center is adequate and sufficient for histological interpretations and management of patients with renal problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  11. Abdullah R, Alhusainy W, Woutersen J, Rietjens IM, Punt A
    Food Chem. Toxicol., 2016 Jun;92:104-16.
    PMID: 27016491 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.03.017
    Aristolochic acids are naturally occurring nephrotoxins. This study aims to investigate whether physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model-based reverse dosimetry could convert in vitro concentration-response curves of aristolochic acid I (AAI) to in vivo dose response-curves for nephrotoxicity in rat, mouse and human. To achieve this extrapolation, PBK models were developed for AAI in these different species. Subsequently, concentration-response curves obtained from in vitro cytotoxicity models were translated to in vivo dose-response curves using PBK model-based reverse dosimetry. From the predicted in vivo dose-response curves, points of departure (PODs) for risk assessment could be derived. The PBK models elucidated species differences in the kinetics of AAI with the overall catalytic efficiency for metabolic conversion of AAI to aristolochic acid Ia (AAIa) being 2-fold higher for rat and 64-fold higher for mouse than human. Results show that the predicted PODs generally fall within the range of PODs derived from the available in vivo studies. This study provides proof of principle for a new method to predict a POD for in vivo nephrotoxicity by integrating in vitro toxicity testing with in silico PBK model-based reverse dosimetry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  12. Haisah AH, Elsheikh HA, Khairi HM, Salam Abdullah A, Rajion MA
    Vet Hum Toxicol, 2003 Mar;45(2):68-71.
    PMID: 12678289
    The effect of griseofulvin treatment on signal grass (Brachlaria decumbens) toxicity was studied in 27 male Wiltshire Indigenous Malaysian crossbred sheep. Grazing on signal grass generally decreased the activity of the drug metabolizing enzymes in livers and kidneys. Griseofulvin oral administration of 5 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days every other week for 10 w increased the hepatic concentration of cytochrome P-450 and the activity of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes (UDP-glucuronyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase) while it decreased the hepatic and increased the renal activity of phase I enzymes aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline-4-hydroxylase. Griseofulvin did not protect sheep against B decumbens toxicity as 5/7 animals treated with griseofulvin and grazed on B decumbens showed signs of the plant toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  13. Khoo JJ
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):101-4.
    PMID: 12166589
    Consecutive renal biopsies received from 1994 to 2000 in Johor Bahru were reviewed. There were 441 cases, of which 407 were adequate biopsies (92.3%). Lupus nephritis formed the largest diagnostic entity (126 cases, 31.0%). This reflected the high prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in Malaysia. The most common histological pattern of lupus nephritis was diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis: WHO Class IV (96 cases, 76.2%). Other diagnostic entities were minimal change disease (28.5%), proliferative glomerulonephritis (10.6%), IgA nephropathy (9.8%), focal glomerulosclerosis (4.9%), membranous glomerulonephritis (4.4%), transplant rejection (3.9%), end stage nephropathy (3.4%) and others (3.4%). The morphological pattern of renal biopsies in Johor was similar to that reported in the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  14. Jayalakshmi P, Ting HC
    Histopathology, 1990 Jul;17(1):89-91.
    PMID: 2146206
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  15. Raman S, Rachagan SP, Boopalan P, Jeyarani S
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):361-4.
    PMID: 3312976
    A case of infantile polycystic kidneys diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound is presented here. This condition was confirmed at post-mortem following delivery of the child. The clinical and pathological features of this inheritable disease is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  16. Kong NCT, Cheong IKS, Chong SM, Suleiman AB, Morad Z, Lajin I, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):200-5.
    PMID: 3241577
    Between 1980-1986, 219 renal biopsies were performed on patients with lupus nephritis (LN) presenting at the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. There were 172 (78.5%) females and 47 (21.5%) males. The ethnic distribution of 48.4% Malays, 46.1% Chinese and 5.5% Indians reflected their proportional composition in the general population. Peak incidence (40.6%) of cases occurred in the third decade of life (20-29 group) followed by 26.5% and 20.1% in the second and fourth decades respectively. The median age was 24 for females and 27 for males. In both sexes, nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation (62.2%) followed by proteinuria (20.5%). Acute oliguric renal failure occurred in 11 patients (5%) and 8 of these showed crescentic glomerulonephritis with more than 50% crescents. The commonest histological picture was diffuse proliferative LN (WHO Stage IV-44.7%) which included 70% (19/27) of those with crescentic disease. This was followed by membranous LN (28.8%) of which 6 (all males) had crescentic disease. 7 (12.3%) of our patients had crescentic nephritis with a female to male distribution of 14: 13, suggesting either more aggressive disease or delayed diagnosis in males.
    Key words - Renal biopsies, lupus nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, proteinuria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  17. Rajandram R, Yap NY, Ong TA, Mun KS, Mohamad Wali HA, Hasan MS, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Apr;39(1):47-53.
    PMID: 28413205 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: In recent years, prolonged ketamine abuse has been reported to cause urinary tract damage. However, there is little information on the pathological effects of ketamine from oral administration. We aimed to study the effects of oral ketamine on the urinary tract and the reversibility of these changes after cessation of ketamine intake.

    METHODS: Rats were fed with illicit (a concoction of street ketamine) ketamine in doses of 100 (N=12), or 300 mg/kg (N=12) for four weeks. Half of the rats were sacrificed after the 4-week feeding for necropsy. The remaining rats were taken off ketamine for 8 weeks to allow for any potential recovery of pathological changes before being sacrificed for necropsy. Histopathological examination was performed on the kidney and urinary bladder.

    RESULTS: Submucosal bladder inflammation was seen in 67% of the rats fed with 300 mg/kg illicit ketamine. No bladder inflammation was observed in the control and 100 mg/kg illicit ketamine groups. Renal changes, such as interstitial nephritis and papillary necrosis, were observed in rats given illicit ketamine. After ketamine cessation, no inflammation was observed in the bladder of all rats. However, renal inflammation remained in 60% of the rats given illicit ketamine. No dose-effect relationship was established between oral ketamine and changes in the kidneys.

    CONCLUSION: Oral ketamine caused pathological changes in the urinary tract, similar to that described in exposure to parenteral ketamine. The changes in the urinary bladder were reversible after short-term exposure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology*
  18. Leong SS, Wong JHD, Md Shah MN, Vijayananthan A, Jalalonmuhali M, Ng KH
    Br J Radiol, 2018 Sep;91(1089):20180235.
    PMID: 29869920 DOI: 10.1259/bjr.20180235
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the use of shear wave elastography (SWE)-derived estimates of Young's modulus (YM) as an indicator to detect abnormal renal tissue diagnosed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

    METHODS: The study comprised 106 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and 203 control subjects. Conventional ultrasound was performed to measure the kidney length and cortical thickness. SWE imaging was performed to measure renal parenchymal stiffness. Diagnostic performance of SWE and conventional ultrasound were correlated with serum creatinine, urea levels and eGFR.

    RESULTS: Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a negative correlation between YM measurements and eGFR (r = -0.576, p < 0.0001). Positive correlations between YM measurements and age (r = 0.321, p < 0.05), serum creatinine (r = 0.375, p < 0.0001) and urea (r = 0.287, p < 0.0001) were also observed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SWE (0.87) was superior to conventional ultrasound alone (0.35-0.37). The cut-off value of less or equal to 4.31 kPa suggested a non-diseased kidney (80.3% sensitivity, 79.5% specificity).

    CONCLUSION: SWE was superior to renal length and cortical thickness in detecting CKD. A value of 4.31 kPa or less showed good accuracy in determining whether a kidney was diseased or not. Advances in knowledge: On SWE, CKD patients show greater renal parenchymal stiffness than non-CKD patients. Determining a cut-off value between normal and diseased renal parenchyma may help in early non-invasive detection and management of CKD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  19. Mohtarrudin N, Ghazali R, Md Roduan MR
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Dec;40(3):313-318.
    PMID: 30580362
    INTRODUCTION: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) promotes carcinogenesis by inducing proliferation and angiogenesis while decreasing apoptosis and immunosuppressive activity. It is overexpressed in many malignancies including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to investigate COX-2 expression in clear cell RCC and its association with tumour grades and demographic parameters.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six clear cell RCC cases were selected. There were 21 (58.3%) men and 15 (41.7%) women with median age of 56.6 years (range: 16-74 years). Chinese constituted 16 (44.4%) of the cases; Malays 14 (38.9%) cases and Indian 6 (16.7%) cases. There were 6 (16.7%) grade 1, 20 (55.6%) grade 2, 10 (27.8%) grade 3 and none was grade 4. The paraffin embedded tissues were cut at 4 μm thick and stained with COX-2 monoclonal antibody.

    RESULTS: Eighteen (50%) of the RCC cases were immunopositive, of which all showed strong positivity. The immunopositive cases showed cytoplasmic membrane positivity.

    CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between COX-2 expression with grade, age, sex and ethnicity (p=0.457, p=0.054, p=0.389 and p=0.568 respectively). Strong positivity of COX-2 suggest that COX-2 may play a role in cell proliferation and in carcinogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
  20. Yong SL, Prathap K
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1977 Apr;47(2):216-20.
    PMID: 267467
    Eight cases of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis occurring in an oriental population are reported. The patients were mostly middle-aged, and there was a female preponderence. Nephrectomy controlled the disease in all cases. Diagnosis on clinical and radiological grounds is difficult, and it is often only made on pathological examination of the kidney after nephrectomy. The nature of the disease remains obscure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney/pathology
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