Method:: A retrospective, observational study was conducted on adult pre-dialysis patients receiving treatment at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2013.
Results:: A total of 615 eligible cases were included. The mean age of patients was 64.1±12.0 years. The prevalence of anemia was 75.8%, and the severity of anemia was mild in 47.7% of the patients, moderate in 32.2%, and severe in 20%. Based on morphological classification of anemia, 76.9% of our patients had normochromic-normocytic anemia whereas 21.8 and 1.3% had hypochromic-microcytic anemia and macrocytic anemia, respectively. Oral iron supplements were prescribed to 38.0% of the patients and none of the patients was given erythropoietin stabilizing agents (ESA) or intravenous iron preparations. In logistic regression, significant predictors of anti-anemic preparation use were decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and advanced stages of CKD.
Conclusion:: The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of anemia in pre-dialysis patients is higher than currently accepted and it is found to be correlated with renal function; prevalence increases with declined renal function. An earlier identification as well as appropriate management of anemia will not only have a positive impact on quality of life but also reduce hospitalizations of CKD patients due to cardiovascular events.
METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to 349 patients registered at the Sheffield Kidney Institute with chronic kidney disease but not on renal replacement therapy (RRT). The questionnaire incorporated three validated forms: kidney disease quality-of-life short form (KDQOL SF1.3) to assess QOL; nine-item patient health questionnaire (PHQ9) to screen for depression; multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) to evaluate perceived social support; as well as a novel genetic psychosocial risk instrument (GPRI-ADPKD) designed to study the specific psychosocial impact of coping with a diagnosis of ADPKD.
RESULTS: The overall response rate was 53%. Patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (<30 mL/min) or larger kidneys (mean length on ultrasound ≥17 cm) reported reduced QOL and increased psychosocial risk. Clinically significant depression was reported in 22% and 62% felt guilty about passing ADPKD on to their children. In multivariate analysis, female gender was associated with overall poorer psychosocial well-being, whereas increasing age, lower kidney function, larger kidneys and loss of a first degree relative from ADPKD were additional risk factors for QOL, depression or psychosocial risk, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal a significantly poorer QOL and increasing psychosocial risk with markers of disease progression in patients, particularly women, with ADPKD prior to starting RRT. The future management strategy of ADPKD should address these issues and provide for better individual and family support throughout the patient journey.
METHODS: A total 621 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59ml/min/1.73m(2) (CKD stage 3 & 4) were selected and followed up for 10 years or until ESRD or death, whichever occurred first. Subjects who did not meet inclusion criteria were excluded (n=1474).
RESULTS: Annual cumulative decline in eGFR was 3.01±0.40 ml/min/1.73m(2) . Overall disease progression was observed in 60% patients while 18% died. Among patients with CKD stage 3, 21% progressed to stage 4, 10% to stage 5ND (non-dialysis) and 31% to RRT while mortality was observed in 16% patients. On the other hand, 8% patients with CKD stage 4 progressed to stage 5ND, 31% to RRT and mortality was observed in 24% cases. Patients with CVD, higher systolic blood pressure, elevated phosphate levels, heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and use of diuretics were more likely to develop ESRD. Advancing age, low eGFR, low systolic blood pressure, low hemoglobin and baseline diabetes were found to be significant predictors of mortality while being female reduced risk of mortality.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that, in this CKD cohort, patients were more likely to develop ESRD than death. Prime importance should be given to mild forms of CKD to retard and even reverse CKD progression.
METHODS: Ovariectomized female normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Spontaneous hypertensive (SHR) rats were given six weeks treatment with testosterone via subcutaneous silastic implant. The rats were anesthetized and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured via direct cannulation of the carotid artery. Animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed and subjected for α, β and γ-ENaC protein and mRNA expression analyses by Western blotting and Real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Distributions of α, β and γ-ENaC proteins in kidneys were observed by immunofluorescence. Plasma testosterone, aldosterone, electrolytes, osmolality, urea and creatinine levels were determined by biochemical assays. Analysis were also performed in non-testosterone treated orchidectomized and sham-operated male WKY and SHR rats.
RESULTS: Treatment of ovariectomized female WKY and SHR rats with testosterone causes increased in MAP but decreased in plasma aldosterone, sodium (Na+), osmolality and expression and distribution of α, β and γ-ENaC subunits in the kidneys. Orchidectomy decreased the MAP but increased plasma aldosterone, Na+, osmolality and α, β and γ-ENaC expression and distribution in the kidneys of male WKY and SHR rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Decreased in plasma aldosterone, Na+ and ENaC levels in kidneys under testosterone influence indicated that testosterone-induced increased in MAP were not due to increased plasma aldosterone and ENaC levels in kidneys, and thus the testosterone effect on MAP likely involve other mechanisms.