In the 12-year period between 1974 and 1985, 19 children aged between 8 and 12 years with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were seen in the Department of Paediatrics, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. A preponderance of females (M:F = 1:2.8) and ethnic Chinese was evident. Renal biopsies revealed a wide Iange of renal morphology, including minimal change glomerulonephritis, focal proliferative glomerulonephritis, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis with varying degrees of severity and membranous glomerulonephritis. The majority (15) of patients had clinical SLE at the time of renal biopsy, of whom 4 were also grossly nephrotic. In the remaining 4 patients a diagnosis of SLE was made after further investigation for nephrotic syndrome (2) and acute nephritis (2). The pattern of renal pathology in childhood lupus nephritis appears not to differ significantly from adults.
Key words: Systemic lupus erythematosus, glomerulonephritis
We report this 21 years old Indian male with the nephrotic syndrome due to membranous nephropathy who later developed numerous epithelial crescents leading to a rapid loss of renal function. The pathogenesis of the crescentic transformation in this type of glomerulopathy is discussed.
Ki-67 expression in diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis, WHO Class IV, was compared against normal controls to establish that cellular proliferation is involved in the production of glomerular hypercellularity. Twenty-three histologically confirmed WHO Class IV lupus nephritis and 23 normal control renal tissue were immunohistochemically stained with a polyclonal antibody to Ki-67 (Dako) using the peroxidase labelled streptavidin bioitin kit (Dako). There were 20 females and 3 males, with 17 Chinese and 6 Malays in the WHO Class IV lupus nephritis group. Ages of patients ranged between 10-56 years with a mean of 31.9 years. The normal controls, 20 males and 3 females, and ethnically 9 Indians, 7 Malays, 2 Chinese, and 5 foreign nationals (4 Indonesians and 1 Bangladeshi), had an age range between 15-33 years (mean = 23.3 years). Sixteen (69.6%) WHO Class IV lupus nephritis and 8 (34.8%) normal controls demonstrated Ki-67 immunoreactivity in at least 1 glomerulus (p<0.05). Of the 256 WHO Class IV lupus nephritis non-sclerosed, glomeruli studied, 37 (14.5%) were Ki-67 immunopositive compared with normal controls where 16 (0.7%) of 2159 glomeruli demonstrated Ki-67 (p< 0.01). Cellular proliferative activity, as evidenced by Ki-67 expression, was significantly increased in WHO Class IV lupus nephritis confirming that cell proliferation contributes to glomerular hypercellularity.
A 31-year-old Malay female presented with nephrotic syndrome without renal impairment. Renal biopsy features were in keeping with immunotactoid glomerulopathy (ITG). Non-Congophilic deposits were seen causing thickening of the glomerular capillary basement membrane with segmental accentuation, and widening of the mesangium. Immunofluorescence examination showed moderate amounts of IgG and C3 in the glomerular capillary walls with some in the mesangium. Ultrastructurally, 20-nm thick fibrils with microtubular organisation were present predominantly in the subendothelial region with similar fibrils in the mesangium. Although immunotactoid glomerulopathy and fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FG) have been recognised as entities with extracellular fibrillary material in the kidney, to date much remains to be clarified regarding these 2 conditions. While the renal biopsy findings in this patient are consistent with ITG, her clinical presentation is unlike that of usual ITG in that she is of a much younger age and has no associated haemopoietic disorder. Response to initial treatment of 8 weeks of prednisolone therapy was poor.
In the 10-year period from October 1977 to July 1987, 149 cases of primary IgA nephropathy were histologically confirmed through renal biopsies in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The ages of these patients ranged from 5 to 72 years, with the majority in the 20-30 year age group. There was no sex preponderance. The ethnic distribution showed a significant predominance of Chinese with 107 (71.8%) Chinese, 24 (16.1%) Malays, 15 (10.1%) Indians and 3 others. A wide range of renal glomerular pathology was seen, the commonest being diffuse mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (59.1%). Focal proliferative glomerulonephritis (14.1%) followed by minimal change glomerulonephritis (10.7%) were next in order of frequency. Immunofluorescence studies consistently demonstrated heavy and predominant IgA deposition in the mesangium. Weak deposition of C3, IgG and IgM were also observed in various combinations.
A total of 45 patients with IgA nephropathy were seen at the Department of Nephrology, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur and the Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (National University ofMalaysia) between January 1982 to June 1985. This represents an incidence of 10.7% of all primary glomerulopathies. There does not appear to be any racial predilection and the clinicopathological features generally conforms with those reported elsewhere. However it seems to be as common in females as in males but the latter have a worse prognosis. The high incidence of renal failure and hypertension in our patients within the short follow-up period is noteworthy.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is public health concern even in Asian countries. TRK-100STP, a sustained release tablet of an orally-active prostacyclin analogue, beraprost sodium, is suggested to suppress worsening of some parameters of renal filtration function, containing in slope of 1/serum creatinine (1/SCr) vs. time in a phase II clinical trial.
A five-month-old male baby presented with an abdominal mass which was found on computerised tomography (CT) to be involving the left kidney. Nephrectomy and histopathological study showed morphological featues of a malignant rhabdoid tumour. The tumour cells stained strongly for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen and less intensely for vimentin. Electron microscopy revealed concentric whorled arrays of intermediate filaments within the tumour cell cytoplasm. The child was put on post-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy but developed bilateral lung metastases and died three months after surgery.
Adult human bone marrow contains a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) that contributes to the regeneration of tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, and fat. In recent years, it has been shown that functional stem cells exist in the adult bone marrow, and they can contribute to renal remodelling or reconstitution of injured renal glomeruli, especially mesangial cells. The purpose of this study is to examine the ability of MSC isolated from human bone marrow to differentiate into mesangial cells in glomerular injured athymic mice.
Cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants to prevent rejection. Its adverse effect on renal dysfunction has limited its use in a clinical setting. Apigenin (4',5',7'-Trihydroxyflavone), a herbal extract, with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties, has been investigated for properties to reverse this adverse effect. This research was conducted to establish a standard protocol for immunohistochemical estimation of Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta) expression, as an indicator of Cyclosporine A induced damage, and to observe whether apoptotic index and TGF-beta expression can be used to assess effects of Apigenin on CsA induced renal dysfunction. Six groups of 5 male Sprague-Dawley albino rats each were dosed once daily for 21 days, as follows: (1) negative control--oral corn oil, (2) positive control--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg), (3) Group 3--Apigenin (20 mg/kg), (4) Group 4--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (10 mg/kg), (5) Group 5--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (15 mg/kg) and (6) Group 6--Cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg) +Apigenin (20 mg/kg). Cyclosporine A was administered intra-peritoneally while Apigenin was given orally. The rat kidneys were harvested and examined microscopically to assess the apoptotic index, and stained by immunohistochemistry for multifunctioning polypeptide TGF-beta expression. A high apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity was observed in the Cyclosporine A group. Apigenin significantly reduced the both apoptotic index and TGF-beta intensity. The apoptotic index correlated with TGF-beta intensity, especially in glomeruli. This study indicates that Cyclosporine A can enhance the TGF-beta expression in rat kidney, signifying accelerated apoptosis. TGF-beta and apoptotic index may be used to assess Apigenin and its effect on Cyclosporine A induced renal damage.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to progression of diabetic nephropathy, which promotes end-stage renal failure in diabetic patients. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of tempol and ramipril, pharmacological agents that target the consequences of NADPH oxidase, on diabetic nephropathy in a rat model of type 1 diabetes, with an emphasis on markers of ER stress. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of streptozotocin (55mg/kg) to induce type 1 diabetes. An additional age-matched group of rats was administered with citrate vehicle as controls. After 4 weeks of untreated diabetes, rats received tempol (1.5mM/kg/day subcutaneously, n=8), ramipril (1mg/kg/day in drinking water, n=8) or remained untreated for an additional 4 weeks (n=7). After 8 weeks of diabetes in total, kidneys were collected for histological analysis, gene expression and protein abundance. Tempol and ramipril blunted diabetes-induced upregulation of NADPH oxidase isoforms (Nox4, Nox2, p47phox), accompanied by an amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular injury (podocin, nephrin, Kim-1), tubulo-interstitial fibrosis (TGFβ1, TGFβ-R2, pSMAD3, α-SMA) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, MCP-1, ANX-A1, FPR2) expression. In addition, the diabetes-induced renal ER stress, evidenced by increased expression of GRP-78 chaperone and stress-associated markers ATF4, TRB3, as well as XBP1s, phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and 3-nitrotyrosination, were all attenuated by tempol and ramipril. These observations suggest that antioxidant approaches that blunt NADPH upregulation may attenuate diabetic nephropathy, at least in part by negatively regulating ER stress and inflammation, and hence ameliorating kidney damage.