METHOD: Two hundred sixty eight serum specimens collected from patients that were diagnosed for dengue fever were confirmed for dengue virus serotyping by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were extracted from the hospital database to identify patients with confirmed leptospirosis infection among the dengue patients. Thus, frequency of co-infection was calculated and association of the dataset with dengue-leptospirosis co-infection was statistically determined.
RESULTS: The frequency of dengue co-infection with leptospirosis was 4.1%. Male has higher preponderance of developing the co-infection and end result of shock as clinical symptom is more likely present among co-infected cases. It is also noteworthy that, DENV 1 is the common dengue serotype among all cases identified as dengue-leptospirosis co-infection in this study.
CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence of leptospirosis among dengue infected patients has posed the need to precisely identify the presence of co-infection for the betterment of treatment without mistakenly ruling out either one of them. Thus, anticipating the possible clinical symptoms and laboratory results of dengue-leptospirosis co-infection is essential.
METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia. Respondents' background information was obtained using a questionnaire. Serum samples were tested for leptospiral antibodies using ELISA and microscopic agglutination test (MAT).
RESULTS: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among healthy workers was 46.3%. Detection of seropositivity was higher by MAT (46%) than ELISA (15%). We observed high seropositivity among local workers (49%), food handlers (49.5%), females (60.8%) and those aged 34 years and older (46.3%). Local strain LEP175 was the predominant serovar, followed by WHO strain Patoc.
CONCLUSION: Overall seroprevalence among healthy food handlers and market workers was high in this study. The workplace places susceptible individuals at risk of leptospirosis.
METHODS: Soil and water samples near leptospirosis patients' residences were collected, processed and cultured into EMJH media. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed to confirm the identity of Leptospira.
RESULTS: EMJH culture and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed predominant growth of pathogenic Leptospira kmetyi (17%, n=7/42). All tested locations had at least one Leptospira sp., mostly from the soil samples.
CONCLUSION: More than one species of Leptospira may be present in a sampling area. The most common environmental isolates were pathogenic L. kmetyi.