Bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved via sensing of QS signaling molecules consisting of oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in most Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Batavia lettuce were screened for AHL production. Enterobacter asburiae, identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was found to produce short chain AHLs. High resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the E. asburiae spent supernatant confirmed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone (C4-HSL) and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C6-HSL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL production by E. asburiae.
A crude methanol extract of Goniothalamus andersonii J. Sinclair strongly inhibited elongation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) radicles. We conducted bioassay-guided purification of G. andersonii bark extract and obtained goniothalamin as the major bioactive compound. Its EC50 values against elongation of lettuce radicles and hypocotyls were 50 and 125 micromol L(-1), respectively. Among the six species tested, timothy was the most sensitive to goniothalamin. Quantification of this compound in other Goniothalamus species suggested that the plant inhibitory activity of this genus is explainable by goniothalamin, with G. calcareus as an exception.
Matched MeSH terms: Lettuce/drug effects*; Lettuce/growth & development
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is one of the most important members of Klebsiella genus in Enterobacteriacae family, which is responsible for pneumonia (the destructive lung inflammation disease). Vegetables are known as source of contamination with K. pneumonia. Raw vegetables are usually consumed in salads and other dishes. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of K. pneumoniae in raw vegetables marketed in Malaysia. Two hundred commonly used salad vegetables (lettuces, parsley, cucumber, tomato and carrot) from hypermarkets and wet markets were investigated for presence of K. pneumoniae using Most Probable Number-Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR). K. pneumoniae was found to be significantly more frequent (100%) and (82.5%) in lettuce and cucumbers, respectively. K. pneumoniae contamination was lowest in carrot samples (30%). All samples were contaminated with K. pneumoniae ranging from
Plant pathogens can profoundly affect host plant quality as perceived by their insect herbivores, with potentially far-reaching implications for the ecology and structure of insect communities. Changes in host plants may have direct effects on the life-histories of their insect herbivores, which can then influence their value as prey to their natural enemies. While there have been many studies that have explored the effects of infection when plants show symptoms of disease, little is understood about how unexpressed infection may affect interactions at higher trophic levels. We examined how systemic, asymptomatic, and seed-borne infection by the ubiquitous plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea, infecting two varieties of the lettuce Lactuca sativa, affected aphids (the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae) and two widely used biocontrol agents (the parasitoid Aphidius colemani and the ladybird predator Adalia bipunctata). Lettuce varieties differed in host plant quality. Asymptomatic infection reduced chlorophyll content and dry weight of host plants, irrespective of plant variety. Aphids reared on asymptomatic plants were smaller, had reduced off-plant survival time and were less fecund than aphids reared on uninfected plants. Parasitoids showed reduced attack rates on asymptomatically infected plants, and wasps emerging from hosts reared on such plants were smaller and showed reduced starvation resistance. When given a choice in an olfactometer, aphids preferentially chose uninfected plants of one variety (Tom Thumb) but showed no preference with the second (Little Gem) variety. Parasitoids preferentially chose aphids on uninfected plants, irrespective of host plant variety, but ladybirds did not show any such preference. These results suggest that the reduced quality of plants asymptomatically infected by Botrytis cinerea negatively affects the life history of aphids and their parasitoids, and alters the behaviors of aphids and parasitoids, but not of ladybirds. Fungal pathogens are ubiquitous in nature, and this work shows that even when host plants are yet to show symptoms, pathogens can affect interactions between insect herbivores and their natural enemies. This is likely to have important implications for the success of biological control programs.
While there is good epidemiological evidence for foods as vehicles for norovirus transmission, the precise means of spread and its control remain unknown. The feline calicivirus was used as a surrogate for noroviruses to study infectious virus transfer between hands and selected types of foods and environmental surfaces. Assessment of the potential of selected topicals in interrupting such virus transfer was also made. Ten microliters of inoculum of feline calicivirus deposited onto each fingerpad of adult subjects was allowed to air dry and the contaminated area on individual fingerpads was pressed (10 s at a pressure of 0.2 to 0.4 kg/cm2) onto 1-cm-diameter disks of ham, lettuce, or brushed stainless steel. The virus remaining on the donor and that transferred to the recipient surfaces was eluted and plaque assayed. Virus transfer to clean hands from experimentally contaminated disks of ham, lettuce, and stainless steel was also tested. Nearly 46 +/- 20.3, 18 +/- 5.7, and 13 +/- 3.6% of infectious virus was transferred from contaminated fingerpads to ham, lettuce, and metal disks, respectively. In contrast, approximately 6 +/- 1.8, 14 +/- 3.5, and 7 +/- 1.9% virus transfer occurred, respectively, from ham, lettuce, and metal disks to hands. One-way analysis of variance test showed that pretreatment (washing) of the fingerpads either with water or with both topical agent and water significantly (P < 0.05) reduced virus transfer to < or = 0.9%, as compared with < or = 2.3 and < or = 3.4% transfer following treatments with either 75% (vol/vol) ethanol or a commercial hand gel containing 62% ethanol, respectively. Despite wide variations in virus transfer among the targeted items used, intervention agents tested reduced virus transfer significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with that without such treatments (71 +/- 8.9%). These findings should help in a better assessment of the potential for cross-contamination of foods during handling and also assist in developing more effective approaches to foodborne spread of norovirus infections.
A soil cooling system that prepares soil for temperate soil temperatures for the growth of temperate crops under a tropical climate is described herein. Temperate agriculture has been threatened by the negative impact of temperature increases caused by climate change. Soil temperature closely correlates with the growth of temperate crops, and affects plant processes and soil microbial diversity. The present study focuses on the effects of soil temperatures on lettuce growth and soil microbial diversity that maintains the growth of lettuce at low soil temperatures. A model temperate crop, loose leaf lettuce, was grown on eutrophic soil under soil cooling and a number of parameters, such as fresh weight, height, the number of leaves, and root length, were evaluated upon harvest. Under soil cooling, significant differences were observed in the average fresh weight (P<0.05) and positive development of the roots, shoots, and leaves of lettuce. Janthinobacterium (8.142%), Rhodoplanes (1.991%), Arthrospira (1.138%), Flavobacterium (0.857%), Sphingomonas (0.790%), Mycoplana (0.726%), and Pseudomonas (0.688%) were the dominant bacterial genera present in cooled soil. Key soil fungal communities, including Pseudaleuria (18.307%), Phoma (9.968%), Eocronartium (3.527%), Trichosporon (1.791%), and Pyrenochaeta (0.171%), were also recovered from cooled soil. The present results demonstrate that the growth of temperate crops is dependent on soil temperature, which subsequently affects the abundance and diversity of soil microbial communities that maintain the growth of temperate crops at low soil temperatures.
To explore new approaches of phage-based bio-process of specifically pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria in food products within a short period. One hundred and forty highly lytic designed coliphages were used. Escherichia coli naturally contaminated and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli experimentally inoculated samples of lettuce, cabbage, meat, and egg were used. In addition, experimentally produced biofilms of E. coli were tested. A phage concentration of 10(3) PFU/ml was used for food products immersion, and for spraying of food products, 10(5) PFU/ml of a phage cocktail was used by applying a 20-s optimal dipping time in a phage cocktail. Food samples were cut into pieces and were either sprayed with or held in a bag immersed in lambda buffer containing a cocktail of 140 phages. Phage bio-processing was successful in eliminating completely E. coli in all processed samples after 48 h storage at 4°C. Partial elimination of E. coli was observed in earlier storage periods (7 and 18 h) at 24° and 37°C. Moreover, E. coli biofilms were reduced >3 log cycles upon using the current phage bio-processing. The use of a phage cocktail of 140 highly lytic designed phages proved highly effective in suppressing E. coli contaminating food products. Proper decontamination/prevention methods of pathogenic E. coli achieved in this study can replace the current chemically less effective decontamination methods.
The use of allelopathy concept in weed management has received attentions to minimize extensively the reliance on herbicide applications on the agriculture industry in Malaysia. A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the allelopathic potential of 15 Malaysian common weed species of different morphological characteristics (broadleaves, sedges and grasses). They were screened using the Sandwich method (from leaf litter leachate) and the Dish pack method (for testing the presence and content of volatile compounds in weeds). Among the 15 weed species tested, the leaf litter leachate of Centrosema pubescens was observed to be the most sensitive plant material inhibiting the growth of lettuce radicle (84%) and hypocotyl (55%) in the Sandwich bioassay compared to the control. This was followed by Asystasia gangentica (81%) and Cynodon dactylon (80%) inhibiting the lettuce radicle growth. In the Dish pack bioassay, Rhynchelytrum repens demonstrated maximum inhibition on the radicle and hypocotyl elongations by 44% and 29%, respectively, (over control) at 41 mm distance from the source well. Meanwhile, at the same distance, Cynodon dactylon was observed to have the least inhibitory effect on lettuce radicle growth by 12%. The results presented can be utilized as benchmark information for further research on the identification and isolation of allelochemicals for weed control strategies.
Immunomagnetic beads-PCR (IM-PCR), positively-charged virosorb filters (F), or a combination of both methods (F-IM-PCR) were used to capture, concentrate and rapidly detect hepatitis A virus (HAV) in samples of lettuce and strawberries experimentally contaminated. Direct reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the collected HAV-beads complex showed a detection limit of 0.5 plaque forming units (PFU) of the virus present in 1-ml of wash solution from the produce, which was several hundred-fold more sensitive than that demonstrated by RT-PCR. In separate trials, virus-containing wash solutions from the produce were passed through the filters and the captured virus was eluted with 10 ml volumes of 1% beef extract. Of the 62% filter-captured HAV, an average of 34.8% was eluted by the 1% beef extract. PCR amplification of 2 microl from this eluate failed to produce a clear positive band signal. As little as 10 PFU, present on each piece of the lettuce or strawberry, was detectable by the F-IM-PCR, which was almost 20 times less sensitive than the detection limit of 0.5 PFU by the IM-PCR. However, considering the large volumes (< or =50 ml) used in the F-IM-PCR, the sensitivity of detection could be much greater than that of the IM-PCR, which was restricted to < or =20 ml volumes. These data indicate that the F-IM-PCR method provides the potential for a greater sensitivity of detection than the IM-PCR, since low levels of virus could be detected from large volumes of sample than possible by the IM-PCR method. Although positively-charged filters captured a greater amount of virus than both the IM-PCR and F-IM-PCR methods, direct PCR amplification from beef extract eluates was not successful in detecting HAV from produce.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contaminated fingerpads of adult volunteers to pieces of fresh lettuce. Touching the lettuce with artificially contaminated fingerpads for 10 s at a pressure of 0.2 to 0.4 kg/cm(2) resulted in transfer of 9.2% +/- 0.9% of the infectious virus. The pretreatments tested to interrupt virus transfer from contaminated fingerpads included (i) hard-water rinsing and towel drying, (ii) application of a domestic or commercial topical agent followed by water rinsing and towel drying, and (iii) exposure to a hand gel containing 62% ethanol or 75% liquid ethanol without water rinsing or towel drying. When the fingerpads were treated with the topical agents or alcohol before the lettuce was touched, the amount of infectious virus transferred to lettuce was reduced from 9.2% to between 0.3 and 0.6% (depending on the topical agent used), which was a reduction in virus transfer of up to 30-fold. Surprisingly, no virus transfer to lettuce was detected when the fingerpads were rinsed with water alone before the lettuce was touched. However, additional experiments with water rinsing in which smaller volumes of water were used (1 ml instead of 15 ml) showed that the rate of virus transfer to lettuce was 0.3% +/- 0.1%. The variability in virus transfer rates following water rinsing may indicate that the volume of water at least in part influences virus removal from the fingerpads differently, a possibility which should be investigated further. This study provided novel information concerning the rate of virus transfer to foods and a model for investigating the transfer of viral and other food-borne pathogens from contaminated hands to foods, as well as techniques for interrupting such transfer to improve food safety.
Kitchen mishandling practices contribute to a large number of foodborne illnesses. In this study, the transfer and cross-contamination potential of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from bloody clams to ready-to-eat food (lettuce) was assessed. Three scenarios were investigated: 1) direct cross-contamination, the transfer of V. parahaemolyticus from bloody clams to non-food contact surfaces (hands and kitchen utensils) to lettuce (via slicing), was evaluated; 2) perfunctory decontamination, the efficacy of two superficial cleaning treatments: a) rinsing in a pail of water, and b) wiping with a kitchen towel, were determined; and 3) secondary cross-contamination, the microbial transfer from cleaning residuals (wash water or stained kitchen towel) to lettuce was assessed. The mean of percent transfer rates through direct contact was 3.6%, and an average of 3.5% of total V. parahaemolyticus was recovered from sliced lettuce. The attempted treatments reduced the transferred population by 99.0% (rinsing) and 94.5% (wiping), and the relative amount of V. parahaemolyticus on sliced lettuce was reduced to 0.008%. V. parahaemolyticus exposure via secondary cross-contamination was marginal. The relative amount of V. parahaemolyticus recovered from washed lettuce was 0.07%, and the transfers from stained kitchen towel to lettuce were insubstantial. Our study highlights that V. parahaemolyticus was readily spread in the kitchen, potentially through sharing of non-food contact surfaces. Results from this study can be used to better understand and potentially raising the awareness of proper handling practices to avert the spread of foodborne pathogens.
This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce.
In gram-negative bacteria, bacterial communication or quorum sensing (QS) is achieved using common signaling molecules known as N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL). We have previously reported the genome of AHL-producing bacterium, Enterobacter asburiae strain L1. In silico analysis of the strain L1 genome revealed the presence of a pair of luxI/R genes responsible for AHL-type QS, designated as easIR. In this work, the 639 bp luxI homolog, encoding 212 amino acids, have been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)pLysS. The purified protein (~25 kDa) shares high similarity to several members of the LuxI family among different E asburiae strains. Our findings showed that the heterologously expressed EasI protein has activated violacein production by AHL biosensor Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 as the wild-type E. asburiae. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the production of N-butanoyl homoserine lactone and N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone from induced E. coli harboring the recombinant EasI, suggesting that EasI is a functional AHL synthase. E. asburiae strain L1 was also shown to possess biofilm-forming characteristic activity using crystal violet binding assay. This is the first report on cloning and characterization of the luxI homolog from E. asburiae.
A survey was conducted to investigate the level of consumption of ‘ulam’ in Selangor State among 252 adults (> 17 years) (male 28.6%, female 71.4%) of major ethnics (Malays-51.6%; Chinese-30.5%; Indians-17.5%) with the mean age of 42.7 ± 13.9 years. Consumption data were collected using 24 hours duplicate samples together with questionnaire on perceptions of ‘ulam.’ Results showed that ‘ulam’ was preferred by majority of the subjects (82.1%), especially amongst Malays (92.3%). A total of 52% of the subjects consumed partially or boiled ‘ulam.’ Factors that affect their preferences on ‘ulam’ were the perception of therapeutic effects of the ‘ulam’ towards health, its good taste and unique
aroma. The most consumed ‘ulam’ were cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (60.6%) ‘kacang botol’ (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (33%), Indian pennywort (Hydrocotyle asiatica) (31.5%), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) (27.6%), ‘petai’ (Parkia speciosa) (29%) and ‘ulam raja’ (Cosmos caudatus) (21.9%). The most preferred partially or boiled ‘ulam’
were tapioca shoot (Manihot esculenta) (31.5%), ocra (Hibiscus esculentus) (12.5%) and ‘jantung pisang’ (Musa sapientum) (20.1%). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) amongst the three different ethnic groups on the consumption of ‘ulam’ and the median for total intake per day was within the range of 30-39 g/day. Ulam is a potential
source for increasing vegetable consumption to meet recommendation by World Health Organization (WHO), which is 400 g per day.
Keywords: Adults; perception; ‘ulam;’ Selangor State
As consumer interest in organically grown vegetables is increasing in Malaysia, there is a need to answer whether the vegetables are more nutritious than those conventionally grown. This study investigates commercially available vegetables grown organically and conventionally, purchased from retailers to analyse Ã¢-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin contents. Five types of green vegetables were selected, namely Chinese mustard (sawi) (Brassica juncea), Chinese kale (kailan) (Brassica alboglabra), lettuce (daun salad) (Lactuca sativa), spinach (bayam putih) (Amaranthus viridis) and swamp cabbage (kangkung) (Ipomoea aquatica). For vitamin analysis, a reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to identify and quantify Î²-carotene, vitamin C and riboflavin. The findings showed that not all of the organically grown vegetables were higher in vitamins than that conventionally grown. This study found that only swamp cabbage grown organically was highest in Î²-carotene , vitamin C and riboflavin contents among the entire samples studied. The various nutrients in organically grown vegetables need to be analysed for the generation of a database on nutritional value which is important for future research.
The organic foods’ market is becoming one of the rapidly growing sections in agricultural economies in the world. During the last two decades, food-borne outbreaks associated with fresh produce have rapidly increased. E. coli O57:H7, the caustic agent of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps, is mainly associated with meat and poultry product outbreaks but frequent outbreaks linked to the consumption of vegetables have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in some organic foods. A total of 230 organic food samples including four-winged bean, tomato, white radish, red cabbage, chinese cabbage, lettuce, cucumber and chicken form retailed groceries and supermarkets in Malaysia were investigated. Low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was detected in organic vegetables and chickens. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in all samples ranged from 2400 MPN/g. The overall MPN/g estimate of E. coli O157:H7 in the samples from organic groceries was higher than supermarket with the maximum of >2400 MPN/g. Most of the samples from supermarket showed a minimum of
This study aims to determine the frequency and density of potentially pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, defined as those possessing thermostable-direct hemolysin (tdh) and/or tdh-related hemolysin (trh) genes, in raw salad vegetables at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia. A combination of Most Probable Number - Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) method was applied to detect the presence of tdh and/or trh gene-possessing V. parahaemolyticus and to enumerate their density in the samples. A total of 276 samples of vegetables commonly eaten raw in Malaysia (Cabbage = 30; Carrot = 31; Cucumber = 28; Four winged bean = 26; Indian pennywort = 17; Japanese parsley = 21; Lettuce = 16; Long bean = 32; Sweet potato = 29; Tomato = 38; Wild cosmos = 8) were analyzed. The samples were purchased from two supermarkets (A and B) and two wet markets (C and D). With the MPN-PCR technique, about 12.0% of the samples were positive for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus tdh-positive, with maximum densities of up to 39 MPN/g. The total frequency of V. parahaemolyticus trh-positive in the samples was 10.1%, with maximum concentration 15 MPN/g. V. parahaemolyticus tdh-positive was most prevalent in samples from Wet Market C (20.78%) and also in vegetable type Oenanthe stolonifera (Japanese parsley) with 19.0%, while V. parahaemolyticus trhpositive was predominant in samples from Wet Market D (16.7%) and was most frequent in both Oenanthe stolonifera (Japanese parsley) and Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) with 14.3% prevalence for each type. The results highlighted the fact that raw vegetables could be contaminated with virulent V. parahaemolyticus and could act as a transmission route, thus poses risk to consumers from the consumption of raw vegetables. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first assessment of V. parahaemolyticus carrying tdh and trh genes in raw
vegetables from retail outlets in Malaysia.
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a foodborne pathogen associated with pneumoniae. Multiresistance to antibiotics of K. pneumoniae is a significant public health treat. Recently, the use of natural products such as herbs to inhibit the growth of pathogens is increasing. Java turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens. Unfortunately, the antibacterial activity of java turmeric extract against the resistance to multiantibiotics of K. pneumoniae has not been investigated. In this study, the antibacterial activity of Java turmeric extract was tested against 24 isolates of resistant K. pneumoniae that was isolated from several vegetables; lettuce, cucumber, tomato and carrot, using the methods recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CSLI), including disc diffusion method, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and killing time at concentration 0× MIC, ½× MIC, 1× MIC, 2× MIC and 4× MIC with predetermined time of 0, 0.25 , 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 h. The results showed that Java turmeric extract is susceptible to all resistant K. pneumoniae with inhibition zones ranging from 8.67 ± 0.58 to 10.00 ± 0.00 mm. The MIC and MBC values for the K. pneumoniae isolates against all bacterial isolates was 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The killing time curve shows the reduction of resistant K. pneumoniae cells is fast acting; > 3 log10 within less than 15 min at 4× MIC (5.0 mg/ml). Finally, the isolates were completely killed at 4× MIC for 15 min. In conclusion, the Java turmeric extracts can be developed as natural antimicrobial agent to inhibit the growth of K. pneumoniae in food system.
Since the inception of global industrialization, the growth of steroid estrogens becomes a matter of emerging serious concern for the rapid population. Steroidal estrogens are potent endocrine-upsetting chemicals that are excreted naturally by vertebrates (e.g., humans and fish) and can enter natural waters through the discharge of treated and raw sewage. Steroidal estrogens in plants may enter the food web and become a serious threat to human health. We evaluated the uptake and accumulation of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa) grown under controlled environmental condition over 21 days growth period. An effective analytical method based on ultrasonic liquid extraction (ULE) for solid samples and solid phase extraction (SPE) for liquid samples with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been developed to determine the steroid estrogens in lettuce plants. The extent of uptake and accumulation was observed in a dose-dependent manner and roots were major organs for estrogen deposition. Unlike the 17β-E2, EE2 was less accumulated and translocated from root to leaves. For 17β-E2, the distribution in lettuce was primarily to roots after the second week (13%), whereas in leaves it was (10%) over the entire study period. The distribution of EE2 at 2000 μg L-1 in roots and leaves was very low (3.07% and 0.54%) during the first week and then was highest (12% in roots and 8% in leaves) in last week. Bioaccumulation factor values of 17β-E2 and EE2 in roots were 0.33 and 0.29 at 50 μg L-1 concentration as maximum values were found at 50 μg L-1 rather than 500 and 2000 in all observed plant tissues. Similar trend was noticed in roots than leaves for bioconcentration factor as the highest bioconcentration values were observed at 50 μg L-1 concentration instead of 500 and 2000 μg L-1 spiked concentration. These findings mainly indicate the potential for uptake and bioaccumulation of estrogens in lettuce plants. Overall, the estrogen contents in lettuce were compared to the FAO/WHO recommended toxic level and were found to be higher than the toxic level which is of serious concern to the public health. This analytical procedure may aid in future studies on risks associated with uptake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in lettuce plants.