The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies.
Penyata Peperiksaan merupakan dokumen rasmi yang membolehkanpelajar menduduki peperiksaan. Maklumat slip peperiksaan yang tidak lengkap boleh menyebabkanpelajar lewat ketempatpeperiksaan atau lebih teruk lagi tidak hadir peperiksaankerana tersalah menyemak jadualdan tempatpeperiksaan. Bagi mengatasi masalah ini, metodologi SDLC (System Development Life Cycle) untuk pembangunan sistem berasaskan webtelah dijalankan.Slip Peperiksaan Komprehensif atau singkatannya ComprESS membolehkan pelajar menjana dan mencetak slip peperiksaan baharu yang mengandungi maklumat lengkapseperti tarikh,masa,tempatdan nombor meja. Pengguna sistem telah memberikan maklumbalas positif melalui pengujian sistem sertamaklumbalas dariatas talian. Melalui temubual dengan pelajar dan staf, mereka sangat yakinbahawa ComprESS telahmenyelesaikan isu maklumat peperiksaan yang tidak lengkap pada penyata peperiksaan dan seterusnya pengurusan peperiksaanlebih efisien.
The sustainability performance of the desalination processes has received increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the current progress and future perspective of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of desalination technology in 62 previous studies have been reviewed for the period 2004-2019. It was found that the number of LCA studies related to seawater reverse osmosis has gained popularity compared to other types of desalination technologies. The review emphasized the application of LCA to desalination by means of research objective, scope of study, life stages, and impact assessment. Although previous LCA studies were conducted to assess the environmental performance of the desalination technology, little attention was given to evaluating the impact of other sustainability aspects (i.e., economic and social). The latter part of this study discusses the challenges, feasibility, and recommendations for future LCA studies on desalination technology. The integration of the LCA approach with other approaches allows a comprehensive assessment of the sustainability performance of desalination technology. Thus, the combined approaches should be explored in future studies to gain insight into the sensitivity and uncertainty of the data to make an assessment that can be useful in policy-making.
Many researchers have developed various economic ordering quantity models by assuming an infinite time horizon and constant demand rate. However due to rapid technological advancement, shorter product life cycle and severe competition, those assumptions are no longer realistic. In this paper, we complement that shortcoming by considering an inventory model that satisfies a continuous time-varying demand rate for a finite time horizon when trade credit period and unit cash discount are allowed. The time horizon consists of n different cycles with equal or different cycles length. The trade credit period was assumed to be proportional to the cycle length. We developed mathematical models and presented a numerical example to support the effectiveness of these models.
Recurrent outbreaks of muscular sarcocystosis among tourists visiting islands in Malaysia have focused international attention on sarcocystosis, a disease once considered rare in humans. Sarcocystis species require two hosts, definitive and intermediate, to complete their life cycle. Humans can serve as definitive hosts, with intestinal sarcocystosis for two species acquired from eating undercooked meat: Sarcocystis hominis, from beef, and Sarcocystis suihominis, from pork. Symptoms such as nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea vary widely depending on the number of cysts ingested but appear more severe with pork than with beef. Humans serve as intermediate hosts for Sarcocystis nesbitti, a species with a reptilian definitive host, and possibly other unidentified species, acquired by ingesting sporocysts from feces-contaminated food or water and the environment; infections have an early phase of development in vascular endothelium, with illness that is difficult to diagnose; clinical signs include fever, headache, and myalgia. Subsequent development of intramuscular cysts is characterized by myositis. Presumptive diagnosis based on travel history to tropical regions, elevated serum enzyme levels, and eosinophilia is confirmed by finding sarcocysts in muscle biopsy specimens. There is no vaccine or confirmed effective antiparasitic drug for muscular sarcocystosis, but anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce symptoms. Prevention strategies are also discussed.
Different clades belonging to the cosmopolitan marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia pungens appear to be present in different oceanic environments, however, a 'hybrid zone', where populations of different clades interbreed, has also been reported. Many studies have investigated the sexual reproduction of P. pungens, focused on morphology and life cycle, rather than the role of sexual reproduction in mixing the genomes of their parents. We carried out crossing experiments to determine the sexual compatibility/incompatibility between different clades of P. pungens, and examined the genetic polymorphism in the ITS2 region. Sexual reproduction did not occur only between clades II and III under any of experimental temperature conditions. Four offspring strains were established between clade I and III successfully. Strains established from offspring were found interbreed with other offspring strains as well as viable with their parental strains. We confirmed the hybrid sequence patterns between clades I and III and found novel sequence types including polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the offspring strains. Our results implicate that gene exchange and mixing between different clades are still possible, and that sexual reproduction is a significant ecological strategy to maintain the genetic diversity within this diatom species.
The life-cycle of Malaysian Spirometra spp. was studied under experimental conditions in the laboratory. The Cyclops were reared as the first intermediate host, the hamster as the experimental second intermediate host and cat as the definitive host. Maturation and hatching of eggs took 6 to 12 days by incubation at temperature 30 ºC. The hatched coracidium measured 46 x 34 μm. The Cyclops used were susceptible to the coracidial infection. The procercoid older than 5 days in the Cyclop body cavity had minute spines at the anterior end, calcium corpuscles in the body parenchyma and the cercomer at the posterior end. Procercoids 10 to 14 days old were infective to hamster. The plerocercoids from the hamster after 30 days were long and slender and were infective to cats. The plerocercoids experimentally inoculated to cats developed to adult worms and began to produce eggs between 10 to 60 days. Based on the results that have been obtained, a complete life-cycle was successfully elucidated in the laboratory and hamster was identified to be a good laboratory model for a second intermediate host of Spirometra sp.
Larvae of the Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) were collected from a decomposed human corpse at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital. A colony of this species was established and the eggs were collected for rearing. The developmental times, rearing temperatures, and relative humidity were recorded twice daily from the time the eggs collected until adult emergence. An average of 5 larvae were randomly collected from the rearings twice daily, warm-water killed and preserved in Kahle's solution. The larval instar stages were determined by observing the number of posterior spiracular slits and the length of the preserved larvae were measured. When the larval life cycle was completed, the accumulated developmental times were calculated. A total of 8 replicates were carried out. The temperature of the rearing room was 28.5+/-1.5 degrees Celcius while the relative humidity was within 67-85%. The total developmental time for S. nudiseta was 322+/-19 hours (13.4+/-0.8 days).
Different miRNAs are involved in the life cycles of Schistosoma japonicum. The aim of this study was to examine the expression profile of miRNAs in individual S. japonicum of different sex before and after pairing (18 and 24 dpi). The majority of differential expressed miRNAs were highly abundant at 14 dpi, except for sja-miR-125b and sja-miR-3505, in both male and female. Moreover, it was estimated that sja-miR-125b and sja-miR-3505 might be related to laying eggs. sja-miR-2a-5p and sja-miR-3484-5p were expressed at 14 dpi in males and were significantly clustered in DNA topoisomerase III, Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 and L-serine/L-threonine ammonia-lyase. Target genes of sja-miR-2d-5p, sja-miR-31- 5p and sja-miR-125a, which were expressed at 14 dpi in males but particularly females, were clustered in kelch-like protein 12, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I, and heat shock protein 90 kDa beta. Predicted target genes of sja-miR-3483-3p (expressed at 28 dpi in females but not in males) were clustered in 26S proteasome regulatory subunit N1, ATPdependent RNA helicase DDX17. Predicted target genes of sja-miR-219-5p, which were differentially expressed at 28 dpi in females but particularly males, were clustered in DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6, protein phosphatase 1D, and ATPase family AAA domaincontaining protein 3A/B. Moreover, at 28 dpi, eight miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in females compared to males. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs were significantly clustered in heat shock protein 90 kDa beta, 26S proteasome regulatory subunit N1, and protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1. To sum up, differentially expressed miRNAs may have an essential role and provide necessary information on clarifying this trematode's growth, development, maturation, and infection ability to mammalian hosts in its complex life cycle, and may be helpful for developing new drug targets and vaccine candidates for schistosomiasis.
The ultrastructure of the odontoblast reflects the certain phases that the cell undergoes in their lifecycle. Ultrastructure studies of the odontoblasts have often been carried out using young teeth. In this study, teeth from an older individual have been used to study the odontoblasts from the crown and root area. The odontoblasts from the crown area retain their columnar shape while odontoblasts from the root area appeared to be flattened. The organelles present in the odontoblasts either from the crown or root area was observed to be reduced.
Archerfishes Toxotes chatareus (Hamilton 1822) and Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1767) inhabits mangrove estuaries, which are a critically important habitat as a spawning and nursery ground as well as the full life cycle of many fish species. In order to manage and conserve resilience fish species like the archerfish, we need to know some basic parameters about their biology and life history. Our research has focused on understanding the annual condition factors of these two species of archerfishes, as a complimentary to other several biological aspects of this two species that have been published. Our results indicated that, both species are in good conditions as the mean values of condition factors (Fulton condition factor K and Relative condition factor Kn) are greater than values of unity (K, Kn >1). The average K and Kn values of T. chatareus and T. jaculatrix were lowest in November and highest in September, indicates the spawning and recovery condition of the fishes. Condition factors measure overall fish population health that can be used by fisheries biologists and resource managers in proper management of fish resources in Malaysia waters.
Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) tekamense and Simulium (Gomphostilbia) jerantutense, are described based on adult females emerged from pupae in Peninsular Malaysia, and assigned to the binuanense subgroup of the batoense species-group in the subgenus Gomphostilbia. Simulium (G.) tekamense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the subcosta with 0-2 hairs, and presence of a deep notch on the apex of the mediolongitudinal ridge of the cibarium, and in the pupa by one of two paired gill filaments of the middle triplet much thicker than the counter filament. Simulium (G.) jerantutense sp. nov. is characterized in the female by the short claw tooth 0.46 times the length of the claw, and in the pupa by the gill filaments arranged as [2+1+(1+2)]+2 filaments from dorsal to ventral. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish these new species from related species.
Magnetic actuator driven switchgear is a new medium voltage switchgear technology. In this switchgear, the conventional spring mechanism which is used to operate the circuit breaker is replaced with a magnetic actuator mechanism. The suitability of this technology in the Malaysian utility network specifically in highly loaded areas with frequent switching was assessed via a field evaluation. Preliminary results indicated that magnetic actuator driven switchgear perform commendably on the safety aspect, on-site performance monitoring and online diagnostic test results. However, there are several concerns that need to be addressed such as the ease of installation, substation system requirements, high life cycle cost and reliability of components, before this technology can be used widely.
Seafood is seen as promising for more sustainable diets. The increasing production in land-based closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RASs) has overcome many local environmental challenges with traditional open net-pen systems such as eutrophication. The energy needed to maintain suitable water quality, with associated emissions, has however been seen as challenging from a global perspective. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance and improvement potentials of a commercial RAS farm of tilapia and Clarias in Sweden. The environmental impact categories and indicators considered were freshwater eutrophication, climate change, energy demand, land use, and dependency on animal-source feed inputs per kg of fillet. We found that feed production contributed most to all environmental impacts (between 67 and 98%) except for energy demand for tilapia, contradicting previous findings that farm-level energy use is a driver of environmental pressures. The main improvement potentials include improved by-product utilization and use of a larger proportion of plant-based feed ingredients. Together with further smaller improvement potential identified, this suggests that RASs may play a more important role in a future, environmentally sustainable food system.
This research aims to assess the sustainability of the most common earth-retaining walls (Gravity Walls and Cantilever Walls) in terms of environmental impacts, economic issues, and their combination. Gravity walls observed in this study consist of Gabion Wall, Crib Wall, and Rubble Masonry Wall, while Cantilever Walls include Reinforced Concrete Wall. Six different criteria were taken into account, including global warming potential, fossil depletion potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, human toxicity potential, and cost. To achieve the aim of this study, life cycle assessments, life cycle costs, and multi-criteria decision-making methods were implemented. The results showed that the most environmental-friendly option among all alternatives was the Gabion Wall, followed by the Rubble Masonry Wall. However, in terms of economic aspects, the Cantilever Concrete Wall was the best option, costing about 17% less than the Gabion Wall. On the other hand, the results of multi-criteria decision-making showed that the Gabion Wall was the most sustainable choice. This study addressed the research gap by carrying out a sustainability assessment of different retaining walls while considering cost and environmental impacts at the same time.
State of charge (SOC) is a crucial index used in the assessment of electric vehicle (EV) battery storage systems. Thus, SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries has been widely investigated because of their fast charging, long-life cycle, and high energy density characteristics. However, precise SOC assessment of lithium-ion batteries remains challenging because of their varying characteristics under different working environments. Machine learning techniques have been widely used to design an advanced SOC estimation method without the information of battery chemical reactions, battery models, internal properties, and additional filters. Here, the capacity of optimized machine learning techniques are presented toward enhanced SOC estimation in terms of learning capability, accuracy, generalization performance, and convergence speed. We validate the proposed method through lithium-ion battery experiments, EV drive cycles, temperature, noise, and aging effects. We show that the proposed method outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches in terms of accuracy, adaptability, and robustness under diverse operating conditions.
Introduction: Aedes albopictus is known for its aggressiveness towards human and recently expanded to more coun- tries outside the native regions. Thus, the demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus are important to determine the characteristics of this species mosquitoes in terms of the reproduction rates and dispersal distance. Materials and Methods: This study, was performed using a Shah Alam strain of Aedes albopictus originally collected in twenty district areas of the central zone of Shah Alam. This research applies field work-study with a cross-sectional design to investigate the demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus. The demographic evaluation of Aedes albopictus was conducted under the control environment in insectarium. Results: Investigation on the demographic parameters of Aedes albopictus clearly showed that there is a significance different observed in the total number of mosquito eggs produced in both high and low incidence rate IR areas (p=0.03). In contrast, other parameters showed insignificant value between high and low IR areas. Conclusion: The key to control the mosquito vectors population is by tracking the vector’s life cycle including its survival. Therefore, the outcome of this study may provide as a baseline to esti- mate the dengue outbreak in the current episystem.
Malaysia is considered a hyperendemic area for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) due to its favorable climate for the completion of the parasite life cycle. This study provides an updated prevalence data on D. immitis in owned dogs from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and compares the trends of D. immitis in Malaysia. In the period between December 2017 and June 2018, 3.85% (5/130) dog blood samples tested positive for the presence of D. immitis antigen. A majority of the tested dogs (122/130) were not on rigorous heartworm prevention. After collating and analyzing information from 10 historical studies (1970-2017), we identified a significant decline in prevalence of D. immitis antigen in Malaysia, after the year 2000. Historically, the prevalence of D. immits antigen in owned dogs was significantly lower than the prevalence seen in stray dogs in Malaysia. This study demonstrates that D. immitis remains active in Kuala Lumpur, implying that accurate compliance of heartworm prevention is essential in Malaysia.