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  1. Mohammed MA, Salmiaton A, Wan Azlina WA, Mohamad Amran MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2012 Apr;110:628-36.
    PMID: 22326334 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2012.01.056
    Empty fruit bunches (EFBs), a waste material from the palm oil industry, were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification. A high content of volatiles (>82%) increased the reactivity of EFBs, and more than 90% decomposed at 700°C; however, a high content of moisture (>50%) and oxygen (>45%) resulted in a low calorific value. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the higher the heating rate and the smaller the particle size, the higher the peak and final reaction temperatures. The least squares estimation for a first-order reaction model was used to study the degradation kinetics. The values of activation energy increased from 61.14 to 73.76 and from 40.06 to 47.99kJ/mol when the EFB particle size increased from 0.3 to 1.0mm for holocellulose and lignin degradation stages, respectively. The fuel characteristics of EFB are comparable to those of other biomasses and EFB can be considered a good candidate for gasification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  2. Shukor H, Al-Shorgani NK, Abdeshahian P, Hamid AA, Anuar N, Rahman NA, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2014 Oct;170:565-73.
    PMID: 25171212 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.07.055
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) was used for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. PKC was subjected to acid hydrolysis pretreatment and hydrolysates released were detoxified by XAD-4 resin. The effect of pH, temperature and inoculum size on butanol production was evaluated using an empirical model. Twenty ABE fermentations were run according to an experimental design. Experimental results revealed that XAD-4 resin removed 50% furfural and 77.42% hydroxymethyl furfural. The analysis of the empirical model showed that linear effect of inoculums size with quadratic effect of pH and inoculum size influenced butanol production at 99% probability level (P<0.01). The optimum conditions for butanol production were pH 6.28, temperature of 28°C and inoculum size of 15.9%. ABE fermentation was carried out under optimum conditions which 0.1g/L butanol was obtained. Butanol production was enhanced by diluting PKC hydrolysate up to 70% in which 3.59g/L butanol was produced.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  3. Fazilah A, Azemi MN, Karim AA, Norakma MN
    J Agric Food Chem, 2009 Feb 25;57(4):1527-31.
    PMID: 19166335 DOI: 10.1021/jf8028013
    Hemicelluloses from oil palm frond (OPF) were extracted using 3 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 4 h at 40 degrees C with stirring at 400 rpm to obtain hemicelluloses A and B. The total yield of the hemicellulose isolated from OPF was 33% (dry weight). Both hemicelluloses A and B were then subjected to hydrothermal treatment at 121 degrees C and 1.03 x 10(5) Pa for 10, 30, and 50 min. Physicochemical characterizations of hydrothermally treated hemicelluloses, such as Klason lignin content and reducing sugar content, were performed to study the effect of autohydrolysis processing on OPF-derived hemicelluloses. It was shown that Klason lignin content in hemicellulose A was higher than that in hemicellulose B and decreased after hydrothermal treatment. Hydrothermal treatment enhanced the solubility of hemicelluloses, which reflects their higher reducing sugar content. Monosaccharide analysis using HPLC showed that xylose was the predominant monosaccharide for both hemicelluloses A and B.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  4. Saavedra GM, Figueroa NE, Poblete LA, Cherian S, Figueroa CR
    Food Chem, 2016 Jan 1;190:448-53.
    PMID: 26212995 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.05.107
    Fragaria chiloensis fruit has a short postharvest life mainly due to its rapid softening. In order to improve its postharvest life, preharvest applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and chitosan were evaluated during postharvest storage at room temperature. The quality and chemical parameters, and protection against decay were evaluated at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h of storage from fruits of two subsequent picks (termed as first harvest and second harvest). In general, fruits treated with MeJA and chitosan maintained higher levels of fruit firmness, anthocyanin, and showed significant delays in decay incidence compared to control fruit. MeJA-treated fruits exhibited a greater lignin content and SSC/TA ratio, and delayed decay incidences. Instead, chitosan-treated fruits presented higher antioxidant capacity and total phenol content. In short, both the elicitors were able to increase the shelf life of fruits as evidenced by the increased levels of lignin and anthocyanin, especially of the second harvest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  5. Nolan JV, Liang JB, Abdullah N, Kudo H, Ismail H, Ho YW, et al.
    Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol., 1995 May;111(1):177-82.
    PMID: 7735907
    Voluntary food intake, digestibility and water turnover were determined in adult Malaysian lesser mouse-deer (Tragulus javanicus) given unlimited access to lundai foliage (Sapium baccatum). Daily dry matter (DM) intake was 42.4 g/kg metabolic live mass (M0.73) or 3.7% M. Digestible energy intake was 853 kJ/day (571 kJ metabolisable energy per M0.73), calculated to be used with 79% efficiency. Apparent digestibility (%) of organic matter was 83.8, crude fibre 63.7, acid detergent fibre 60.5, neutral detergent fibre 72.1 and crude protein 65.0. Urinary excretion of the purine derivative, allantoin, was 0.05 mg/g digestible DM intake suggesting rumen microbial yield efficiency may be lower than in other ruminant species. Total water intake was 182 ml/M0.82. The body-water content of the fed mouse-deer, from tritiated water dilution, was 77% M, consistent with a very lean carcass. Turnover of body water was 17% per day. The mouse-deer produced relatively dry, well-defined faecal pellets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  6. Pandiyan K, Tiwari R, Rana S, Arora A, Singh S, Saxena AK, et al.
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Jan;30(1):55-64.
    PMID: 23824667 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1422-1
    The potential of Parthenium sp. as a feedstock for enzymatic saccharification was investigated by using chemical and biological pretreatment methods. Mainly chemical pretreatments (acid and alkali) were compared with biological pretreatment with lignolytic fungi Marasmiellus palmivorus PK-27. Structural and chemical changes as well as crystallinity of cellulose were examined through scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infra red and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively after pretreatment. Total reducing sugar released during enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrates was also evaluated. Among the pretreatment methods, alkali (1% NaOH) treated substrate showed high recovery of acid perceptible polymerised lignin (7.53 ± 0.5 mg/g) and significantly higher amount of reducing sugar (513.1 ± 41.0 mg/gds) compared to uninoculated Parthenium (163.4 ± 21.2) after 48 h of hydrolysis. This is the first report of lignolytic enzyme production from M. palmivorus, prevalent in oil palm plantations in Malaysia and its application in biological delignification of Parthenium sp. Alkali (1% NaOH) treatment proves to be the suitable method of pretreatment for lignin recovery and enhanced yield of reducing sugar which may be used for bioethanol production from Parthenium sp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  7. Leng LY, Husni MH, Samsuri AW
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Nov;102(22):10759-62.
    PMID: 21958525 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.08.131
    This study was undertaken to compare the chemical properties and yields of pineapple leaf residue (PLR) char produced by field burning (CF) with that produced by a partial combustion of air-dried PLR at 340 °C for 3 h in a furnace (CL). Higher total C, lignin content, and yield from CL as well as the presence of aromatic compounds in the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the char produced from CL suggest that the CL process was better in sequestering C than was the CF process. Although the C/N ratio of char produced from CL was low indicating a high N content of the char, the C in the char produced from CL was dominated by lignin suggesting that the decomposition of char produced from CL would be slow. To sequester C by char application, the PLR should be combusted in a controlled process rather than by burning in the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  8. Goh CS, Lee KT, Bhatia S
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Oct;101(19):7362-7.
    PMID: 20471249 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.04.048
    This work presents the pretreatment of oil palm fronds (OPF) using hot compressed water (HCW) to enhance sugar recovery in enzymatic hydrolysis. A central, composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time and liquid-solid ratio on the pretreatment process. All variables were found to significantly affect the glucose yield. A quadratic polynomial equation was used to model glucose yield by multiple regression analysis, using response surface methodology (RSM). Using a 10 bar pressurized reactor, the optimum conditions for pretreatment of OPF were found at 178 degrees C, 11.1 min and a liquid-solid ratio of 9.6. The predicted glucose yield was 92.78 wt.% at the optimum conditions. Experimental verification of the optimum conditions gave a glucose yield in good agreement with the estimated value of the model.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
  9. Nayan N, van Erven G, Kabel MA, Sonnenberg AS, Hendriks WH, Cone JW
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Jun;99(8):4054-4062.
    PMID: 30737799 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9634
    BACKGROUND: White rot fungi have been used to improve the nutritive value of lignocellulose for ruminants. In feed analysis, the Van Soest method is widely used to determine the cell wall contents. To assess the reliability of this method (Method A) for determination of cell wall contents in fungal-treated wheat straw, we compared a combined monosaccharide analysis and pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) (Method B). Ruminal digestibility, measured as in vitro gas production (IVGP), was subsequently used to examine which method explains best the effect of fungal pretreatment on the digestibility of wheat straw.

    RESULTS: Both methods differed considerably in the mass recoveries of the individual cell wall components, which changed on how we assess their degradation characteristics. For example, Method B gave a higher degradation of lignin (61.9%), as compared to Method A (33.2%). Method A, however, showed a better correlation of IVGP with the ratio of lignin to total structural carbohydrates, as compared to Method B (Pearson's r of -0.84 versus -0.69). Nevertheless, Method B provides a more accurate quantification of lignin, reflecting its actual modification and degradation. With the information on the lignin structural features, Method B presents a substantial advantage in understanding the underlying mechanisms of lignin breakdown. Both methods, however, could not accurately quantify the cellulose contents - among others, due to interference of fungal biomass.

    CONCLUSION: Method A only accounts for the recalcitrant residue and therefore is more suitable for evaluating ruminal digestibility. Method B allows a more accurate quantification of cell wall, required to understand and better explains the actual modification of the cell wall. The suitability of both methods, therefore, depends on their intended purposes. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lignin/analysis
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