This research is focussed to quantify IGF1 by electroanalytical analysis on InterDigitated electrode surface and characterized by the microscopic observations. For the detection, antibody and aptamer were used to analyze the level of IGF1. The sandwich pattern (aptamer-IGF1-antibody) was designed on the chemically modified IDE surface and reached the limit of detection to 10 fM with 100 folds enhancement in the sensitivity. Different control experiments (absence of IGF1, binding with IGF2 and with non-complementary aptamer) were failed to show the current changes, discriminated the specific detection. A good detection strategy is to complement the currently following imaging systems for AAA.
Gold nanorods (Au NRs) are elongated nanoparticles with unique optical properties which depend on their shape anisometry. The Au NR-based longitudinal localized surface plasmon resonance (longitudinal LSPR) band is very sensitive to the surrounding local environment and upon the addition of target analytes, the interaction between the analytes and the surface of the Au NRs leads to a change in the longitudinal LSPR band. This makes it possible to devise Au NR probes with application potential to the detection of toxic metal ions with an improved limit of detection, response time, and selectivity for the fabrication of sensing devices. The effective surface modification of Au NRs helps in improving their selectivity and sensitivity toward the detection of toxic metal ions. In this review, we discuss different methods for the preparation of surface modified Au NRs for the detection of toxic metal ions based on the LSPR band of the Au NRs and the types of interactions between the surface of Au NRs and metal ions. We summarize the work that has been done on Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR detection of environmentally toxic metal ions, sensing mechanisms, and the current progress in various modified Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR sensors for toxic metal ions. Finally, we discuss the applications of Au NR-based longitudinal LSPR sensors to real sample analysis and some of the future challenges facing longitudinal LSPR-based sensors for the detection of toxic metal ions toward commercial devices.
Gallocynin immobilized in chitosan membrane has been studied as a sensor element of an optical sensor for lead using a flowing system. By using this set up, lead in solution has been determined in the concentration range from 1.0x10(-1) to 1.0x10(3) ppm with a detection limit of 0.075 ppm. The standard deviation of the method for the repeatability of lead detection at a concentration of 100 ppm was found to be 2.10%. The response of the sensor was reproducible and can be regenerated by using acidified saturated KNO(3) solution. Interference from foreign ions was also studied at 1:1 mole ratio of Pb(II):foreign ions.
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) have been synthesized via the hydrothermal process. The NRs were grown over a conductive glass substrate. A non-enzymatic electrochemical sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), based on the prepared ZnO NRs, was examined through the use of current-voltage measurements. The measured currents, as a function of H₂O₂ concentrations ranging from 10 μM to 700 μM, revealed two distinct behaviours and good performance, with a lower detection limit (LOD) of 42 μM for the low range of H₂O₂ concentrations (first region), and a LOD of 143.5 μM for the higher range of H₂O₂ concentrations (second region). The prepared ZnO NRs show excellent electrocatalytic activity. This enables a measurable and stable output current. The results were correlated with the oxidation process of the H₂O₂ and revealed a good performance for the ZnO NR non-enzymatic H₂O₂ sensor.
This study correlated and quantified the expression of microRNA-155 with breast cancer to determine breast cancer progression. The target microRNA-155 sequence was identified by complementation on a capture-probe sequence-immobilized interdigitated dual electrode surface. The sensitivity was found to be 1 fM, and the limit of detection fell between 1 and 10 fM. The specific sequence selectivity with single mismatches, triple mismatches, and noncomplementary bases failed to complement the capture-probe sequence. The obtained results demonstrate the selective determination of the microRNA-155 sequence and can help to diagnose breast cancer.
A simple and sensitive preconcentration strategy using sequential electrokinetic and hydrodynamic injection modes in micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode array detection was developed and applied for the separation and determination of anticancer agent, 5-fluorouracil and its metabolite, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, in human plasma. Sequential injection modes with increased analyte loading capacity using the anionic pseudo-stationary phase facilitated collection of the dispersed neutral and charged analytes into narrow zones and improved sensitivity. Several important parameters affecting sample enrichment performance were evaluated and optimized in this study. Under the optimized experimental conditions, 614- and 643-fold and 782- and 803-fold sensitivity improvement were obtained for 5-fluorouracil and its metabolite when compared with normal hydrodynamic and electrokinetic injection, respectively. The method has good linearity (1-1,000 ng/ml) with acceptable coefficient of determination (r2 > 0.993), low limits of detection (0.11-0.14 ng/ml) and satisfactory analyte relative recovery (97.4-99.7%) with relative standard deviations of 4.6-9.3% (n = 6). Validation results as well as the application to analysis of human plasma samples from cancer patients demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method to clinical studies.
An effective electrode was developed based on electromembrane extraction (EME) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) for simultaneous separation, pre-concentration and determination of lead (II) (Pb(II)) ions in complex aqueous samples. Electrochemically reduced graphene oxide-graphite reinforced carbon (ErGO-GRC) was utilized in conjunction with the SWV. Pb(II) ions were extracted from an aqueous sample solution into an acidic acceptor phase (1M HCl) in the lumen of the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane bag by the application of voltage of maximum 6 V across the supported liquid membrane (SLM), consisting of organic solvent and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA). The parameters affecting the EME were optimized for Pb(II) ions. The optimum EME conditions were found to be 20% D2EHPA in 1-octanol impregnated in the wall of PVDF membrane (PVDF17) as the SLM, extraction time of 20 min, pH of sample solution of 8 and a voltage of 5 V. The PVDF-ErGO-GRC electrode system attained enrichment factors of 40 times and 80% of extraction with relative standard deviations (n=5) of 8.3%. Good linearity ranging from 0.25 to 2 nM with coefficients correlation of 0.999 was obtained. The Pb(II) ions detection limit of PVDF-ErGO-GRC electrode was found to be 0.09 nM. The newly developed single setup electrochemical system was applied to complex aqueous samples such as tap, river and sea water to evaluate the feasibility of the method for applications.
Vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) can be determined by using differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry technique (DPCSV). Cupferron (ammonium N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine) was used as ligand to form complex compounds with vanadium ions in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) solution. At concentration lower than 1.0×10(-6) M, both V(IV) and V(V) cupferron complexes showed a single cathodic peak at -0.576 V in BRB of pH 4; thus V(IV) and V(V) ions cannot be differentiated at low concentration. However, the ionic species of vanadium can be differentiated at high concentration in the presence of cupferron. Parameters including pH of BRB solution, initial potential and accumulation potential were optimized. Under the optimized parameters, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.09 nM, and the peak current was linear in the concentration range 0.01-0.9 µM total vanadium ions. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions was carried out at higher concentration in the sample using calibration plot method. At higher concentration range of 10-60 µM V(IV) and V(V) ions were determined with LOD of 1.2 and 1.1 µM, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to 10,00,000 fold diluted Benfield sample and 0.6227 M total vanadium ions were determined. The determination of V(IV) and V(V) ions were also successfully carried out in artificial sample as well as Benfield sample (dilution factor, 10,000). The concentration of V(IV) and V(V) ions was 22.52 µM and 38.91 µM, respectively, giving total vanadium concentration of 0.6143 M in Benfield sample.
A double SAW resonator system was developed as a novel method for gas sensing applications. The proposed system was investigated for hydrogen sensing. Commercial Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) resonators with resonance frequencies of 433.92 MHz and 433.42 MHz were employed in the double SAW resonator system configuration. The advantages of using this configuration include its ability for remote measurements, and insensitivity to vibrations and other external disturbances. The sensitive layer is composed of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polyaniline nanofibers which were deposited on pre-patterned platinum metal electrodes fabricated on a piezoelectric substrate. This was mounted into the DSAWR circuit and connected in parallel. The sensor response was measured as the difference between the resonance frequencies of the SAW resonators, which is a measure of the gas concentration. The sensor showed good response towards hydrogen with a minimum detection limit of 1%.
An optical sensor for Hg(II) monitoring using a complex of zinc dithizonate immobilised on XAD 7 which is based on reflectance spectrophotometry has been developed in this study. Measurements were made using a kinetic approach whereby the reflectance signal is measured at a fixed time of 5 min. The sensor could be regenerated using a saturated solution of KCl in 1 M sulphuric acid. The sensor was found to have an optimum response at pH 3.0 with respective measurement repeatability and probe-to-probe reproducibility of 1.53% and 5.26%. A linear response was observed in the Hg(II) concentration range of 0.0-180.0 ppm with a calculated limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 ppm. The results obtained for aqueous Hg(II) determination using this probe were found to be comparable with the well-established method of atomic absorption spectrometry.
This paper describes the preparation of and experimentation undertaken by heterogeneous chitosan membrane as ion selective electrode for glutamate ion. The linearity response was obtained in the range of 1.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-1)M with a detection limit of 1.0x10(-6)M. The performance of the electrode was found in the pH range of 4.0-8.0 at temperature 25+/-3 degrees C. The response time was at 5-35s and was useful for a period of more than 4 months. The selectivity values towards some anions indicates good selectivity over a number of interfering anions. No significant improvement of membrane performance over additional of plasticizers such as 2-NPOE, BEHA and DOPP. The electrodes gave sufficient Nernstian responses with the exception of membrane with 2-NPOE.
In this study, a sensitive and cost-effective electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ErGO) on graphite reinforced carbon (GRC) was developed for the detection of lead (Pb(II)) ions present in the real-life samples. A film of graphene oxide (GO) was drop-casted on GRC and their electrochemical properties were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), amperometry and square wave voltammetry (SWV). Factors influencing the detection of Pb(II) ions, such as grades of GRC, constant applied cathodic potential (CACP), concentration of hydrochloric acid and drop-casting drying time were optimised. GO is irreversibly reduced in the range of -0.7 V to -1.6 V vs Ag/AgCl (3 M) in acidic condition. The results showed that the reduction behaviour of GO contributed to the high sensitivity of Pb(II) ions detection even at nanomolar level. The ErGO-GRC showed the detection limit of 0.5 nM and linear range of 3-15 nM in HCl (1 M). The developed electrode has potential to be a good candidate for the determination of Pb(II) ions in different aqueous system. The proposed method gives a good recovery rate of Pb(II) ions in real-life water samples such as tap water and river water.
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have been extensively explored in nucleic acid testing (NAT) for medical diagnostics, food safety analysis and environmental monitoring. However, the amount of target nucleic acid in a raw sample is usually too low to be directly detected by LFAs, necessitating the process of amplification. Even though cost-effective paper-based amplification techniques have been introduced, they have always been separately performed from LFAs, hence increasing the risk of reagent loss and cross-contaminations. To date, integrating paper-based nucleic acid amplification into colorimetric LFA in a simple, portable and cost-effective manner has not been introduced. Herein, we developed an integrated LFA with the aid of a specially designed handheld battery-powered system for effective amplification and detection of targets in resource-poor settings. Interestingly, using the integrated paper-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-LFA, we successfully performed highly sensitive and specific target detection, achieving a detection limit of as low as 3 × 10(3) copies of target DNA, which is comparable to the conventional tube-based LAMP-LFA in an unintegrated format. The device may serve in conjunction with a simple paper-based sample preparation to create a fully integrated paper-based sample-to-answer diagnostic device for point-of-care testing (POCT) in the near future.
A Common Primer Multiplex PCR (CP-M-PCR) was developed to detect meat origin of four groups of animal (pig, ruminant, avian and rabbit). This method demonstrated higher sensitivity and efficiency than the conventional multiplex PCR. In this approach, a common forward primer was designed in the 5' end of a homologous region of mitochondrial NADH dehyrogenase subunit 4 (Nad 4) gene sequences of all the animal groups. Specific adapter reverse primers were designed by adding an adapter sequence at the 5' end. The same adapter sequence was used as the common adapter reverse primer. The primers generated specific fragments of 267, 370, 504, and 548 bp lengths for pig, ruminant, avian and rabbit meats, respectively. The use of adapter sequence at the 5' end of the common adapter reverse primers increased the efficiency of the amplification and the application of a common forward primer solved the complexity in multiplex PCR system. Bands of specific amplification can be detected in the PCR assays containing as low as 10(-6) μM of adapter reverse primer. This result indicated that the sensitivity was tremendously increased as compared to the conventional multiplex PCR (10(-3) μM). CP-M-PCR detection limit of the DNA samples was 0.1 ng for the four groups of meats. CP-M-PCR has greatly improved the sensitivity and efficiency of the PCR system for a more reliable and accurate outcome than conventional multiplex PCR system.
Copper ion recognition and DNA interaction of a newly synthesized fluorescent Schiff base (HPyETSC) were investigated using UV-vis and fluorescent spectroscopy. Examination using these two techniques revealed that the detection of copper by HPyETSC is highly sensitive and selective, with a detection limit of 0.39 μm and the mode of interaction between HPyETSC and DNA is electrostatic, with a binding constant of 8.97×10(4) M(-1). Furthermore, gel electrophoresis studies showed that HPyETSC exhibited nuclease activity through oxidative pathway.
In this work, independent radial diffusion at arrayed nanointerfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (nanoITIES) was achieved. The arrays were formed at nanopores fabricated by focused ion beam milling of silicon nitride (SiN) membranes, enabling the reproducible and systematic design of five arrays with different ratios of pore center-to-center distance (rc) to pore radius (ra). Voltammetry across water-1,6-dichlorohexane nanoITIES formed at these arrays was examined by the interfacial transfer of tetrapropylammonium ions. The diffusion-limited ion-transfer current increased with the ratio rc/ra, reaching a plateau for rc/ra ≥ 56, which was equivalent to the theoretical current for radial diffusion to an array of independent nanoITIES. As a result, mass transport to the nanoITIES arrays was greatly enhanced due to the decreased overlap of diffusion zones at adjacent nanoITIES, allowing each interface in the array to behave independently. When the rc/ra ratio increased from 13 to 56, the analytical performance parameters of sensitivity and limit of detection were improved from 0.50 (±0.02) A M(-1) to 0.76 (±0.02) A M(-1) and from 0.101 (±0.003) μM to 0.072 (±0.002) μM, respectively. These results provide an experimental basis for the design of arrayed nanointerfaces for electrochemical sensing.
Chrome azurol S immobilised on XAD-2 has been used in this study as a reagent phase for the development of an optical fibre Al(III) sensor. Using a kinetic approach, this sensor was able to give a linear response in the Al(III) concentration range of 1.3 x 10(-5)-2.0 x 10(-4) M with a limit of detection of 1.0 x 10(-4) M. The optimum responses were obtained at pH 6.0 and when the solution was stirred. The sensor response was found to have a repeatability and reproducibility of 1.6% and 5.8%, respectively. The results obtained for Al(III) determination in aqueous sample were in good agreement with those obtained using graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry.
Fried and baked banana-based snacks are popular in South East Asia and banana chip is popular in
other countries, such as India, Indonesia, China, African countries, etc; these snacks may contain acrylamide in concentration which may be of concern due to its toxicity. This study was carried out to determine acrylamide concentration in popular banana based snacks in Malaysia using a modified method of gas chromatographymass spectrometry. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the modified method are 5 and 15 μg/kg, respectively. Acrylamide concentration of five types of Malaysian popular fried and baked banana based snacks from different local markets ranged from 74.0 to 7468.8 μg/ kg for banana fritter (pisang goreng), 28.9 to 243.7μg/kg for banana chips (kerepek pisang), 160.7 to 500.4 μg/kg for sweet banana chips (kerepek pisang manis), not detected to 154.4 μg/kg for banana cake (kek pisang) and 31.7 to 609.1 μg/kg for banana balls (cekodok pisang). Analysis of variance showed a significant difference (P
A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2(4-1) design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands.
Hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) techniques coupled to chromatographic systems have been widely used for extraction and determination of diverse compounds. HF-LPME was able to provide better results in precision, accuracy, selectivity and enrichment factor, in addition to reduction of matrix effect and carry over. It is applicable within a wide pH range and compatible with most analytical instruments which enable the utilization of HF-LPME in a wide variety of applications. This review focused on the modified HF-LPME techniques, efficiency, comparison to other LPME methods and applications.