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  1. Ng TK, Chong YH
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Mar;30(3):169-74.
    PMID: 169458
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  2. Bee Yean O, Zoriah A
    J Tradit Chin Med, 2019 02;39(1):1-14.
    PMID: 32186018
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate current evidence on the efficacy and safety of Cordyceps sinensis (cordyceps) or its fermented products used as an adjunctive treatment in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Database were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials up to March 2016. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, assessed the methodological quality and rated the quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.

    RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 655 participants were included. Evidence of low to moderate-quality showed that cordyceps plus conventional treatment compared to conventional treatment alone significantly improved C-reactive protein [standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.00 to -0.22], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [weighted mean difference (WMD) -3.44 mg/L; 95% CI -3.89 to -2.99], serum albumin (WMD 3.07 g/L; 95% CI 1.59 to 4.55), malondialdehyde (WMD -1.95 nmol/L; 95% CI -2.24 to -1.66), and hemoglobin (WMD 9.56 g/L; 95% CI 3.65 to 15.47) levels. However, there was no significant improvement for serum creatinine and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Overall, most trials either did not monitor adverse events or poorly documented them.

    CONCLUSION: Given the small number of trials included, the unclear methodological quality of the included trials, and the high heterogeneity in pooled analyses, the evidence obtained in this review is insufficient to recommend the use of cordyceps as adjunctive treatment in hemodialysis patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  3. Thambiah CS, Mohamed Pesri NA, Mazalan N, Samsudin IN, Mohamad Ismuddin S, Appannah G, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Aug;42(2):215-225.
    PMID: 32860374
    INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidaemia is a recognised conventional risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, even when traditional lipid parameters are normal, CVD risk can exist. Small dense lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (sdLDL) has appeared as a significant risk marker for CVD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of atherogenic lipoprotein Pattern B in the Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.

    RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was significantly higher in women (p=0.008). Significant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  4. Ismail NM, Abdul Ghafar N, Jaarin K, Khine JH, Top GM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2000;51 Suppl:S79-94.
    PMID: 11271860
    The present study aims to examine the effects of a palm-oil-derived vitamin E mixture containing tocotrienol (approximately 70%) and tocopherol (approximately 30%) on plasma lipids and on the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits (2.2-2.8 kg) were divided into three groups; group 1 (control) was fed a normal diet, group 2 (AT) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet and group 3 (PV) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet with oral palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg body weight) given daily for 10 weeks. There were no differences in the total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels between the AT and PV groups. The PV group had a significantly higher concentrations of HDL-c and a lower TC/HDL-c ratio compared to the AT group (P < 0.003). The aortic tissue content of cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesions were comparable in both the AT and PV groups. However, the PV group had a lower content of plasma and aortic tissue malondialdehyde (P < 0.005). Our findings suggest that despite a highly atherogenic diet, palm vitamin E improved some important plasma lipid parameters, reduced lipid peroxidation but did not have an effect on the atherosclerotic plaque formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  5. Yap SC, Choo YM, Hew NF, Yap SF, Khor HT, Ong AS, et al.
    Lipids, 1995 Dec;30(12):1145-50.
    PMID: 8614305
    The oxidative susceptibilities of low density lipoproteins (LDL) isolated from rabbits fed high-fat atherogenic diets containing coconut, palm, or soybean oil were investigated. New Zealand white rabbits were fed atherogenic semisynthetic diets containing 0.5% cholesterol and either (i) 13% coconut oil and 2% corn oil (CNO), (ii) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein (RBDPO), (iii) 15% crude palm olein (CPO), (iv) 15% soybean oil (SO), or (v) 15% refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein without cholesterol supplementation [RBDPO(wc)], for a period of twelve weeks. Total fatty acid compositions of the plasma and LDL were found to be modulated (but not too drastically) by the nature of the dietary fats. Cholesterol supplementation significantly increased the plasma level of vitamin E and effectively altered the plasma composition of long-chain fatty acids in favor of increasing oleic acid. Oxidative susceptibilities of LDL samples were determined by Cu2(+)-catalyzed oxidation which provide the lag times and lag-phase slopes. The plasma LDL from all palm oil diets [RBDPO, CPO, and RBDPO(wc)] were shown to be equally resistant to the oxidation, and the LDL from SO-fed rabbits were most susceptible, followed by the LDL from the CNO-fed rabbits. These results reflect a relationship between the oxidative susceptibility of LDL due to a combination of the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood*
  6. Ismail NM, Jaarin K, Vasudevan SK, Hashim S
    Pharmacol. Toxicol., 1995 Jul;77(1):10-5.
    PMID: 8532606
    Nicardipine has been shown to have an anti-atherogenic effect in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Current evidence suggests that lipid peroxidation plays an important role in atherogenesis. This study examines the effect of nicardipine on lipid peroxidation in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet, 8 of these rabbits given nicardipine 0.5 mg/kg twice daily intramuscularly for ten weeks while the remaining untreated 6 were controls. After ten weeks, serum malondialdehyde in the control group was significantly higher compared to their baseline levels (P < 0.05). However, there was no increase in serum malondialdehyde in the nicardipine group after 10 weeks. The area of Sudan IV positive intimal lesions (atherosclerotic plaques) were significantly decreased (P < 0.01) in the treated group compared to the control group. The aortic tissue content of cholesterol and diene conjugates were also decreased in the nicardipine group (P < 0.01). These findings suggest a possible link between nicardipine and lipid peroxidation in mediating its antiatherogenic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  7. Chong YH, Khoo KL
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 1975 Nov 15;65(1):143-8.
    PMID: 172262 DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(75)90346-0
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood*
  8. Leong Bin Abdullah MFI, Tan KL, Mohd Isa S, Yusoff NS, Chear NJY, Singh D
    PLoS One, 2020;15(6):e0234639.
    PMID: 32525924 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234639
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa Korth., is a tropical plant that has been reported to exhibit opioid-like effects. Although opioids have been demonstrated to alter the lipid profile of regular users, data on the lipid-altering effects of kratom are scarce. This study aimed to compare the fasting lipid profile of regular kratom users to that of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. It also determined the association between various characteristics of kratom users and the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels of regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 200 participants (n = 100 kratom users and n = 100 healthy subjects who do not use kratom) were recruited for this analytical cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic status, kratom use characteristics, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), fasting serum lipid profile, and liver function were collected from all participants.

    RESULTS: The liver parameters of the study participants were within normal range. The serum total cholesterol and LDL of kratom users were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. There were no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and HDL levels. However, higher average daily frequency of kratom use and increasing age were associated with increased serum total cholesterol among kratom users. Other kratom use characteristics such as age of first kratom intake, duration of kratom use, and quantity of daily kratom intake were not associated with increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest regular kratom consumption was not linked to elevated serum lipids, except when there is a higher frequency of daily kratom intake. However, the study was limited by the small sample size, and hence a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is warranted to confirm the findings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  9. Al-Khateeb A, Zahri MK, Mohamed MS, Sasongko TH, Ibrahim S, Yusof Z, et al.
    BMC Med. Genet., 2011;12:40.
    PMID: 21418584 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-12-40
    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown.We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  10. Hussin M, Hamid AA, Mohamad S, Saari N, Bakar F, Dek SP
    J Food Sci, 2009 Mar;74(2):H72-8.
    PMID: 19323754 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01045.x
    A study was carried out to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica leaf on lipid metabolism of oxidative stress rats. The rats were fed 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with either 0.3% (w/w) C. asiatica extract, 5%C. asiatica powder (w/w), or 0.3% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol for 25 wk. Results of the study showed that C. asiatica powder significantly (P < 0.05) lowered serum low-density lipoprotein compared to that of control rats (rats fed H(2)O(2) only). At the end of the study C. asiatica-fed rats were also found to have significantly (P < 0.05) higher high-density lipoprotein and lower triglyceride level compared to rats fed only normal diet. However, cholesterol level of rats fed both C. asiatica extract and powder was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to that of control rats. It was interesting to note that consumption of C. asiatica significantly decreased body and liver weights of the rats. Histological examinations revealed no obvious changes in all rats studied. Quantitative analysis of C. asiatica leaf revealed high concentration of total phenolic compounds, in particular, catechin, quercetin, and rutin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  11. Zulkhairi A, Zaiton Z, Jamaluddin M, Sharida F, Mohd TH, Hasnah B, et al.
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2008 Dec;62(10):716-22.
    PMID: 18538528 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2006.12.003
    There is accumulating data demonstrated hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a protective activity of alpha-lipoic acid; a metabolic antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic-induced animals was investigated. Eighteen adult male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit were segregated into three groups labelled as group K, AT and ALA (n=6). While group K was fed with normal chow and acted as a control, the rest fed with 100 g/head/day with 1% high cholesterol diet to induce hypercholesterolemia. 4.2 mg/body weight of alpha lipoic acid was supplemented daily to the ALA group. Drinking water was given ad-libitum. The study was designed for 10 weeks. Blood sampling was taken from the ear lobe vein at the beginning of the study, week 5 and week 10 and plasma was prepared for lipid profile estimation and microsomal lipid peroxidation index indicated with malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and the aortas were excised for intimal lesion analysis. The results showed a significant reduction of lipid peroxidation index indicated with low MDA level (p<0.05) in ALA group compared to that of the AT group. The blood total cholesterol (TCHOL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were found to be significantly low in ALA group compared to that of the AT group (p<0.05). Histomorphometric intimal lesion analysis of the aorta showing less of atheromatous plaque formation in alpha lipoic acid supplemented group (p<0.05) compared to that of AT group. These findings suggested that apart from its antioxidant activity, alpha lipoic acid may also posses a lipid lowering effect indicated with low plasma TCHOL and LDL levels and reduced the athero-lesion formation in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  12. Beh BK, Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Ky H, Boo SY, Chua JYH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 27;7(1):6664.
    PMID: 28751642 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-06235-7
    Recently, food-based bioactive ingredients, such as vinegar, have been proposed as a potential solution to overcome the global obesity epidemic. Although acetic acid has been identified as the main component in vinegar that contributes to its anti-obesity effect, reports have shown that vinegar produced from different starting materials possess different degrees of bioactivity. This study was performed to compare the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet. In this work, mice were fed a high-fat diet for 33 weeks. At the start of week 24, obese mice were orally fed synthetic acetic acid vinegar or Nipa vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg BW) until the end of week 33. Mice fed a standard pellet diet served as a control. Although both synthetic acetic acid vinegar and Nipa vinegar effectively reduced food intake and body weight, a high dose of Nipa vinegar more effectively reduced lipid deposition, improved the serum lipid profile, increased adipokine expression and suppressed inflammation in the obese mice. Thus, a high dose of Nipa vinegar may potentially alleviate obesity by altering the lipid metabolism, inflammation and gut microbe composition in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood*
  13. Rasool AH, Yuen KH, Yusoff K, Wong AR, Rahman AR
    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2006 Dec;52(6):473-8.
    PMID: 17330512
    Tocotrienols are a class of vitamin E reported to be potent antioxidants, besides having the ability to inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme. This study assessed the effects of 3 doses of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E (TRE) on plasma tocotrienol isomer concentration, arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), serum total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in healthy males.

    METHODOLOGY: This randomised, blinded end-point, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a parallel design involved 36 healthy male subjects who took either an oral placebo or TRE at doses of 80, 160 or 320 mg daily for 2 mo. Baseline and end-of-treatment measurements of vitamin E concentration, arterial compliance [assessed by aortic femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI)], ASBP, plasma TAS, serum TC and LDL-C were taken.

    RESULTS: Baseline tocotrienol isomer concentrations were low and not detectable in some subjects. Upon supplementation, all TRE-treated groups showed significant difference from placebo for their change in alpha, gamma and delta tocotrienol concentrations from baseline to end of treatment. There was a linear dose and blood level relationship for all the isomers. There was no significant difference between groups for their change in PWV, AI, plasma TAS, ASBP, TC or LDL-C from baseline to end of treatment. Groups 160 mg (p = 0.024) and 320 mg (p = 0.049) showed significant reductions in their ASBP. Group 320 mg showed a significant 9.2% improvement in TAS.

    CONCLUSION: TRE at doses up to 320 mg daily were well tolerated. Treatment significantly increased alpha, delta, and gamma tocotrienol concentrations but did not significantly affect arterial compliance, plasma TAS, serum TC or LDL-C levels in normal subjects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  14. Carvajal-Zarrabal O, Nolasco-Hipolito C, Aguilar-Uscanga MG, Melo-Santiesteban G, Hayward-Jones PM, Barradas-Dermitz DM
    Dis Markers, 2014;2014:386425.
    PMID: 24719499 DOI: 10.1155/2014/386425
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  15. Ismail M, Al-Naqeep G, Chan KW
    Free Radic. Biol. Med., 2010 Mar 01;48(5):664-72.
    PMID: 20005291 DOI: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.12.002
    The antioxidant activities of the thymoquinone-rich fraction (TQRF) extracted from Nigella sativa and its bioactive compound, thymoquinone (TQ), in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were investigated. Rats were fed a semipurified diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) cholesterol and were treated with TQRF and TQ at dosages ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 g/kg and 20 to 100 mg/kg body wt, respectively, for 8 weeks. The hydroxyl radical (OH(.))-scavenging activity of plasma samples collected from experimental rats was measured by electron spin resonance. The GenomeLab Genetic Analysis System was used to study the molecular mechanism that mediates the antioxidative properties of TQRF and TQ. Plasma total cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats. Feeding rats a 1% cholesterol diet for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity, as measured by the capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals. However, rats treated with TQRF and TQ at various doses showed significant inhibitory activity toward the formation of OH(.) compared to untreated rats. Upon examination of liver RNA expression levels, treatment with TQRF and TQ caused the up-regulation of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX) genes compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In support of this, liver antioxidant enzyme levels, including SOD1 and GPX, were also apparently increased in the TQRF- and TQ-treated rats compared to untreated rats (P<0.05). In conclusion, TQRF and TQ effectively improved the plasma and liver antioxidant capacity and enhanced the expression of liver antioxidant genes of hypercholesterolemic rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  16. Rahman T, Hamzan NS, Mokhsin A, Rahmat R, Ibrahim ZO, Razali R, et al.
    Lipids Health Dis, 2017 Apr 24;16(1):81.
    PMID: 28438163 DOI: 10.1186/s12944-017-0470-1
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) leads to premature coronary artery diseases (CAD) which pathophysiologically can be measured by inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress status. However, the status of these biomarkers among related unaffected relatives of FH cases and whether FH is an independent predictor of these biomarkers have not been well established. Thus, this study aims to (1) compare the biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation and oxidative stress between patients with FH, their related unaffected relatives (RUC) and normolipaemic subjects (NC) (2)determine whether FH is an independent predictor of these biomarkers.

    METHODS: One hundred thirty-one FH patients, 68 RUC and 214 matched NC were recruited. Fasting lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP), endothelial activation (sICAM-1 and E-selectin) and oxidative stress [oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and F2-isoprostanes (ISP)] were analyzed and independent predictor was determined using binary logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: hsCRP was higher in FH and RUC compared to NC (mean ± SD = 1.53 ± 1.24 mg/L and mean ± SD = 2.54 ± 2.30 vs 1.10 ± 0.89 mg/L, p LDL, MDA and ISP) were elevated in FH compared to NC [mean ± SD = (48.2 ± 26.8 vs 27.3 ± 13.2 mU/L, p  0.05). FH was an independent predictor for sICAM-1 (p = 0.007), ox-LDL (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  17. Dehghan F, Soori R, Gholami K, Abolmaesoomi M, Yusof A, Muniandy S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 12 05;6:37819.
    PMID: 27917862 DOI: 10.1038/srep37819
    The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers to purslane seed consumption and aerobic training in women with T2D. 196 women with T2D were assigned into; (1) placebo (PL), (2) aerobic training+placebo (AT + PL), 3) purslane seeds (PS), aerobic training+purslane seeds (AT + PS). The training program and purslane seeds consumption (2.5 g lunch and 5 g dinner) were carried out for 16 weeks. The components of purslane seed were identified and quantified by GC-MS. Blood samples were withdrawn via venipuncture to examine blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), creatinine, urea, uric acid, NF-κB, GLP1, GLP1R, TIMP-1, MMP2, MMP9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS expressions. Blood glucose, LDL, cholesterol, TG, creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels in the (P), (AT), and (AT + PS) groups were significantly decreased compared to the pre-experimental levels or the placebo group, while HDL, significantly increased. Furthermore, the protein and mRNA levels of NF-κB, TIMP-1, MMP2 &9, CRP, CST3, and CTSS in the (P), (AT), (AT + PS) significantly decreased compared to pre-experimental or the placebo group, while level of GLP1 and GLP1-R increased drastically. Findings suggest that purslane seed consumption alongside exercising could improve atherosclerosis plaque biomarkers through synergistically mechanisms in T2D.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  18. Chan KW, Ismail M, Mohd Esa N, Mohamed Alitheen NB, Imam MU, Ooi J, et al.
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2018;2018:6742571.
    PMID: 29849908 DOI: 10.1155/2018/6742571
    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
  19. Mustaffa N, Ibrahim S, Abdullah WZ, Yusof Z
    Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 2011 Sep;22(6):512-20.
    PMID: 21537159 DOI: 10.1097/MBC.0b013e32834740ba
    Rosiglitazone is an oral hypoglycaemic agent of the thiazolidinedione group. This study aimed to assess changes in the diabetic prothrombotic state via plasminogen activity and changes in surrogate markers of atherosclerotic burden via ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) measurements after rosiglitazone was added to a pre-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment regime. A nonblinded interventional study was designed. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled. Rosiglitazone-naïve patients were prescribed oral rosiglitazone 4 mg daily for 10 weeks. ABPI, plasminogen activity, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting lipid profile were measured pretreatment and post-treatment. Forty-eight patients completed the study. At the end of this study, mean plasminogen activity improvement was nearly 16% (P<0.05), mean ABPI improvement was 0.01 (P=0.439), mean HbA1c reduction was 0.51% (P<0.05), mean total cholesterol (TC) increase was 0.36 mmol/l (P<0.05), mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increase was 0.15 mmol/l (P<0.05) and mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.19 mmol/l (P=0.098). Rosiglitazone significantly improved plasminogen activity. There was also significant HbA1c reduction, and rise in both TC and HDL-C. Thus, rosiglitazone potentially improves the atherosclerotic burden and prothrombotic state. In future, more studies are needed to confirm the relationship between rosiglitazone, fibrinolytic system and atheromatous reduction in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lipoproteins, LDL/blood
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