METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Database were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials up to March 2016. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, assessed the methodological quality and rated the quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.
RESULTS: Twelve studies involving 655 participants were included. Evidence of low to moderate-quality showed that cordyceps plus conventional treatment compared to conventional treatment alone significantly improved C-reactive protein [standardized mean difference (SMD) －0.61; 95% confidence intervals (CI) －1.00 to －0.22], high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [weighted mean difference (WMD) －3.44 mg/L; 95% CI －3.89 to －2.99], serum albumin (WMD 3.07 g/L; 95% CI 1.59 to 4.55), malondialdehyde (WMD －1.95 nmol/L; 95% CI －2.24 to －1.66), and hemoglobin (WMD 9.56 g/L; 95% CI 3.65 to 15.47) levels. However, there was no significant improvement for serum creatinine and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Overall, most trials either did not monitor adverse events or poorly documented them.
CONCLUSION: Given the small number of trials included, the unclear methodological quality of the included trials, and the high heterogeneity in pooled analyses, the evidence obtained in this review is insufficient to recommend the use of cordyceps as adjunctive treatment in hemodialysis patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 subjects aged 30 years and above who attended a health screening in a Malaysian tertiary institution. Sociodemographics, clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters (lipids, glucose, and sdLDL) were obtained. Lipoprotein subfraction was analysed using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.
RESULTS: Malays and females made up the majority of subjects and the median age was 37 years. Normolipidaemic Pattern B was signiﬁcantly higher in women (p=0.008). Signiﬁcant independent predictors of Pattern B were gender (p=0.02), race (p=0.01), body mass index (BMI) [p=0.02] and lipid status (p=0.01). Triglyceride was the only independent predictor of sdLDL (p=0.001).
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Pattern B of 33% in this study was comparatively high, of which 6.7% were normolipidaemic. Chinese males with dyslipidaemia and increased BMI independently predicted Pattern B. Differences in triglyceride levels alone among these ethnic groups do not fully explain the differences in the prevalence of Pattern B although it was the only lipid parameter to independently predict sdLDL. Individuals with atherogenic normolipidaemia are at greater risk for a CVD event as they are not included in the protective measures of primary CVD prevention.
METHODS: A total of 200 participants (n = 100 kratom users and n = 100 healthy subjects who do not use kratom) were recruited for this analytical cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic status, kratom use characteristics, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), fasting serum lipid profile, and liver function were collected from all participants.
RESULTS: The liver parameters of the study participants were within normal range. The serum total cholesterol and LDL of kratom users were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. There were no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and HDL levels. However, higher average daily frequency of kratom use and increasing age were associated with increased serum total cholesterol among kratom users. Other kratom use characteristics such as age of first kratom intake, duration of kratom use, and quantity of daily kratom intake were not associated with increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest regular kratom consumption was not linked to elevated serum lipids, except when there is a higher frequency of daily kratom intake. However, the study was limited by the small sample size, and hence a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is warranted to confirm the findings.
METHODOLOGY: This randomised, blinded end-point, placebo-controlled clinical trial with a parallel design involved 36 healthy male subjects who took either an oral placebo or TRE at doses of 80, 160 or 320 mg daily for 2 mo. Baseline and end-of-treatment measurements of vitamin E concentration, arterial compliance [assessed by aortic femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI)], ASBP, plasma TAS, serum TC and LDL-C were taken.
RESULTS: Baseline tocotrienol isomer concentrations were low and not detectable in some subjects. Upon supplementation, all TRE-treated groups showed significant difference from placebo for their change in alpha, gamma and delta tocotrienol concentrations from baseline to end of treatment. There was a linear dose and blood level relationship for all the isomers. There was no significant difference between groups for their change in PWV, AI, plasma TAS, ASBP, TC or LDL-C from baseline to end of treatment. Groups 160 mg (p = 0.024) and 320 mg (p = 0.049) showed significant reductions in their ASBP. Group 320 mg showed a significant 9.2% improvement in TAS.
CONCLUSION: TRE at doses up to 320 mg daily were well tolerated. Treatment significantly increased alpha, delta, and gamma tocotrienol concentrations but did not significantly affect arterial compliance, plasma TAS, serum TC or LDL-C levels in normal subjects.
METHODS: One hundred thirty-one FH patients, 68 RUC and 214 matched NC were recruited. Fasting lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP), endothelial activation (sICAM-1 and E-selectin) and oxidative stress [oxidized LDL (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and F2-isoprostanes (ISP)] were analyzed and independent predictor was determined using binary logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: hsCRP was higher in FH and RUC compared to NC (mean ± SD = 1.53 ± 1.24 mg/L and mean ± SD = 2.54 ± 2.30 vs 1.10 ± 0.89 mg/L, p LDL, MDA and ISP) were elevated in FH compared to NC [mean ± SD = (48.2 ± 26.8 vs 27.3 ± 13.2 mU/L, p 0.05). FH was an independent predictor for sICAM-1 (p = 0.007), ox-LDL (p