PURPOSE: This paper explores the effects of SQ in CVD.
METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify relevant studies about SQ and CVD. A comprehensive search in Medline and Scopus for relevant studies published between the years 1946 and 2019 was performed. The main inclusion criteria were that the study was published in English; that the study reported association or effect of SQ and CVD; and that CVD should be related to lifestyle variables, aging, or experimentally induced conditions.
RESULTS: The literature searches identified 5562 potentially relevant articles, whereby 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three human studies and 18 animal experimental studies included in this paper. Only one human study reported positive outcome of SQ in CVD. The remaining two studies reported inconsistent and/or no effect. For animal studies, 15 studies reported positive effect while the remaining reported negative and/or no effect of SQ on various related parameters.
CONCLUSIONS: This evidence-based review emphasizes the potential of SQ being used for cardiovascular-related diseases. The effect of SQ, especially of plant-based warrants further exploration. Controlled human observational studies should be performed to provide comprehensive evidence.
METHODS: In the Nrf2 induction study, mice were divided into control, 2000 mg/kg TRF and diethyl maleate treated groups. After acute treatment, mice were sacrificed at specific time points. Liver nuclear extracts were prepared and Nrf2 nuclear translocation was detected through Western blotting. To determine the effect of increasing doses of TRF on the extent of liver nuclear Nrf2 translocation and its implication on the expression levels of several Nrf2-regulated genes, mice were divided into 5 groups (control, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg TRF, and butylated hydroxyanisole-treated groups). After 14 days, mice were sacrificed and liver RNA was extracted for qPCR assay.
RESULTS: 2000 mg/kg TRF administration initiated Nrf2 nuclear translocation within 30 min, reached a maximum level of around 1 h and dropped to half-maximal levels by 24 h. Incremental doses of TRF resulted in dose-dependent increases in liver Nrf2 nuclear levels, along with concomitant dosedependent increases in the expressions of Nrf2-regulated genes.
CONCLUSION: TRF activated the liver Nrf2 pathway resulting in increased expression of Nrf2-regulated cytoprotective genes.