Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Abdul Hakim MS, Azmi AN, Jayalakshmi P, Mahadeva S
    J Gastrointest Cancer, 2018 Sep;49(3):346-348.
    PMID: 28066868 DOI: 10.1007/s12029-016-9913-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Primrose JN
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:67-9.
    PMID: 16108177
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  3. Raymond AA, Isa MR, Abdullah T, Kudva MV
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Jun;34(3):276-8.
    PMID: 8266193
    A 41-year-old Malay housewife presented with recurrent chylous ascites and progressive cachexia over 17 years. A diagnosis of lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) was established by laparotomy where biopsy of the liver, peritoneum and adhesions from previous surgery showed smooth muscle proliferation in the blood vessels and lymphatics. Clinically and radiologically, there was no evidence of pulmonary involvement. She was treated with dietary fat restriction and medium-chain triglycerides. This is the first case of LAM reported in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  4. Hashim H, Rahmat K, Abdul Aziz YF, Chandran PA
    Ear Nose Throat J, 2014 Jun;93(6):E20-3.
    PMID: 24932824
    We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who was referred to us for evaluation of a 2-week history of fever, headache, vomiting, bilateral ptosis, and blurred vision. Imaging obtained by the referring institution had identified a sphenoid sinus mass and diffuse meningeal infiltration, which was thought to represent an infective process. We subsequently identified the mass as a metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient was placed under palliative care, and she died 1 month later. Metastases to the sphenoid sinus from any primary source are very rare, and they are generally not considered in the radiologic differential diagnosis. HCC is known to metastasize to the lung, lymph nodes, and musculoskeletal system; again, reported cases of metastasis to the sphenoid sinus are rare. Indeed, our review of the English-language literature found only 6 previously reported cases of sinonasal metastasis of a primary HCC. A diagnosis of a sinonasal metastasis is more difficult in a patient who has no previous diagnosis of a primary malignancy. In presenting this case, our aim is to remind readers of this possibility.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  5. Norsa'adah B, Nurhazalini-Zayani CG
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6955-9.
    PMID: 24377632
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  6. Koh PS, Yusof MM, Yoong BK, Rajadurai P
    J Gastrointest Cancer, 2014 Dec;45 Suppl 1:74-6.
    PMID: 24045908 DOI: 10.1007/s12029-013-9549-8
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  7. Koh PS, Koong JK, Westerhout CJ, Yoong BK
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2013 Jul;28(7):1075.
    PMID: 23782121 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.12254
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  8. Al-Qubaisi M, Rozita R, Yeap SK, Omar AR, Ali AM, Alitheen NB
    Molecules, 2011 Apr 06;16(4):2944-59.
    PMID: 21471934 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16042944
    Liver cancer has become one of the major types of cancer with high mortality and liver cancer is not responsive to the current cytotoxic agents used in chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxicity of goniothalamin on human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells and normal liver Chang cells. The cytotoxicity of goniothalamin against HepG2 and liver Chang cell was tested using MTT cell viability assay, LDH leakage assay, cell cycle flow cytometry PI analysis, BrdU proliferation ELISA assay and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Goniothalamin selectively inhibited HepG2 cells [IC₅₀ = 4.6 (±0.23) µM in the MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 5.20 (±0.01) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours], with less sensitivity in Chang cells [IC₅₀ = 35.0 (±0.09) µM for MTT assay; IC₅₀ = 32.5 (±0.04) µM for LDH assay at 72 hours]. In the trypan blue dye exclusion assay, the Viability Indexes were 52 ± 1.73% for HepG2 cells and 62 ± 4.36% for Chang cells at IC₅₀ after 72 hours. Cytotoxicity of goniothalamin was related to inhibition of DNA synthesis, as revealed by the reduction of BrdU incorporation. At 72 hours, the lowest concentration of goniothalamin (2.3 µL) retained 97.6% of normal liver Chang cells proliferation while it reduced HepG2 cell proliferation to 19.8% as compared to control. Besides, goniothalamin caused accumulation of hypodiploid apoptosis and different degree of G2/M arrested as shown in cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Goniothalamin selectively killed liver cancer cell through suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that goniothalamin shows potential cytotoxicity against hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  9. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Nazarina AR, Mun KS, Goh KL
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Dec;30(2):103-7.
    PMID: 19291919 MyJurnal
    Transaminase enzymes, alanine (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), have been reported to be raised and implicated to have prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ki67, a marker of cellular proliferative activity, has also been noted to be increased in HCC. A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur to determine the possible association of proliferative activity, as determined by Ki67, with the transaminase enzymes. 31 cases of histologically diagnosed HCC who underwent tumour resection were retrieved from departmental archives. The patients' ages ranged between 40 to 79 years with a mean of 58.3 years. There was a male preponderance with M:F = 2.9:1. Ethnic Chinese formed 83.9% of the cases. 4 microm sections, cut from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour tissue block of each case, were immunohistochemically stained with Ki67 (DAKO monoclonal MIB-1) using the commercial DakoCytomation EnVision+System-HRP kit. The latest ALT and AST levels, assayed within 7 days prior to tumour resection, were retrieved from the patients' case records. 24 (77.4%) HCC demonstrated elevation of either ALT and/or AST. 27 (87.1%) HCC were immunopositive for Ki67. Ki67 immunoexpression was significantly correlated with raised transaminases (p<0.05). Hypothetically, the mechanism by which this phenomenon may occur may simply be release of transaminases due to destruction of hepatocytes by the cancer. Thus rising levels of the transaminases could signal a more rapid growth of the tumour and these routinely performed tests can be of prognostic value in management of HCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  10. Manikam J, Mahadeva S, Goh KL, Abdullah BJ
    Hepatogastroenterology, 2009 Jan-Feb;56(89):227-30.
    PMID: 19453063
    Spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage is a devastating complication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results from current therapeutic modalities remain varied. Recent development of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of this condition has shown promise. We describe 2 cases of ruptured HCC in which nonoperative, percutaneous radio frequency ablation (RFA) was successful in achieving hemostasis. The advantageous of RFA over other interventional techniques in the management of ruptured HCC are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  11. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Nazarina AR, Goh KL, Rosmawati M, Vijeyasingam R
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Jun;25(1):37-43.
    PMID: 16196376
    A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur into the histological type (WHO classification), grade (modified Edmondson and Steiner's grading system), mitotic rate, bile production, hyaline globule and Mallory hyaline formation of 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed during a 13-year period between 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2002. In addition, associated cirrhosis, dysplasia (large liver cell dysplasia: LLCD and small liver cell dysplasia: SLCD) and microvascular permeation were also looked for whenever the situation permitted. The patients' ages ranged from 21-years to 85-years (mean = 58.7 years) with a predilection for males and Chinese. Histologically, majority (73.1%) of the tumours demonstrated a trabecular pattern of growth. The bulk (73%) of the tumours were either of grade II or III differentiation. Mitotic activity ranged between 0-100/10 high power fields (hpf) with a mean of 22.2/10 hpf. Bile was noted in 25%, hyaline globules 17.3% and Mallory bodies in one case. Concomitant cirrhosis was present in 73.5%. 73.5% of the cases had associated LLCD. 5 with LLCD also showed SLCD. Microvascular permeation was shown in 76.2% of cases. On comparison with findings from other studies, no major difference seems to exist between the histological characteristics of our HCC cases and that of other populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  12. Khoo JJ, Clouston A
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):115-8.
    PMID: 12166592
    A 6-year-old Malay boy presented with fever and abdominal pain for 2 months. Computerised tomography showed a nodular mass in the left lobe of the liver. There was also portal vein thrombosis on the left side. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was not elevated and Hepatitis B antigen was negative. Biopsy of the liver mass led to a histological diagnosis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of extensive tumour involvement, he could not be operated on but was treated with chemotherapy. However, the tumour did not respond. While this is expected for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, the possibility of the tumour having a component of ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma could not be excluded as the tumour was not resected. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with a better prognosis. It affects the younger age group and has no association with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus infection or exposure to oral contraceptives, all of which are implicated in ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level is usually within normal limits and other laboratory values are not contributory to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is usually suggested by radiographic studies viz. CT scan of the abdomen, which would show an irregular non-homogenous mass in the liver, and confirmed by histological examination. The most characteristic microscopical feature is fibrosis arranged in a lamellar fashion around polygonal and deeply eosinophilic neoplastic hepatocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
  13. Zainol H, Sumithran E
    Histopathology, 1993 Jun;22(6):581-6.
    PMID: 7689070
    This study evaluates the usefulness of a combined cytological and histological approach to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when applied to fine needle biopsy specimens obtained under ultrasonic guidance. The material, aspirated from 51 focal liver lesions, was handled in such a way that there was sufficient material for both cytological and histological (cell block) assessment. Of the 29 cases of HCC studied, a confident cytological diagnosis was made in 23 (79%). In the remaining six cases, the cytological features were considered to be suspicious but not diagnostic of HCC. Examination of cell blocks in the six cases enabled a confident diagnosis of HCC to be made in all cases. This was due to the supplementary visual information provided by the histological features, particularly the pattern of arrangement of the tumour cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  14. Yeoh NT, Somasundaram K, Alhady SF, Paramsothy M
    Med J Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):365-9.
    PMID: 2823084
    Carcinoma of the biliary tract is a rare complication of choledochal cysts. Furthermore, the greater predisposition of the cyst wall to neoplastic change has been cited as additional justification for cyst excision rather than on-site internal drainage as the primary choice of operation. The report concerns a patient who developed cholangiocarcinoma despite excision of a choledochal cyst and presented with symptoms of biliary obstruction within one year of the operation. Although this is a rare complication, the need for careful long-term follow-up is supported by this observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  15. Yap SF, Peh SC
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Dec;13(2):115-8.
    PMID: 1726642
    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and its expression in liver tissue was studied in 50 cases of histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum AFP levels were elevated (greater than 20iu/ml) in 35/50 (70%) of the cases, 28 of whom had levels greater than 500 iu/ml, which is highly suggestive of HCC. These results indicate that serum AFP, by itself, is a relatively insensitive diagnostic test for HCC. Although elevated levels in high risk patients provide a specific clue, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC. Expression of AFP by tumour cells paralleled that of serum in the majority of cases. However, tissue AFP was negative in 7 patients who had markedly elevated serum AFP. This observation may be a reflection of preferential excretion of the tumour antigen or differential expression of the antigen by the tumour cells. None of the patients with normal serum AFP demonstrated a reaction for tissue AFP. There was no correlation between AFP production and tumour differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  16. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP, Yap SF
    Cancer, 1990 Jan 1;65(1):174-6.
    PMID: 2152851
    In the 7-year period between 1980 and 1987, six cases of childhood primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) were confirmed histologically in our institution. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was confirmed in five of the cases, and tissue HBsAg was shown in four of these using the Shikata's orcein stain. An associated maternal HBsAg seropositivity was shown in two of the seropositive children. The youngest seropositive patient who developed PHC was 7 years old. The mother of this patient was also seropositive. These observations support a causal relation between childhood Hepatitis B virus infection and PHC. The importance of vertical or perinatal transmission of HBV in the causation of childhood PHC and the prophylactic role of childhood vaccination is emphasized. Attention is also drawn to the relative short malignant transformation time seen in some of these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  17. Swamy SG, Kameshwar VH, Shubha PB, Looi CY, Shanmugam MK, Arfuso F, et al.
    Target Oncol, 2017 02;12(1):1-10.
    PMID: 27510230 DOI: 10.1007/s11523-016-0452-7
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common forms of liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. HCC occurs due to chronic liver disease and is often diagnosed at advanced stages. Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are currently used as first-line agents for HCC therapy, but these are non-selective cytotoxic molecules with significant side effects. Sorafenib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only approved targeted drug for HCC patients. However, due to adverse side effects and limited efficacy, there is a need for the identification of novel pharmacological drugs beyond sorafenib. Several agents that target and inhibit various signaling pathways involved in HCC are currently being assessed for HCC treatment. In the present review article, we summarize the diverse signal transduction pathways responsible for initiation as well as progression of HCC and also the potential anticancer effects of selected targeted therapies that can be employed for HCC therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  18. Sumithran E, Prathap K
    Cancer, 1977 Oct;40(4):1618-20.
    PMID: 198100
    Necropsy and clinical data show that primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) is the commonest cancer among the Senoi (a Malaysian aboringine group). The other aboringine tribes do not appear to have this high predilection for liver cancer. In the necropsy series, PHS was present in 10 out of 22 Senoi patients with cirrhosis. All the 22 livers contained hepatocytes that stained with Shikata's orcein stain and specific immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent stains for hepatitis B antigen (HBAg). This observation raises the strong possibility that hepatitis B may be an important etiologic factor in the development of cirrhosis and PHC in the Senoi. The reason for the high susceptibility of the Senoi for HB virus infection is not clear, and the role of aflatoxin in the pathogenesis of PHC in the Senoi has yet to be determined. That the Senoi are a numerically small community, maintaining their own unique dietary and social customs and living in readily accessible areas in the Malaysian jungle, makes them an ideal population for the study of factors in the etiology of liver cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  19. Islam N, Hasan M, Ali SM
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Jun;31(4):322-5.
    PMID: 927240
    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology
  20. Md Radzi AB, Tan SS
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Jan;97(4):e8884.
    PMID: 29369168 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000008884
    RATIONALE: We report a rare case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with metastases to the mandible and coracoid process of scapula without evidence of lung involvement.

    PATIENTS CONCERNS: The patient was diagnosed with HCC, presented 5 months later with right lower tooth pain, swelling over the right mandible area and right shoulder pain.

    DIAGNOSES: Histopathological examination of mandible showed findings suggestive of metastatic HCC. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the right shoulder revealed findings of irregular enhancing lesion at the right coracoid process causing erosion of the coracoid process.

    INTERVENTIONS: Patient was subsequently referred for palliative medicine care.

    OUTCOMES: He received adequate analgesia.

    LESSONS: Oral cavity and scapula metastases from HCC are very rare. Most oral metastases are associated with lung metastases, and they possibly occur by hematogenous route. In our case, the possible pathway of metastasis is an anastomotic network of paravertebral veins that bypasses the pulmonary, inferior caval, and portal venous circulations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Liver Neoplasms/pathology*
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