Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 186 in total

  1. Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40(10):1147-1151.
    Bone formation has been associated with the presence of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This longitudinal study was carried out to observe its activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic fixed appliance treatment. Fourteen patients between the ages of 15 and 27 years old with moderate upper labial segment crowding were recruited from postgraduate orthodontic clinic. GCF from mesial and distal sites of upper canines were collected using endodontic paper point before the fixed appliance placement (week 0). The baseline level of ALP (week 0) acted as a control. Samplings of GCF were repeated at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week during orthodontic treatment. The activities of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer (405 nm). Paired sample t-test was used to assess the significance of difference over the 3 weeks. Although the results showed patterns of ALP activities on the test teeth throughout the 3 weeks of leveling and alignment stage, however the results were not significant (p >0.05) when compared to control. Therefore, it has been shown that there was no significant pattern of ALP activities in GCF in patients undergoing leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  2. Tan TL, Tang YJ, Ching LJ, Abdullah N, Neoh HM
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 12;8(1):16698.
    PMID: 30420768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35144-6
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the ability of the qSOFA in predicting short- (≤30 days or in-hospital mortality) and long-term (>30 days) mortality among patients outside the intensive care unit setting. Studies reporting on the qSOFA and mortality were searched using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection and usage of qSOFA score for mortality prognostication. Data on qSOFA scores and mortality rates were extracted from 36 studies. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for the qSOFA were 48% and 86% for short-term mortality and 32% and 92% for long-term mortality, respectively. Studies reporting on short-term mortality were heterogeneous (Odd ratio, OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.6-6.8; Higgins's I2 = 94%), while long-term mortality studies were homogenous (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.5-6.1; Higgins's I2 = 0%). There was no publication bias for short-term mortality analysis. The qSOFA score showed poor sensitivity but moderate specificity for both short and long-term mortality, with similar performance in predicting both short- and long- term mortality. Geographical region was shown to have nominal significant (p = 0.05) influence on qSOFA short-term mortality prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  3. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):17-21.
    PMID: 609337
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  4. Goh TH, Hariharan M, Tan CH
    Contraception, 1980 Oct;22(4):389-95.
    PMID: 7449387
    The increase in menstrual blood loss associated with copper-bearing IUDs may cause or aggravate pre-existing anaemia. In order to evaluate this risk, 84 Malaysian women wearing copper-IUDs were studied longitudinally by means of serial measurements of blood haemoglobin concentration (Hb), serum iron (S/Fe) and transferrin saturation (T/S). The initial Hb was under 12 gm% in 33.7% of patients. The mean Hb showed no significant change up to 12 months while S/Fe fell significantly at the end of this time; the T/S was significantly reduced as early as 6 months post-insertion. There is a significant risk of anaemia following copper-IUD insertion, particularly with long-term usage. Progestogen-releasing IUDs may offer the most feasible solution to this problem in our local context since oral medication with iron or drugs to reduce menstrual blood loss is not practicable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  5. Jahanfar S, Lye MS, Krishnarajah IS
    Indian J Hum Genet, 2013 Apr;19(2):245-50.
    PMID: 24019629 DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.116127
    INTRODUCTION: Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors.

    OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche.

    METHODOLOGY: A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood.

    RESULTS: Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%).

    DISCUSSION: Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins.

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  6. Alhajeri M, Shah SGS
    J Digit Imaging, 2019 02;32(1):54-67.
    PMID: 30225824 DOI: 10.1007/s10278-018-0127-2
    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) technology is evolving leading to improvements in the PACS functionality. However, the needs and expectations of PACS users are increasing to cope with the rising demands for improving the workflow and enhancing efficiency in healthcare. The aim was to study the limitations in the current generation of PACS and solutions for improving PACS functionality. This was a longitudinal online observational study of the perspectives of PACS professionals accessed through four online discussion groups on PACS using the LinkedIn network. In this exploratory study, the methodology involved a thematic analysis of qualitative data comprising 250 online posts/comments made by 124 unique PACS professionals collected between January 2014 and December 2015. Participants were mostly male (n = 119, 96%) from the North America (n = 88, 71%). Key themes on limitations in the current generation of PACS were image transmission problems, network and hardware issues, difficulties in changing specific settings, issues in hardcoded Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine attributes, and problems in implementing open source PACS. Main themes on solutions for improving PACS functionality were the integration of multisite PACS, multimedia for PACS, web-based PACS, medical image viewer, open source PACS, PACS on mobile phones, vendor neutral archives for PACS, speech recognition and integration in PACS, PACS backup and recovery, and connecting PACS with other hospital systems. Despite ongoing technological developments, the current generation of PACS has limitations that affect PACS functionality leading to unmet needs and requirements of PACS users, which could impact workflow and efficiency in healthcare.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  7. Teh JKL, Tey NP
    SSM Popul Health, 2019 Dec;9:100479.
    PMID: 31646167 DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100479
    This study examined three types of leisure activities (playing cards/mahjong, watching TV/listening to the radio, and participation in social activities) among the older segment of the Chinese population, and the effects of these activities in preventing the feelings of loneliness. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), conducted in 2005, 2008, and 2011. The males, those who were educated, the young-old (aged between 65 and 74 years), urban dwellers, and living in institutions were more likely to participate in all three activities frequently. Frequent or occasional participation in these three activities was negatively associated with feelings of loneliness. The longitudinal study from 2005 to 2011 showed that respondents who frequently played cards/mahjong at baseline were less likely to feel persistent loneliness at the end of the 2011 wave. Instead, frequently watching TV/listening to the radio in 2008 was associated with lower odds in feeling persistent loneliness at the end of 2011. Hence, active participation in playing cards/mahjong and TV/radio entertainment can be effective treatment intervention against persistent loneliness among older Chinese. For the Chinese, a leisure activity steeped in a nation's culture and heritage, such as playing mahjong, may be used as an intervention strategy to prevent and alleviate chronic loneliness among older adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  8. Chong CP, Shahar S, Haron H, Din NC
    Clin Interv Aging, 2019;14:1331-1342.
    PMID: 31413554 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S211534
    Background: Sugar is widely consumed in Malaysia, and the excessive intake of sugar has been associated with cognitive functions. However, the association between sugar intake and cognitive impairment among Malaysian older adults is yet to be determined. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between types and sources of sugar intake and cognitive functions and to identify their risk in predicting cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24). Subjects and methods: A total of 1,209 subjects aged ≥60 years were recruited through multi-stage random sampling from selected states in Malaysia. Dietary intake was derived using a 7-day dietary history questionnaire and supplemented with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for added sugar intake. Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment as defined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) less than 24 was 31.9%, while the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment was 13.1%. The median (IQR) for total sugar intake was 44.60 g/day (26.21-68.81) or 8 tsp, and free sugar intake was 33.08 g/day (17.48-57.26) or 6 tsp. The higher intake of total sugars, free sugars, sucrose, lactose, sugar-sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened cakes, and dessert was found to be significantly associated with a lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. On the other hand, the consumption of cooked dishes and fruits was significantly associated with a better MMSE score. The adjusted OR for risk of cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) was 3.30 (95% CI 2.15-5.08) for total sugars and 3.58 (95% CI 2.32-5.52) for free sugars, comparing the highest with the lowest intake percentiles. Conclusion: Excessive sugar consumption among older adults showed a notable association with poor cognitive functions, but longitudinal studies and clinical trials are further needed to clarify the direction of causality and to investigate the underlying mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  9. Forde BM, Roberts LW, Phan MD, Peters KM, Fleming BA, Russell CW, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 08 13;10(1):3643.
    PMID: 31409795 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11571-5
    Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are extremely common, with ~ 25% of all women experiencing a recurrence within 1 year of their original infection. Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally dominant multidrug resistant clone associated with high rates of rUTI. Here, we show the dynamics of an ST131 population over a 5-year period from one elderly woman with rUTI since the 1970s. Using whole genome sequencing, we identify an indigenous clonal lineage (P1A) linked to rUTI and persistence in the fecal flora, providing compelling evidence of an intestinal reservoir of rUTI. We also show that the P1A lineage possesses substantial plasmid diversity, resulting in the coexistence of antibiotic resistant and sensitive intestinal isolates despite frequent treatment. Our longitudinal study provides a unique comprehensive genomic analysis of a clonal lineage within a single individual and suggests a population-wide resistance mechanism enabling rapid adaptation to fluctuating antibiotic exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  10. Kioh SH, Mat S, Kamaruzzaman SB, Ibrahim F, Mokhtar MS, Hairi NN, et al.
    J Aging Phys Act, 2019 Nov 21.
    PMID: 31756717 DOI: 10.1123/japa.2019-0011
    The current evidence on the relationship between a higher body mass index (BMI) and falls in older adults is conflicting. This study, therefore, evaluated the relationship between BMI and falls and explored underlying mechanisms for this relationship. Data from 1,340 individuals from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study, obtained through home-based computer-assisted interviews and followed by hospital-based health checks, were utilized. A history of the presence of falls in the previous 12 months was obtained. The presence of at least one fall in the past 12 months was associated with a higher BMI (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.06]). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls was, however, attenuated by a lower percentage of lean body mass, which accounted for 69% of the total effect of BMI on the risk of falls. Future studies should now investigate this aforementioned relationship prospectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  11. Gabriel R
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1992 Jun;10(1):19-22.
    PMID: 12345025
    PIP: Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies*
  12. Abdul Razak I, Esa R
    Dent J Malays, 1988 Nov;10(2):41-4.
    PMID: 3271127
    The present study analysed the development of caries in 653 first permanent molars annually over a period of 5 years in children who were 7 years-old at baseline. The cumulative caries experience increased from 6.0% at baseline to 35.2% at the end of the study period. There were no appreciable differences in the annual incremental rate of caries experience among males and females. At baseline, the Malays and Indians have the highest and lowest caries experience respectively. At 12 years of age, the Chinese have the highest caries experience whilst the data for the Malays and Indians were comparable. The highest cumulative percentage increase in caries experience for the Malays, Chinese and Indians were between the ages of 7 to 8, 9 to 10 and 8 to 9 respectively while the average annual caries increment were 4.5%, 7.3% and 5.0% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  13. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):80-9.
    PMID: 3834290
    Percentile growth charts of weight, length and head circumference, from birth to six years of age, for boys and girls, are presented. These can be used to monitor the growth of Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  14. Goh. SY, Ropilah, AR, Othmaliza, O, Mushawiahti, M
    Diabetic retinopathy is a disease involving microangiopathic changes in response to chronic hyperglycaemia and pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) is currently the mainstay of treatment for proliferative retinopathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) on retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a prospective longitudinal study. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or very severe non-(N)PDR requiring laser treatment were included in the study. PRP was performed by a single trained personnel. Peripapillary RNFL located 3.4 mm around the optic disc was evaluated using time-domain OCT. Examination was performed before treatment, and 2 and 4 months after laser treatment. In total, 39 subjects (39 eyes) were recruited into this study. Twenty-nine patients had PDR and 10 had very severe NPDR. Mean age was 54.97 ± 8.38 years. Male and female genders were almost equally distributed with 18 males and 21 females. Median thickness of average RNFL at baseline was 108.8 um (interquartile range [IQR] 35.3). At two months post-procedure, average RNFL thickness significantly increased to 117.4 (IQR 28.6; P = 0.006). Although, other quadrants revealed a similar trend of increasing thickness at two months but it was not significant. At 4 months post-laser treatment, RNFL thickness in all quadrants reduced to baseline levels with insignificant changes of thickness compared to prior to laser treatment. There was also no significant association between changes in RNFL thickness and HbA1c levels (P = 0.77). In conclusion, PRP causes transient thickening of the RNFL which recovers within 4 months post-laser treatment. At the same time, poor sugar control has no direct influence on the RNFL changes after PRP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  15. Idris, I.B., Shamsudin K., Aniza, I, Khairani, O, Rahmah M.A.
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric diagnosis made when someone including children who experiences traumatic stressor. Those who are exposed to a more severe trauma have highest level of PTSD. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among 219 children who were affected by a form of natural disaster which is the tsunami waves in a rural area in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was carried out among children aged 10-12 years 6 months after the traumatic event. Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder –Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) was used as a screening instrument which was answered by the affected children through a self-administered questionnaire. Forty six percent of these children had PTSD symptoms; 31.1% of these children had mild, 11.4% had moderate, 3.7% had severe PTSD and none had very severe PTSD. Result also showed that 91.8% had re-experiencing symptoms, 28.3% had numbing/avoidance symptoms and 49.3% had hyperarousal symptoms. Children with low social support (Adj OR = 2.3 (95% CI: = 1.3- 4.2)), and children who experienced deaths among someone close to them (Adj OR = 3.7 (95% CI =1.2 - 11.5)) were more likely to have symptoms of PTSD. This showed that children are at higher risk of developing PTSD as early as 6 months after the event and thus early intervention should be offered to them. Future longitudinal study can be carried out among affected children to assess whether these PTSD symptoms persist over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  16. Malays J Nutr, 1999;5(1):-.
    A longitudinal study was conducted to relate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with growth during adolescence. Subjects comprise 70 boys and 69 girls aged between ten and thirteen years at the time of recruitment. Parameters studied include anthropometric measurements and BMR, which was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor. Measurements were carried out serially once every six months, with a total of 713 BMR data points collected over three years. Mean BMR of boys aged 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.28 ± 0.71 MJ/day, 5.73 ± 0.68 MJ/day and 5.92 ± 0.63 MJ/day, respectively; while mean BMR of girls in the 10, 11, 12 and 13 year age groups were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 4.85 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.05 ± 0.55 MJ/day and 4.94 ± 0.51 MJ/day, respectively. Comparison of measured BMR with BMR values predicted from the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations shows that the predictive equations overestimated the BMR of Malaysian boys by 3% and that of girls by 5%. The Henry & Rees (1991) equations for populations in the tropics underestimated BMR of boys and girls by 1% and 2%, respectively. Linear regression equations to predict BMR based on body weight were derived according to sex and age groups. It is recommended that these predictive equations be used for the estimation of BMR of Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  17. Afolalu EF, Ramlee F, Tang NKY
    Sleep Med Rev, 2018 06;39:82-97.
    PMID: 29056414 DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2017.08.001
    Emerging longitudinal research has highlighted poor sleep as a risk factor of a range of adverse health outcomes, including disabling pain conditions. In establishing the causal role of sleep in pain, it remains to be clarified whether sleep deterioration over time is a driver of pain and whether sleep improvement can mitigate pain-related outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Proquest PsycINFO, to identify 16 longitudinal studies involving 61,000 participants. The studies evaluated the effect of sleep changes (simulating sleep deterioration, sleep stability, and sleep improvement) on subsequent pain-related outcomes in the general population. A decline in sleep quality and sleep quantity was associated with a two- to three-fold increase in risk of developing a pain condition, small elevations in levels of inflammatory markers, and a decline in self-reported physical health status. An exploratory meta-analysis further revealed that deterioration in sleep was associated with worse self-reported physical functioning (medium effect size), whilst improvement in sleep was associated with better physical functioning (small effect size). The review consolidates evidence that changes in sleep are prospectively associated with pain-related outcomes and highlights the need for further longitudinal investigations on the long-term impact of sleep improvements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  18. Romli MH, Tan MP, Mackenzie L, Lovarini M, Kamaruzzaman SB, Clemson L
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2018 Mar;18(3):387-395.
    PMID: 29139186 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13189
    AIM: Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months.

    RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  19. Syed Hassan ST, Jamaludin H, Abd Raman R, Mohd Riji H, Wan Fei K
    Trauma Mon, 2013 Sep;18(2):56-61.
    PMID: 24350153 DOI: 10.5812/traumamon.11522
    CONTEXT: As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers' stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist.

    RESULTS: Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family's closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver.

    CONCLUSIONS: A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of caregivers. Unless research on TBI or DAI trauma is given its proper attention, the burden of trauma and injury on societies will continue to exacerbate globally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  20. Hsu TY, Chirovsky D, Moy FM, Ambegaonkar BM
    Clin Ther, 2013 Apr;35(4):450-60.
    PMID: 23481458 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.02.004
    Although LDL-C is the primary lipid target for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction, HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) have also emerged as CHD risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
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