Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 176 in total

  1. Tan TL, Tang YJ, Ching LJ, Abdullah N, Neoh HM
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 12;8(1):16698.
    PMID: 30420768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35144-6
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the ability of the qSOFA in predicting short- (≤30 days or in-hospital mortality) and long-term (>30 days) mortality among patients outside the intensive care unit setting. Studies reporting on the qSOFA and mortality were searched using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection and usage of qSOFA score for mortality prognostication. Data on qSOFA scores and mortality rates were extracted from 36 studies. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for the qSOFA were 48% and 86% for short-term mortality and 32% and 92% for long-term mortality, respectively. Studies reporting on short-term mortality were heterogeneous (Odd ratio, OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.6-6.8; Higgins's I2 = 94%), while long-term mortality studies were homogenous (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.5-6.1; Higgins's I2 = 0%). There was no publication bias for short-term mortality analysis. The qSOFA score showed poor sensitivity but moderate specificity for both short and long-term mortality, with similar performance in predicting both short- and long- term mortality. Geographical region was shown to have nominal significant (p = 0.05) influence on qSOFA short-term mortality prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  2. Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40(10):1147-1151.
    Bone formation has been associated with the presence of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This longitudinal study was carried out to observe its activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic fixed appliance treatment. Fourteen patients between the ages of 15 and 27 years old with moderate upper labial segment crowding were recruited from postgraduate orthodontic clinic. GCF from mesial and distal sites of upper canines were collected using endodontic paper point before the fixed appliance placement (week 0). The baseline level of ALP (week 0) acted as a control. Samplings of GCF were repeated at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week during orthodontic treatment. The activities of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer (405 nm). Paired sample t-test was used to assess the significance of difference over the 3 weeks. Although the results showed patterns of ALP activities on the test teeth throughout the 3 weeks of leveling and alignment stage, however the results were not significant (p >0.05) when compared to control. Therefore, it has been shown that there was no significant pattern of ALP activities in GCF in patients undergoing leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  3. Jahanfar S, Lye MS, Krishnarajah IS
    Indian J Hum Genet, 2013 Apr;19(2):245-50.
    PMID: 24019629 DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.116127
    INTRODUCTION: Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors.

    OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche.

    METHODOLOGY: A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood.

    RESULTS: Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%).

    DISCUSSION: Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins.

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  4. Goh TH, Hariharan M, Tan CH
    Contraception, 1980 Oct;22(4):389-95.
    PMID: 7449387
    The increase in menstrual blood loss associated with copper-bearing IUDs may cause or aggravate pre-existing anaemia. In order to evaluate this risk, 84 Malaysian women wearing copper-IUDs were studied longitudinally by means of serial measurements of blood haemoglobin concentration (Hb), serum iron (S/Fe) and transferrin saturation (T/S). The initial Hb was under 12 gm% in 33.7% of patients. The mean Hb showed no significant change up to 12 months while S/Fe fell significantly at the end of this time; the T/S was significantly reduced as early as 6 months post-insertion. There is a significant risk of anaemia following copper-IUD insertion, particularly with long-term usage. Progestogen-releasing IUDs may offer the most feasible solution to this problem in our local context since oral medication with iron or drugs to reduce menstrual blood loss is not practicable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  5. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):17-21.
    PMID: 609337
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  6. Forde BM, Roberts LW, Phan MD, Peters KM, Fleming BA, Russell CW, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 Aug 13;10(1):3643.
    PMID: 31409795 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-11571-5
    Recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs) are extremely common, with ~ 25% of all women experiencing a recurrence within 1 year of their original infection. Escherichia coli ST131 is a globally dominant multidrug resistant clone associated with high rates of rUTI. Here, we show the dynamics of an ST131 population over a 5-year period from one elderly woman with rUTI since the 1970s. Using whole genome sequencing, we identify an indigenous clonal lineage (P1A) linked to rUTI and persistence in the fecal flora, providing compelling evidence of an intestinal reservoir of rUTI. We also show that the P1A lineage possesses substantial plasmid diversity, resulting in the coexistence of antibiotic resistant and sensitive intestinal isolates despite frequent treatment. Our longitudinal study provides a unique comprehensive genomic analysis of a clonal lineage within a single individual and suggests a population-wide resistance mechanism enabling rapid adaptation to fluctuating antibiotic exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  7. Chong CP, Shahar S, Haron H, Din NC
    Clin Interv Aging, 2019;14:1331-1342.
    PMID: 31413554 DOI: 10.2147/CIA.S211534
    Background: Sugar is widely consumed in Malaysia, and the excessive intake of sugar has been associated with cognitive functions. However, the association between sugar intake and cognitive impairment among Malaysian older adults is yet to be determined. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between types and sources of sugar intake and cognitive functions and to identify their risk in predicting cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24). Subjects and methods: A total of 1,209 subjects aged ≥60 years were recruited through multi-stage random sampling from selected states in Malaysia. Dietary intake was derived using a 7-day dietary history questionnaire and supplemented with a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for added sugar intake. Results: The prevalence of cognitive impairment as defined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) less than 24 was 31.9%, while the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment was 13.1%. The median (IQR) for total sugar intake was 44.60 g/day (26.21-68.81) or 8 tsp, and free sugar intake was 33.08 g/day (17.48-57.26) or 6 tsp. The higher intake of total sugars, free sugars, sucrose, lactose, sugar-sweetened beverages, sugar-sweetened cakes, and dessert was found to be significantly associated with a lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. On the other hand, the consumption of cooked dishes and fruits was significantly associated with a better MMSE score. The adjusted OR for risk of cognitive impairment (MMSE score <24) was 3.30 (95% CI 2.15-5.08) for total sugars and 3.58 (95% CI 2.32-5.52) for free sugars, comparing the highest with the lowest intake percentiles. Conclusion: Excessive sugar consumption among older adults showed a notable association with poor cognitive functions, but longitudinal studies and clinical trials are further needed to clarify the direction of causality and to investigate the underlying mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  8. Gabriel R
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1992 Jun;10(1):19-22.
    PMID: 12345025
    PIP: Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies*
  9. Liber AC, Ross H, Omar M, Chaloupka FJ
    Tob Control, 2015 Jul;24 Suppl 3:iii83-iii87.
    PMID: 25808666 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052028
    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  10. Syed Hassan ST, Jamaludin H, Abd Raman R, Mohd Riji H, Wan Fei K
    Trauma Mon, 2013 Sep;18(2):56-61.
    PMID: 24350153 DOI: 10.5812/traumamon.11522
    CONTEXT: As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers' stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist.

    RESULTS: Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family's closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver.

    CONCLUSIONS: A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of caregivers. Unless research on TBI or DAI trauma is given its proper attention, the burden of trauma and injury on societies will continue to exacerbate globally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  11. Hsu TY, Chirovsky D, Moy FM, Ambegaonkar BM
    Clin Ther, 2013 Apr;35(4):450-60.
    PMID: 23481458 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.02.004
    Although LDL-C is the primary lipid target for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction, HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) have also emerged as CHD risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  12. Kanamori T, Kuze N, Bernard H, Malim TP, Kohshima S
    Am. J. Primatol., 2010 Sep;72(9):820-40.
    PMID: 20653008 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20848
    We observed the diet and activity of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the primary lowland dipterocarp forests of Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, during 2005-2007, including two mast fruitings. We collected 1,785 hr of focal data on 26 orangutans. We identified 1,466 samples of their food plants and conducted a fallen fruit census to monitor fruit availability in the study area. Their activity budget was 47.2% feeding, 34.4% resting, and 16.9% traveling. Fruits accounted for the largest part (60.9%) of feeding time, especially during mast fruiting periods (64.0-100%), although the percentages of leaves (22.2%) and bark (12.3%) were higher than those reported for P. abelii and P. pygmaeus wurmbii. Although 119 genera and 160 plant species were consumed by focal animals, only 9 genera accounted for more than 3% of feeding time (total: 67.8% for 9 genera). In particular, the focal orangutans fed intensively on Ficus and Spatholobus during most of the study period, especially in periods of fruit shortage. The percentage of fruit feeding changed markedly from 11.7 to 100% across different months of the year, and was positively correlated with the amount of fallen fruit. When fruit feeding and availability decreased, orangutans fed primarily on leaves of Spatholobus and Ficus, and the bark of Spatholobus and dipterocarp. The percentage of time devoted to feeding during mast fruitings, when the orangutans foraged almost exclusively on fruits, was lower than during seasons when the orangutan diet included leaves and bark as well as fruits. Resting increased as feeding decreased in the late stage of each fruiting season, suggesting that the orangutans adopted an energy-minimizing strategy to survive the periods of fruit shortage by using energy stored during the fruit season.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  13. Chur-Hansen A
    Med Teach, 2004 Jun;26(4):343-8.
    PMID: 15203848
    International students' medical training often includes an elective placement in their home country to prepare them for practice on graduation. Seven Malaysian students in their final year of medicine were interviewed pre- and post-graduation and asked to reflect on whether they felt adequately prepared for working in Malaysia. These seven international students, who studied medicine in Australia, all returned to Malaysia for six weeks for their elective, and the interviews canvassed their perceptions of this experience, along with their thoughts on how well their training in Australia had prepared them for working in their country of origin. The interview data were qualitatively analysed, and case studies were constructed. Main themes were identified and tabulated. Students voiced similar concerns about how ready they were for working at home. These included a lack of practical skills relative to their Malaysian-trained counterparts, language difficulties, medical communication skill incompatibilities across cultures, expectations to perform complex or unfamiliar tasks with minimal supervision and substantial burdens of responsibility with long working hours. These students did not feel greatly prepared for their return home to practise medicine. The elective placement was not well utilized by the majority of students in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  14. Malays J Nutr, 1999;5(1):-.
    A longitudinal study was conducted to relate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with growth during adolescence. Subjects comprise 70 boys and 69 girls aged between ten and thirteen years at the time of recruitment. Parameters studied include anthropometric measurements and BMR, which was measured by indirect calorimetry using the Deltatrac metabolic monitor. Measurements were carried out serially once every six months, with a total of 713 BMR data points collected over three years. Mean BMR of boys aged 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.28 ± 0.71 MJ/day, 5.73 ± 0.68 MJ/day and 5.92 ± 0.63 MJ/day, respectively; while mean BMR of girls in the 10, 11, 12 and 13 year age groups were 4.96 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 4.85 ± 0.63 MJ/day, 5.05 ± 0.55 MJ/day and 4.94 ± 0.51 MJ/day, respectively. Comparison of measured BMR with BMR values predicted from the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) equations shows that the predictive equations overestimated the BMR of Malaysian boys by 3% and that of girls by 5%. The Henry & Rees (1991) equations for populations in the tropics underestimated BMR of boys and girls by 1% and 2%, respectively. Linear regression equations to predict BMR based on body weight were derived according to sex and age groups. It is recommended that these predictive equations be used for the estimation of BMR of Malaysian adolescents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  15. Hashim Z
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 1992 Aug;38(4):204-5.
    PMID: 1527822
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  16. Abdul Razak I, Esa R
    Dent J Malays, 1988 Nov;10(2):41-4.
    PMID: 3271127
    The present study analysed the development of caries in 653 first permanent molars annually over a period of 5 years in children who were 7 years-old at baseline. The cumulative caries experience increased from 6.0% at baseline to 35.2% at the end of the study period. There were no appreciable differences in the annual incremental rate of caries experience among males and females. At baseline, the Malays and Indians have the highest and lowest caries experience respectively. At 12 years of age, the Chinese have the highest caries experience whilst the data for the Malays and Indians were comparable. The highest cumulative percentage increase in caries experience for the Malays, Chinese and Indians were between the ages of 7 to 8, 9 to 10 and 8 to 9 respectively while the average annual caries increment were 4.5%, 7.3% and 5.0% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  17. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):80-9.
    PMID: 3834290
    Percentile growth charts of weight, length and head circumference, from birth to six years of age, for boys and girls, are presented. These can be used to monitor the growth of Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  18. Man REK, Veerappan AR, Tan SP, Fenwick EK, Sabanayagam C, Chua J, et al.
    Ocul Surf, 2017 Oct;15(4):742-748.
    PMID: 28442380 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtos.2017.04.004
    PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence of symptomatic dry eye disease (SDED) and associated risk factors in a well-characterized cohort of ethnic Malays in Singapore.

    METHODS: We included 1682 participants (mean age [SD]: 57 [10]years; 55.4% female) without SDED from the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES), a population-based longitudinal study with baseline examination (SiMES-1) conducted between 2004 and 2006, and follow-up examination (SiMES-2) conducted between 2010 and 2013. SDED was considered to be present if a participant answered "often" or "all the time" to any of the six questions from the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Study dry eye questionnaire. Age-standardized incidence of SDED was calculated as the crude 6-year cumulative incidence standardized to Singapore's population census. Gender-stratified multivariable log-binomial regression models were utilized to determine the independent risk factors of incident SDED.

    RESULTS: At the 6-year follow-up, 86 of 1682 participants had developed SDED, which was equivalent to an age-standardized 6-year incidence of 5.1% (95% CI 4.1-6.4%). There were no differences in the incidence of SDED between men and women (P = 0.9). Multivariable models revealed that presence of glaucoma and poorer self-rated health were independently associated with incident SDED in men (P = 0.003 and 0.03, respectively), while contact lens wear (P = 0.002), history of thyroid disease (P = 0.03), and having had cataract surgery (P = 0.02) were predictive of incident SDED in women.

    CONCLUSION: One in twenty adult Malays developed SDED over a 6-year period. Risk factors for incident SDED were different between men and women. Future studies and public health interventions should consider this gender-specific difference in risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  19. Afolalu EF, Ramlee F, Tang NKY
    Sleep Med Rev, 2018 06;39:82-97.
    PMID: 29056414 DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2017.08.001
    Emerging longitudinal research has highlighted poor sleep as a risk factor of a range of adverse health outcomes, including disabling pain conditions. In establishing the causal role of sleep in pain, it remains to be clarified whether sleep deterioration over time is a driver of pain and whether sleep improvement can mitigate pain-related outcomes. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and Proquest PsycINFO, to identify 16 longitudinal studies involving 61,000 participants. The studies evaluated the effect of sleep changes (simulating sleep deterioration, sleep stability, and sleep improvement) on subsequent pain-related outcomes in the general population. A decline in sleep quality and sleep quantity was associated with a two- to three-fold increase in risk of developing a pain condition, small elevations in levels of inflammatory markers, and a decline in self-reported physical health status. An exploratory meta-analysis further revealed that deterioration in sleep was associated with worse self-reported physical functioning (medium effect size), whilst improvement in sleep was associated with better physical functioning (small effect size). The review consolidates evidence that changes in sleep are prospectively associated with pain-related outcomes and highlights the need for further longitudinal investigations on the long-term impact of sleep improvements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  20. Romli MH, Tan MP, Mackenzie L, Lovarini M, Kamaruzzaman SB, Clemson L
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2018 Mar;18(3):387-395.
    PMID: 29139186 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13189
    AIM: Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards.

    METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months.

    RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
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