Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 195 in total

  1. Tan TL, Tang YJ, Ching LJ, Abdullah N, Neoh HM
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 12;8(1):16698.
    PMID: 30420768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35144-6
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the ability of the qSOFA in predicting short- (≤30 days or in-hospital mortality) and long-term (>30 days) mortality among patients outside the intensive care unit setting. Studies reporting on the qSOFA and mortality were searched using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection and usage of qSOFA score for mortality prognostication. Data on qSOFA scores and mortality rates were extracted from 36 studies. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for the qSOFA were 48% and 86% for short-term mortality and 32% and 92% for long-term mortality, respectively. Studies reporting on short-term mortality were heterogeneous (Odd ratio, OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.6-6.8; Higgins's I2 = 94%), while long-term mortality studies were homogenous (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.5-6.1; Higgins's I2 = 0%). There was no publication bias for short-term mortality analysis. The qSOFA score showed poor sensitivity but moderate specificity for both short and long-term mortality, with similar performance in predicting both short- and long- term mortality. Geographical region was shown to have nominal significant (p = 0.05) influence on qSOFA short-term mortality prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  2. Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40(10):1147-1151.
    Bone formation has been associated with the presence of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This longitudinal study was carried out to observe its activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic fixed appliance treatment. Fourteen patients between the ages of 15 and 27 years old with moderate upper labial segment crowding were recruited from postgraduate orthodontic clinic. GCF from mesial and distal sites of upper canines were collected using endodontic paper point before the fixed appliance placement (week 0). The baseline level of ALP (week 0) acted as a control. Samplings of GCF were repeated at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week during orthodontic treatment. The activities of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer (405 nm). Paired sample t-test was used to assess the significance of difference over the 3 weeks. Although the results showed patterns of ALP activities on the test teeth throughout the 3 weeks of leveling and alignment stage, however the results were not significant (p >0.05) when compared to control. Therefore, it has been shown that there was no significant pattern of ALP activities in GCF in patients undergoing leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  3. Loo JMY, Kraus SW, Potenza MN
    J Behav Addict, 2019 Dec 01;8(4):625-648.
    PMID: 31830810 DOI: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.64
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This systematic review analyzes and summarizes gambling-related findings from the nationally representative US National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.

    METHODS: Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 51 eligible studies that met inclusion criteria. Eight studies utilized both Waves 1 and 2 NESARC data, and selection of sample sizes varied from 185 to 43,093 individuals, consistent with specified research objectives of each study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling was 0.42% (0.64% among men, 0.23% among women), while past-year prevalence was 0.16%. Pathological gambling rates were generally higher in populations with substance-use disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. Rates of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal attempts were higher among individuals with problem or pathological gambling. Early-onset gamblers were more likely to be male, be never married, have incomes below $70,000, belong to younger cohorts and have Cluster B personality disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders. While pathological gambling was related to obesity, increased stress, and poorer physical health among general age groups, recreational gambling was linked with improved physical and mental functioning in older adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NESARC has provided important information on the correlates of pathological gambling and subdiagnostic patterns of gambling behaviors. Additional studies should examine these relationships in the current gambling environment and longitudinally with aims of implementing policies to improve the public health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  4. Jahanfar S, Lye MS, Krishnarajah IS
    Indian J Hum Genet, 2013 Apr;19(2):245-50.
    PMID: 24019629 DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.116127
    INTRODUCTION: Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors.

    OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche.

    METHODOLOGY: A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood.

    RESULTS: Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%).

    DISCUSSION: Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins.

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  5. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1977 Sep;32(1):17-21.
    PMID: 609337
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  6. Goh TH, Hariharan M, Tan CH
    Contraception, 1980 Oct;22(4):389-95.
    PMID: 7449387
    The increase in menstrual blood loss associated with copper-bearing IUDs may cause or aggravate pre-existing anaemia. In order to evaluate this risk, 84 Malaysian women wearing copper-IUDs were studied longitudinally by means of serial measurements of blood haemoglobin concentration (Hb), serum iron (S/Fe) and transferrin saturation (T/S). The initial Hb was under 12 gm% in 33.7% of patients. The mean Hb showed no significant change up to 12 months while S/Fe fell significantly at the end of this time; the T/S was significantly reduced as early as 6 months post-insertion. There is a significant risk of anaemia following copper-IUD insertion, particularly with long-term usage. Progestogen-releasing IUDs may offer the most feasible solution to this problem in our local context since oral medication with iron or drugs to reduce menstrual blood loss is not practicable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  7. Kioh SH, Mat S, Kamaruzzaman SB, Ibrahim F, Mokhtar MS, Hairi NN, et al.
    J Aging Phys Act, 2019 Nov 21.
    PMID: 31756717 DOI: 10.1123/japa.2019-0011
    The current evidence on the relationship between a higher body mass index (BMI) and falls in older adults is conflicting. This study, therefore, evaluated the relationship between BMI and falls and explored underlying mechanisms for this relationship. Data from 1,340 individuals from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study, obtained through home-based computer-assisted interviews and followed by hospital-based health checks, were utilized. A history of the presence of falls in the previous 12 months was obtained. The presence of at least one fall in the past 12 months was associated with a higher BMI (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.06]). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls was, however, attenuated by a lower percentage of lean body mass, which accounted for 69% of the total effect of BMI on the risk of falls. Future studies should now investigate this aforementioned relationship prospectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  8. Teh JKL, Tey NP
    SSM Popul Health, 2019 Dec;9:100479.
    PMID: 31646167 DOI: 10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100479
    This study examined three types of leisure activities (playing cards/mahjong, watching TV/listening to the radio, and participation in social activities) among the older segment of the Chinese population, and the effects of these activities in preventing the feelings of loneliness. Data came from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), conducted in 2005, 2008, and 2011. The males, those who were educated, the young-old (aged between 65 and 74 years), urban dwellers, and living in institutions were more likely to participate in all three activities frequently. Frequent or occasional participation in these three activities was negatively associated with feelings of loneliness. The longitudinal study from 2005 to 2011 showed that respondents who frequently played cards/mahjong at baseline were less likely to feel persistent loneliness at the end of the 2011 wave. Instead, frequently watching TV/listening to the radio in 2008 was associated with lower odds in feeling persistent loneliness at the end of 2011. Hence, active participation in playing cards/mahjong and TV/radio entertainment can be effective treatment intervention against persistent loneliness among older Chinese. For the Chinese, a leisure activity steeped in a nation's culture and heritage, such as playing mahjong, may be used as an intervention strategy to prevent and alleviate chronic loneliness among older adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  9. Gabriel R
    Malays J Reprod Health, 1992 Jun;10(1):19-22.
    PMID: 12345025
    PIP: Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies*
  10. Liber AC, Ross H, Omar M, Chaloupka FJ
    Tob Control, 2015 Jul;24 Suppl 3:iii83-iii87.
    PMID: 25808666 DOI: 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-052028
    Study the effects of the 2011 Malaysian minimum price law (MPL) on prices of licit and illicit cigarette brands. Identify barriers to the MPL achieving positive public health effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  11. Kanamori T, Kuze N, Bernard H, Malim TP, Kohshima S
    Am. J. Primatol., 2010 Sep;72(9):820-40.
    PMID: 20653008 DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20848
    We observed the diet and activity of Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus morio) in the primary lowland dipterocarp forests of Danum Valley, Sabah, Malaysia, during 2005-2007, including two mast fruitings. We collected 1,785 hr of focal data on 26 orangutans. We identified 1,466 samples of their food plants and conducted a fallen fruit census to monitor fruit availability in the study area. Their activity budget was 47.2% feeding, 34.4% resting, and 16.9% traveling. Fruits accounted for the largest part (60.9%) of feeding time, especially during mast fruiting periods (64.0-100%), although the percentages of leaves (22.2%) and bark (12.3%) were higher than those reported for P. abelii and P. pygmaeus wurmbii. Although 119 genera and 160 plant species were consumed by focal animals, only 9 genera accounted for more than 3% of feeding time (total: 67.8% for 9 genera). In particular, the focal orangutans fed intensively on Ficus and Spatholobus during most of the study period, especially in periods of fruit shortage. The percentage of fruit feeding changed markedly from 11.7 to 100% across different months of the year, and was positively correlated with the amount of fallen fruit. When fruit feeding and availability decreased, orangutans fed primarily on leaves of Spatholobus and Ficus, and the bark of Spatholobus and dipterocarp. The percentage of time devoted to feeding during mast fruitings, when the orangutans foraged almost exclusively on fruits, was lower than during seasons when the orangutan diet included leaves and bark as well as fruits. Resting increased as feeding decreased in the late stage of each fruiting season, suggesting that the orangutans adopted an energy-minimizing strategy to survive the periods of fruit shortage by using energy stored during the fruit season.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  12. Syed Hassan ST, Jamaludin H, Abd Raman R, Mohd Riji H, Wan Fei K
    Trauma Mon, 2013 Sep;18(2):56-61.
    PMID: 24350153 DOI: 10.5812/traumamon.11522
    CONTEXT: As with care giving and rehabilitation in chronic illnesses, the concern with traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), is that the caregivers are so overwhelmingly involved in caring and rehabilitation of the victim that in the process they become traumatized themselves. This review intends to shed light on the hidden and silent trauma sustained by the caregivers of severe brain injury survivors. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) is the highest contributor of TBI or DAI. The essence of trauma is the infliction of pain and suffering and having to bear the pain (i.e. by the TBI survivor) and the burden of having to take care and manage and rehabilitate the TBI survivor (i.e. by the TBI caregiver). Moreover many caregivers are not trained for their care giving task, thus compounding the stress of care giving and rehabilitating patients. Most research on TBI including DAI, focus on the survivors and not on the caregivers. TBI injury and its effects and impacts remain the core question of most studies, which are largely based on the quantitative approach.

    EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Qualitative research can better assess human sufferings such as in the case of DAI trauma. While quantitative research can measure many psychometric parameters to assess some aspects of trauma conditions, qualitative research is able to fully reveal the meaning, ramification and experience of TBI trauma. Both care giving and rehabilitation are overwhelmingly demanding; hence , they may complicate the caregivers' stress. However, some positive outcomes also exist.

    RESULTS: Caregivers involved in caring and rehabilitation of TBI victims may become mentally traumatized. Posttraumatic recovery of the TBI survivor can enhance the entire family's closeness and bonding as well as improve the mental status of the caregiver.

    CONCLUSIONS: A long-term longitudinal study encompassing integrated research is needed to fully understand the traumatic experiences of caregivers. Unless research on TBI or DAI trauma is given its proper attention, the burden of trauma and injury on societies will continue to exacerbate globally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  13. Hsu TY, Chirovsky D, Moy FM, Ambegaonkar BM
    Clin Ther, 2013 Apr;35(4):450-60.
    PMID: 23481458 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.02.004
    Although LDL-C is the primary lipid target for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk reduction, HDL-C and triglycerides (TG) have also emerged as CHD risk factors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  14. Chur-Hansen A
    Med Teach, 2004 Jun;26(4):343-8.
    PMID: 15203848
    International students' medical training often includes an elective placement in their home country to prepare them for practice on graduation. Seven Malaysian students in their final year of medicine were interviewed pre- and post-graduation and asked to reflect on whether they felt adequately prepared for working in Malaysia. These seven international students, who studied medicine in Australia, all returned to Malaysia for six weeks for their elective, and the interviews canvassed their perceptions of this experience, along with their thoughts on how well their training in Australia had prepared them for working in their country of origin. The interview data were qualitatively analysed, and case studies were constructed. Main themes were identified and tabulated. Students voiced similar concerns about how ready they were for working at home. These included a lack of practical skills relative to their Malaysian-trained counterparts, language difficulties, medical communication skill incompatibilities across cultures, expectations to perform complex or unfamiliar tasks with minimal supervision and substantial burdens of responsibility with long working hours. These students did not feel greatly prepared for their return home to practise medicine. The elective placement was not well utilized by the majority of students in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  15. Hashim Z
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 1992 Aug;38(4):204-5.
    PMID: 1527822
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  16. Chen ST
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):80-9.
    PMID: 3834290
    Percentile growth charts of weight, length and head circumference, from birth to six years of age, for boys and girls, are presented. These can be used to monitor the growth of Malaysian children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  17. Abdul Razak I, Esa R
    Dent J Malays, 1988 Nov;10(2):41-4.
    PMID: 3271127
    The present study analysed the development of caries in 653 first permanent molars annually over a period of 5 years in children who were 7 years-old at baseline. The cumulative caries experience increased from 6.0% at baseline to 35.2% at the end of the study period. There were no appreciable differences in the annual incremental rate of caries experience among males and females. At baseline, the Malays and Indians have the highest and lowest caries experience respectively. At 12 years of age, the Chinese have the highest caries experience whilst the data for the Malays and Indians were comparable. The highest cumulative percentage increase in caries experience for the Malays, Chinese and Indians were between the ages of 7 to 8, 9 to 10 and 8 to 9 respectively while the average annual caries increment were 4.5%, 7.3% and 5.0% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  18. Idris, I.B., Shamsudin K., Aniza, I, Khairani, O, Rahmah M.A.
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric diagnosis made when someone including children who experiences traumatic stressor. Those who are exposed to a more severe trauma have highest level of PTSD. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of PTSD and its associated factors among 219 children who were affected by a form of natural disaster which is the tsunami waves in a rural area in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was carried out among children aged 10-12 years 6 months after the traumatic event. Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder –Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) was used as a screening instrument which was answered by the affected children through a self-administered questionnaire. Forty six percent of these children had PTSD symptoms; 31.1% of these children had mild, 11.4% had moderate, 3.7% had severe PTSD and none had very severe PTSD. Result also showed that 91.8% had re-experiencing symptoms, 28.3% had numbing/avoidance symptoms and 49.3% had hyperarousal symptoms. Children with low social support (Adj OR = 2.3 (95% CI: = 1.3- 4.2)), and children who experienced deaths among someone close to them (Adj OR = 3.7 (95% CI =1.2 - 11.5)) were more likely to have symptoms of PTSD. This showed that children are at higher risk of developing PTSD as early as 6 months after the event and thus early intervention should be offered to them. Future longitudinal study can be carried out among affected children to assess whether these PTSD symptoms persist over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  19. Goh. SY, Ropilah, AR, Othmaliza, O, Mushawiahti, M
    Diabetic retinopathy is a disease involving microangiopathic changes in response to chronic hyperglycaemia and pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) is currently the mainstay of treatment for proliferative retinopathy. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP) on retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography (OCT). This was a prospective longitudinal study. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or very severe non-(N)PDR requiring laser treatment were included in the study. PRP was performed by a single trained personnel. Peripapillary RNFL located 3.4 mm around the optic disc was evaluated using time-domain OCT. Examination was performed before treatment, and 2 and 4 months after laser treatment. In total, 39 subjects (39 eyes) were recruited into this study. Twenty-nine patients had PDR and 10 had very severe NPDR. Mean age was 54.97 ± 8.38 years. Male and female genders were almost equally distributed with 18 males and 21 females. Median thickness of average RNFL at baseline was 108.8 um (interquartile range [IQR] 35.3). At two months post-procedure, average RNFL thickness significantly increased to 117.4 (IQR 28.6; P = 0.006). Although, other quadrants revealed a similar trend of increasing thickness at two months but it was not significant. At 4 months post-laser treatment, RNFL thickness in all quadrants reduced to baseline levels with insignificant changes of thickness compared to prior to laser treatment. There was also no significant association between changes in RNFL thickness and HbA1c levels (P = 0.77). In conclusion, PRP causes transient thickening of the RNFL which recovers within 4 months post-laser treatment. At the same time, poor sugar control has no direct influence on the RNFL changes after PRP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
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