Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 386 in total

  1. Jasim Mohammed M, Ibrahim RW, Ahmad MZ
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2017 Mar;24(3):737-740.
    PMID: 28386204 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.01.050
    In this paper, we consider a low initial population model. Our aim is to study the periodicity computation of this model by using neutral differential equations, which are recognized in various studies including biology. We generalize the neutral Rayleigh equation for the third-order by exploiting the model of fractional calculus, in particular the Riemann-Liouville differential operator. We establish the existence and uniqueness of a periodic computational outcome. The technique depends on the continuation theorem of the coincidence degree theory. Besides, an example is presented to demonstrate the finding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  2. Zaki R, Bulgiba A, Nordin N, Azina Ismail N
    PMID: 23997908
    Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  3. Liau QY, Leow CY, Ding Z
    Sensors (Basel), 2016 Jun 09;16(6).
    PMID: 27294924 DOI: 10.3390/s16060846
    Relaying is one of the useful techniques to enhance wireless physical-layer security. Existing literature shows that employing full-duplex relay instead of conventional half-duplex relay improves secrecy capacity and secrecy outage probability, but this is at the price of sophisticated implementation. As an alternative, two-path successive relaying has been proposed to emulate operation of full-duplex relay by scheduling a pair of half-duplex relays to assist the source transmission alternately. However, the performance of two-path successive relaying in secrecy communication remains unexplored. This paper proposes a secrecy two-path successive relaying protocol for a scenario with one source, one destination and two half-duplex relays. The relays operate alternately in a time division mode to forward messages continuously from source to destination in the presence of an eavesdropper. Analytical results reveal that the use of two half-duplex relays in the proposed scheme contributes towards a quadratically lower probability of interception compared to full-duplex relaying. Numerical simulations show that the proposed protocol achieves the ergodic achievable secrecy rate of full-duplex relaying while delivering the lowest probability of interception and secrecy outage probability compared to the existing half duplex relaying, full duplex relaying and full duplex jamming schemes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  4. Abu Hassan MR, Abu Bakar MH, Dambul K, Adikan FR
    Sensors (Basel), 2012;12(11):15820-6.
    PMID: 23202233 DOI: 10.3390/s121115820
    In this paper, we present the development and testing of an optical-based sensor for monitoring the corrosion of reinforcement rebar. The testing was carried out using an 80% etched-cladding Fibre Bragg grating sensor to monitor the production of corrosion waste in a localized region of the rebar. Progression of corrosion can be sensed by observing the reflected wavelength shift of the FBG sensor. With the presence of corrosion, the etched-FBG reflected spectrum was shifted by 1.0 nm. In addition, with an increase in fringe pattern and continuously, step-like drop in power of the Bragg reflected spectrum was also displayed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  5. Dong L, Zhang H, Sun S, Zhu L, Cui X, Ghosh BK
    Sensors (Basel), 2020 Apr 01;20(7).
    PMID: 32244774 DOI: 10.3390/s20071976
    Embedded encryption devices and smart sensors are vulnerable to physical attacks. Due to the continuous shrinking of chip size, laser injection, particle radiation and electromagnetic transient injection are possible methods that introduce transient multiple faults. In the fault analysis stage, the adversary is unclear about the actual number of faults injected. Typically, the single-nibble fault analysis encounters difficulties. Therefore, in this paper, we propose novel ciphertext-only impossible differentials that can analyze the number of random faults to six nibbles. We use the impossible differentials to exclude the secret key that definitely does not exist, and then gradually obtain the unique secret key through inverse difference equations. Using software simulation, we conducted 32,000 random multiple fault attacks on Midori. The experiments were carried out to verify the theoretical model of multiple fault attacks. We obtain the relationship between fault injection and information content. To reduce the number of fault attacks, we further optimized the fault attack method. The secret key can be obtained at least 11 times. The proposed ciphertext-only impossible differential analysis provides an effective method for random multiple faults analysis, which would be helpful for improving the security of block ciphers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  6. Sheldon RS
    Clin. Auton. Res., 2020 04;30(2):101-103.
    PMID: 31925588 DOI: 10.1007/s10286-019-00663-3
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  7. Ahmad Ruzain, S., Zar Chi, T., Syed Baharom, S.A.F.
    Medicine & Health, 2018;13(2):164-169.
    Presented herein is a case of one different morphological anomaly of pronator quadratus (PQ) muscle. Here, the shape of PQ was not similar to the normal morphology of the muscle. The PQ muscle appeared to be in distinct triangular-shaped instead of quadrangular-shaped. In addition, this triangular-shaped was found in two sites i.e. proximal and distal. Significantly, the PQ muscle consisted of two fleshy red fibres and white aponeurosis. Proximally placed portion had a wide base and a narrower apex. The larger base was attached to the ulna and formed of fleshy red fibres which converged laterally to be continuous with aponeurosis ending on the radius. In contrast, the distal triangular portion had the fleshy fibres attached to the radius and converged medially to be continuous with aponeurotic portions on the ulna. Each portion were referred as pronator triangularis proximalis and pronator triangularis distalis. These variations might affect atypically in cases of forearm pronation. Information of these variations is important in hand surgeries and provide an additional knowledge on the relationship between morphology of PQ muscle and the limitation or the strength in the action of it.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  8. Nadzirah S, Gopinath SCB, Parmin NA, Hamzah AA, Mohamed MA, Chang EY, et al.
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2020 Sep 30.
    PMID: 32997522 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2020.1816447
    Biosensors operating based on electrical methods are being accelerated toward rapid and efficient detection that improve the performance of the device. Continuous study in nano- and material-sciences has led to the inflection with properties of nanomaterials that fit the trend parallel to the biosensor evolution. Advancements in technology that focuses on nano-hybrid are being used to develop biosensors with better detection strategies. In this sense, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials have attracted extensive interest in the construction of electrical biosensors. The formation of TiO2 nano-hybrid as an electrical transducing material has revealed good results with high performance. The modification of the sensing portion with a combination (nano-hybrid form) of nanomaterials has produced excellent sensors in terms of stability, reproducibility, and enhanced sensitivity. This review highlights recent research advancements with functional TiO2 nano-hybrid materials, and their victorious story in the construction of electrical biosensors are discussed. Future research directions with commercialization of these devices and their extensive utilizations are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  9. Rahman NH, Tanaka H, Shin SD, Ng YY, Piyasuwankul T, Lin CH, et al.
    Int J Emerg Med, 2015;8:12.
    PMID: 25932052 DOI: 10.1186/s12245-015-0062-7
    One of the key principles in the recommended standards is that emergency medical service (EMS) providers should continuously monitor the quality and safety of their services. This requires service providers to implement performance monitoring using appropriate and relevant measures including key performance indicators. In Asia, EMS systems are at different developmental phases and maturity. This will create difficultly in benchmarking or assessing the quality of EMS performance across the region. An attempt was made to compare the EMS performance index based on the structure, process, and outcome analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  10. Abdullah N, Fulazzaky MA, Yong EL, Yuzir A, Sallis P
    J Environ Manage, 2016 Mar 1;168:273-9.
    PMID: 26760229 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.12.015
    The treatment of high-strength organic brewery wastewater with added acetaminophen (AAP) by an anaerobic digester was investigated. An anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) was operated as a continuous process with an organic loading rate of 1.5-g COD per litre per day and a hydraulic retention time of three days. The results of steady-state analysis showed that the greatest APBR performances for removing COD and TOC were as high as 98 and 93%, respectively, even though the anaerobic digestibility after adding the different AAP concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) into brewery wastewater can affect the efficiency of organic matter removal. The average CH4 production decreased from 81 to 72% is counterbalanced by the increased CO2 production from 11 to 20% before and after the injection of AAP, respectively. The empirical kinetic models for substrate utilisation and CH4 production were used to predict that, under unfavourable conditions, the performance of the APBR treatment process is able to remove COD with an efficiency of only 6.8%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  11. N Ahmed M, Abdullah AH, Kaiwartya O
    PLoS One, 2016;11(6):e0156885.
    PMID: 27285146 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156885
    Due to the continuous advancements in wireless communication in terms of quality of communication and affordability of the technology, the application area of Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) significantly growing particularly in military and disaster management. Considering the sensitivity of the application areas, security in terms of detection of Denial of Service (DoS) and intrusion has become prime concern in research and development in the area. The security systems suggested in the past has state recognition problem where the system is not able to accurately identify the actual state of the network nodes due to the absence of clear definition of states of the nodes. In this context, this paper proposes a framework based on Finite State Machine (FSM) for denial of service and intrusion detection in MANETs. In particular, an Interruption Detection system for Adhoc On-demand Distance Vector (ID-AODV) protocol is presented based on finite state machine. The packet dropping and sequence number attacks are closely investigated and detection systems for both types of attacks are designed. The major functional modules of ID-AODV includes network monitoring system, finite state machine and attack detection model. Simulations are carried out in network simulator NS-2 to evaluate the performance of the proposed framework. A comparative evaluation of the performance is also performed with the state-of-the-art techniques: RIDAN and AODV. The performance evaluations attest the benefits of proposed framework in terms of providing better security for denial of service and intrusion detection attacks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  12. Yoon YK, Choon TS
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2016 Jan;349(1):1-8.
    PMID: 26616218 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201500337
    Benzimidazole derivatives have been shown to possess sirtuin-inhibitory activity. In the continuous search for potent sirtuin inhibitors, systematic changes on the terminal benzene ring were performed on previously identified benzimidazole-based sirtuin inhibitors, to further investigate their structure-activity relationships. It was demonstrated that the sirtuin activities of these novel compounds followed the trend where meta-substituted compounds possessed markedly weaker potency than ortho- and para-substituted compounds, with the exception of halogenated substituents. Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize these observations. Apart from this, the methods used to synthesize the interesting compounds are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  13. Bonn GB
    Front Psychol, 2013;4:920.
    PMID: 24367349 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00920
    This paper examines the concept of free will, or independent action, in light of recent research in psychology and neuroscience. Reviewing findings in memory, prospection, and mental simulation, as well as the neurological mechanisms underlying behavioral control, planning, and integration, it is suggested in accord with previous arguments (e.g., Wegner, 2003; Harris, 2012) that a folk conception of free will as entirely conscious control over behavior should be rejected. However, it is argued that, when taken together, these findings can also support an alternative conception of free will. The constructive nature of memory and an integrative "default network" provide the means for novel and creative combinations of information, such as the imagining of counterfactual scenarios and alternative courses of action. Considering recent findings of extensive functional connections between these systems and those that subsume motor control and goal maintenance, it is argued that individuals have the capability of producing novel ideas and translating them into actionable goals. Although most of these processes take place beneath conscious awareness, it is argued that they are unique to the individual and thus, can be considered a form of independent control over behavior, or free will.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  14. Ng SM, Narayanaswamy R
    Anal Chim Acta, 2011 Oct 10;703(2):226-33.
    PMID: 21889638 DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.07.032
    Despite the increasing number of usage of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in optical sensor application, the correlation between the analytical signals and the binding isotherms has yet to be fully understood. This work investigates the relationship between the signals generated from MIPs sensors to its respective binding affinity variables generated using binding isotherm models. Two different systems based on the imprinting of metal ion and organic compound have been selected for the study, which employed reflectance and fluorescence sensing schemes, respectively. Batch binding analysis using the standard binding isotherm models was employed to evaluate the affinity of the binding sites. Evaluation using the discrete bi-Langmuir isotherm model found both the MIPs studied have generally two classes of binding sites that was of low and high affinities, while the continuous Freundlich isotherm model has successfully generated a distribution of affinities within the investigated analytical window. When the MIPs were incorporated as sensing receptors, the changes in the analytical signal due to different analyte concentrations were found to have direct correlation with the binding isotherm variables. Further data analyses based on this observation have generated robust models representing the analytical performance of the optical sensors. The best constructed model describing the sensing trend for each of the sensor has been tested and demonstrated to give accurate prediction of concentration for a series of spiked analytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  15. Tan TL, Tang YJ, Ching LJ, Abdullah N, Neoh HM
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 12;8(1):16698.
    PMID: 30420768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35144-6
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the ability of the qSOFA in predicting short- (≤30 days or in-hospital mortality) and long-term (>30 days) mortality among patients outside the intensive care unit setting. Studies reporting on the qSOFA and mortality were searched using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection and usage of qSOFA score for mortality prognostication. Data on qSOFA scores and mortality rates were extracted from 36 studies. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for the qSOFA were 48% and 86% for short-term mortality and 32% and 92% for long-term mortality, respectively. Studies reporting on short-term mortality were heterogeneous (Odd ratio, OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.6-6.8; Higgins's I2 = 94%), while long-term mortality studies were homogenous (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.5-6.1; Higgins's I2 = 0%). There was no publication bias for short-term mortality analysis. The qSOFA score showed poor sensitivity but moderate specificity for both short and long-term mortality, with similar performance in predicting both short- and long- term mortality. Geographical region was shown to have nominal significant (p = 0.05) influence on qSOFA short-term mortality prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  16. Teng KH, Kot P, Muradov M, Shaw A, Hashim K, Gkantou M, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2019 Jan 28;19(3).
    PMID: 30696110 DOI: 10.3390/s19030547
    : Concrete failure will lead to serious safety concerns in the performance of a building structure. It is one of the biggest challenges for engineers to inspect and maintain the quality of concrete throughout the service years in order to prevent structural deterioration. To date, a lot of research is ongoing to develop different instruments to inspect concrete quality. Detection of moisture ingress is important in the structural monitoring of concrete. This paper presents a novel sensing technique using a smart antenna for the non-destructive evaluation of moisture content and deterioration inspection in concrete blocks. Two different standard concrete samples (United Kingdom and Malaysia) were investigated in this research. An electromagnetic (EM) sensor was designed and embedded inside the concrete to detect the moisture content within the structure. In addition, CST microwave studio was used to validate the theoretical model of the EM sensor against the test data. The results demonstrated that the EM sensor at 2.45 GHz is capable of detecting the moisture content in the concrete with linear regression of R² = 0.9752. Furthermore, identification of different mix ratios of concrete were successfully demonstrated in this paper. In conclusion, the EM sensor is capable of detecting moisture content non-destructively and could be a potential technique for maintenance and quality control of the building performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  17. Asma Alhusna Abang Abdullah, Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab, Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2011;40(10):1147-1151.
    Bone formation has been associated with the presence of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase (ALP). This longitudinal study was carried out to observe its activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic fixed appliance treatment. Fourteen patients between the ages of 15 and 27 years old with moderate upper labial segment crowding were recruited from postgraduate orthodontic clinic. GCF from mesial and distal sites of upper canines were collected using endodontic paper point before the fixed appliance placement (week 0). The baseline level of ALP (week 0) acted as a control. Samplings of GCF were repeated at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week during orthodontic treatment. The activities of ALP were measured using spectrophotometer (405 nm). Paired sample t-test was used to assess the significance of difference over the 3 weeks. Although the results showed patterns of ALP activities on the test teeth throughout the 3 weeks of leveling and alignment stage, however the results were not significant (p >0.05) when compared to control. Therefore, it has been shown that there was no significant pattern of ALP activities in GCF in patients undergoing leveling and alignment stage of orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  18. Loo JMY, Kraus SW, Potenza MN
    J Behav Addict, 2019 Dec 01;8(4):625-648.
    PMID: 31830810 DOI: 10.1556/2006.8.2019.64
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This systematic review analyzes and summarizes gambling-related findings from the nationally representative US National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data.

    METHODS: Systematic literature searches in accordance with PRISMA guidelines found 51 eligible studies that met inclusion criteria. Eight studies utilized both Waves 1 and 2 NESARC data, and selection of sample sizes varied from 185 to 43,093 individuals, consistent with specified research objectives of each study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime pathological gambling was 0.42% (0.64% among men, 0.23% among women), while past-year prevalence was 0.16%. Pathological gambling rates were generally higher in populations with substance-use disorders and other psychiatric diagnoses. Rates of adverse childhood experiences and suicidal attempts were higher among individuals with problem or pathological gambling. Early-onset gamblers were more likely to be male, be never married, have incomes below $70,000, belong to younger cohorts and have Cluster B personality disorders, but less likely to be diagnosed with mood disorders. While pathological gambling was related to obesity, increased stress, and poorer physical health among general age groups, recreational gambling was linked with improved physical and mental functioning in older adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: The NESARC has provided important information on the correlates of pathological gambling and subdiagnostic patterns of gambling behaviors. Additional studies should examine these relationships in the current gambling environment and longitudinally with aims of implementing policies to improve the public health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
  19. Mat Nawi NI, Abd Halim NS, Lee LC, Wirzal MDH, Bilad MR, Nordin NAH, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Jan 21;12(2).
    PMID: 31973178 DOI: 10.3390/polym12020252
    The competitiveness of algae as biofuel feedstock leads to the growth of membrane filtration as one of promising technologies for algae harvesting. Nanofiber membrane (NFM) was found to be efficient for microalgae harvesting via membrane filtration, but it is highly limited by its weak mechanical strength. The main objective of this study is to enhance the applicability of nylon 6,6 NFM for microalgae filtration by optimizing the operational parameters and applying solvent vapor treatment to improve its mechanical strength. The relaxation period and filtration cycle could be optimized to improve the hydraulic performance. For a cycle of 5 min., relaxation period of ≤2 min shows the highest steady-state permeability of 365 ± 14.14 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, while for 10 min cycle, 3 min. of relaxation period was found optimum that yields permeability of 402 ± 34.47 L m-2 h-1 bar-1. The treated nylon 6,6 NFM was also used to study the effect of aeration rate. It is confirmed that the aeration rate enhances the steady-state performance for both intermittent and continuous mode of aeration. Remarkably, intermittent aeration shows 7% better permeability than the full aeration for all tested condition, which is beneficial for reducing the total energy consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Longitudinal Studies
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