METHODS: Long-term LTFU was defined as LTFU occurring after 5 years on ART. LTFU was defined as (1) patients not seen in the previous 12 months; and (2) patients not seen in the previous 6 months. Factors associated with LTFU were analysed using competing risk regression.
RESULTS: Under the 12-month definition, the LTFU rate was 2.0 per 100 person-years (PY) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.2 among 4889 patients included in the study. LTFU was associated with age > 50 years [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.64; 95% CI 1.17-2.31] compared with 31-40 years, viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (SHR 1.86; 95% CI 1.16-2.97) compared with viral load < 1000 copies/mL, and hepatitis C coinfection (SHR 1.48; 95% CI 1.06-2.05). LTFU was less likely to occur in females, in individuals with higher CD4 counts, in those with self-reported adherence ≥ 95%, and in those living in high-income countries. The 6-month LTFU definition produced an incidence rate of 3.2 per 100 PY (95% CI 2.9-3.4 and had similar associations but with greater risks of LTFU for ART initiation in later years (2006-2009: SHR 2.38; 95% CI 1.93-2.94; and 2010-2011: SHR 4.26; 95% CI 3.17-5.73) compared with 2003-2005.
CONCLUSIONS: The long-term LTFU rate in our cohort was low, with older age being associated with LTFU. The increased risk of LTFU with later years of ART initiation in the 6-month analysis, but not the 12-month analysis, implies that there was a possible move towards longer HIV clinic scheduling in Asia.
SETTING: Asian regional cohort incorporating 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.
METHODS: Data from PHIVA (aged 10-19 years) who received combination antiretroviral therapy 2007-2016 were used to analyze LTFU through (1) an International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) method that determined LTFU as >90 days late for an estimated next scheduled appointment without returning to care and (2) the absence of patient-level data for >365 days before the last data transfer from clinic sites. Descriptive analyses and competing-risk survival and regression analyses were used to evaluate LTFU epidemiology and associated factors when analyzed using each method.
RESULTS: Of 3509 included PHIVA, 275 (7.8%) met IeDEA and 149 (4.3%) met 365-day absence LTFU criteria. Cumulative incidence of LTFU was 19.9% and 11.8% using IeDEA and 365-day absence criteria, respectively. Risk factors for LTFU across both criteria included the following: age at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation <5 years compared with age ≥5 years, rural clinic settings compared with urban clinic settings, and high viral loads compared with undetectable viral loads. Age 10-14 years compared with age 15-19 years was another risk factor identified using 365-day absence criteria but not IeDEA LTFU criteria.
CONCLUSIONS: Between 12% and 20% of PHIVA were determined LTFU with treatment fatigue and rural treatment settings consistent risk factors. Better tracking of adolescents is required to provide a definitive understanding of LTFU and optimize evidence-based models of care.
Material and Methods: Retrospective review was done to the patients who received two-stage revisions with an antibiotic loaded cement-spacer for PJI of the hip between January 2010 to May 2015. We found 65 patients (65 hips) with positive culture findings. Eight patients were lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. Among the rest of the 57 patients, methicillin-resistant infection (MR Group) was found in 28 cases. We also evaluate the 29 other cases that caused by the other pathogen as control group. We compared all of the relevant medical records and the treatment outcomes between the two groups.
Results: The mean of follow-up period was 33.7 months in the methicillin-resistant group and 28.4 months in the control group (p = 0.27). The causal pathogens in the methicillin-resistant group were: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 10 cases, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in 16 cases and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) in two cases. The reimplantation rate was 92.8% and 89.6% in the methicillin-resistant and control group, respectively (p= 0.66). The rates of recurrent infection after reimplantation were 23.1% (6/26) in the methicillin-resistant group and 7.6% (2/26) in the control group (p= 0.12). The overall infection control rate was 71.4% (20/28) and 89.6% (26/29) in the methicillin-resistant and control group, respectively (p = 0.08). Both groups showed comparable baseline data on mean age, BMI, gender distribution, preoperative ESR/CRP/WBC and comorbidities.
Conclusions: Two-stage revision procedure resulted in low infection control rate and high infection recurrency rate for the treatment of methicillin-resistant periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip. Development of the treatment strategy is needed to improve the outcome of methicillin-resistant periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip.
METHOD: Retrospective study of children with ANE seen at University of Malaya Medical Centre from 2014 to 2019. All clinical details including ANE-severity score (ANE-SS), immunomodulation treatment and neurodevelopmental long-term outcome were collected.
RESULTS: Thirteen patients had ANE and brainstem death occurred in 5. In 10 patients (77%) viruses were isolated contributing to ANE: 8 influenza virus, 1 acute dengue infection, and 1 acute varicella zoster infection. The ANE-SS ranged 2-7: 9 were high risk and 4 were medium risk. Among the 8 survivors; 1 was lost to follow-up. Follow-up duration was 1-6 years (median 2.2). At follow-up among the 4 high-risk ANE-SS: 2 who were in a vegetative state, 1 remained unchanged and 1 improved to severe disability; the other 2 with severe disability improved to moderate and mild disability respectively. At follow-up all 3 medium-risk ANE-SS improved: 2 with severe disability improved to moderate and mild disability respectively, while 1 in a vegetative state improved to severe disability. Early treatment with immunomodulation did not affect outcome.
CONCLUSION: Our ANE series reiterates that ANE is a serious cause of encephalopathy with mortality of 38.5%. All survivors were in a vegetative state or had severe disability at discharge. Most of the survivors made a degree of recovery but good recovery was seen in 2. Follow-up of at least 12 months is recommended for accurate prognostication. Dengue virus infection needs to be considered in dengue endemic areas.
METHODS: This is a retrospective study on all HIV-infected MSM with syphilis between 2011 and 2015. Data was collected from case notes in five centres namely Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Hospital Umum Sarawak, University of Malaya Medical Centre and Hospital Sungai Buloh.
RESULTS: A total of 294 HIV seropositive MSM with the median age of 29 years (range 16-66) were confirmed to have syphilis. Nearly half (47.6%) were in the age group of 20-29 years. About a quarter (24.1%) was previously infected with syphilis. Eighty-three patients (28.2%) had other concomitant sexually transmitted infection with genital warts being the most frequently reported (17%). The number of patients with early and late syphilis in our cohort were almost equal. The median pre-treatment non-treponemal antibody titre (VDRL or RPR) for early syphilis (1:64) was significantly higher than for late syphilis (1:8) (p<0.0001). The median CD4 count and the number of patients with CD4 <200/μl in early syphilis were comparable to late syphilis. Nearly four-fifth (78.9%) received benzathine-penicillin only, 5.8% doxycycline, 1.4% Cpenicillin, 1% procaine penicillin, and 12.4% a combination of the above medications. About 44% received treatment and were lost to follow-up. Among those who completed 1 -year follow-up after treatment, 72.3% responded to treatment (serological non-reactive - 18.2%, four-fold drop in titre - 10.9%; serofast - 43.6%), 8.5% failed treatment and 17% had re-infection. Excluding those who were re-infected, lost to follow-up and died, the rates of treatment failure were 12.1% and 8.8% for early and late syphilis respectively (p=0.582).
CONCLUSION: The most common stage of syphilis among MSM with HIV was latent syphilis. Overall, about 8.5% failed treatment at 1-year follow-up.