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  1. Pan K, Chan W, Shanmugam P, Ong G, Kamaruddin F, Tan S
    Malays Orthop J, 2014 Mar;8(1):32-6.
    PMID: 25347294 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1403.015
    Patients with extensive malignancies involving the femur often require total femoral replacement when their limbs can be salvaged. Reported series are small and involve heterogeneity of tumours. We present nine patients with osteosarcomas of the femur treated at our institution between 2003 and 2010 with a mean follow-up of 27 (6 to 56) months. Their ages ranged from 9 to 17 (mean 14 years). They had large volume tumours (mean 911 cm3) and presented late with a mean of 5.5 months from the onset of symptoms to definitive treatment. All patients underwent resection and total femur replacement. Six patients have died and two are alive with good function at the time of this report. One was lost to follow-up. These patients require a high level of treatment care and have a guarded prognosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  2. Hashim, B.Y., Rahman, R.A., Philip, K.
    Ann Dent, 1999;6(1):-.
    MyJurnal
    Recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth are difficult to treat because of no known definite aetiology. This paper presents the use of lactic acid bacteria thought to modulate the host immune response to affect improvements in the disease. Twenty-five patients with the disease were treated with 6 lactic bacteria capsules (in the form of OMX capsules) daily for a period of six months, and their responses were evaluated. Seventeen patients (73.9%) became free of the disease six months later, while 6 (26.1 %) experienced very dramatic improvements. Two patients were lost to follow-up. It is concluded that lactic acid bacteria is beneficial in the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  3. Javaid A, Shaheen Z, Shafqat M, Khan AH, Ahmad N
    Am J Infect Control, 2017 Feb 01;45(2):190-193.
    PMID: 27769706 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.07.026
    Among 186 retrospectively evaluated patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, 33.9% were cured, 6.6% completed treatment, 25% died, 18.3% were lost to follow-up, 2.2% failed treatment, and 13.8% were still undergoing treatment by the end of the study period. Rural residence was a risk factor for loss to follow-up (odds ratio [OR], 3.315; P = .016), whereas baseline body weight <40 kg (OR, 2.175; P = .042) and resistance to ofloxacin (OR, 2.889; P = .025) were risk factors for death. Despite programmatic management, treatment outcomes of the current cohort were distressing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up*
  4. Jiamsakul A, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Chaiwarith R, Wong W, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2019 08;20(7):439-449.
    PMID: 30980495 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12734
    OBJECTIVES: With earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, time spent in HIV care is expected to increase. We aimed to investigate loss to follow-up (LTFU) in Asian patients who remained in care 5 years after ART initiation.

    METHODS: Long-term LTFU was defined as LTFU occurring after 5 years on ART. LTFU was defined as (1) patients not seen in the previous 12 months; and (2) patients not seen in the previous 6 months. Factors associated with LTFU were analysed using competing risk regression.

    RESULTS: Under the 12-month definition, the LTFU rate was 2.0 per 100 person-years (PY) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.2 among 4889 patients included in the study. LTFU was associated with age > 50 years [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.64; 95% CI 1.17-2.31] compared with 31-40 years, viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (SHR 1.86; 95% CI 1.16-2.97) compared with viral load < 1000 copies/mL, and hepatitis C coinfection (SHR 1.48; 95% CI 1.06-2.05). LTFU was less likely to occur in females, in individuals with higher CD4 counts, in those with self-reported adherence ≥ 95%, and in those living in high-income countries. The 6-month LTFU definition produced an incidence rate of 3.2 per 100 PY (95% CI 2.9-3.4 and had similar associations but with greater risks of LTFU for ART initiation in later years (2006-2009: SHR 2.38; 95% CI 1.93-2.94; and 2010-2011: SHR 4.26; 95% CI 3.17-5.73) compared with 2003-2005.

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term LTFU rate in our cohort was low, with older age being associated with LTFU. The increased risk of LTFU with later years of ART initiation in the 6-month analysis, but not the 12-month analysis, implies that there was a possible move towards longer HIV clinic scheduling in Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up*
  5. Bartlett AW, Lumbiganon P, Jamal Mohamed TA, Lapphra K, Muktiarti D, Du QT, et al.
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2019 12 15;82(5):431-438.
    PMID: 31714422 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002184
    BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are an expanding population vulnerable to loss to follow-up (LTFU). Understanding the epidemiology and factors for LTFU is complicated by varying LTFU definitions.

    SETTING: Asian regional cohort incorporating 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.

    METHODS: Data from PHIVA (aged 10-19 years) who received combination antiretroviral therapy 2007-2016 were used to analyze LTFU through (1) an International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) method that determined LTFU as >90 days late for an estimated next scheduled appointment without returning to care and (2) the absence of patient-level data for >365 days before the last data transfer from clinic sites. Descriptive analyses and competing-risk survival and regression analyses were used to evaluate LTFU epidemiology and associated factors when analyzed using each method.

    RESULTS: Of 3509 included PHIVA, 275 (7.8%) met IeDEA and 149 (4.3%) met 365-day absence LTFU criteria. Cumulative incidence of LTFU was 19.9% and 11.8% using IeDEA and 365-day absence criteria, respectively. Risk factors for LTFU across both criteria included the following: age at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation <5 years compared with age ≥5 years, rural clinic settings compared with urban clinic settings, and high viral loads compared with undetectable viral loads. Age 10-14 years compared with age 15-19 years was another risk factor identified using 365-day absence criteria but not IeDEA LTFU criteria.

    CONCLUSIONS: Between 12% and 20% of PHIVA were determined LTFU with treatment fatigue and rural treatment settings consistent risk factors. Better tracking of adolescents is required to provide a definitive understanding of LTFU and optimize evidence-based models of care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up*
  6. Huy BV, Teeraananchai S, Oanh LN, Tucker J, Kurniati N, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Journal of virus eradication, 2016 Oct 05;2(4):227-231.
    PMID: 27781105
    An analysis of the impact of orphanhood at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on HIV outcomes in Asia included 4300 children; 51% were male. At ART initiation, 1805 (42%) were non-orphans (median age: 3 years), 1437 (33%) were single orphans (6 years) and 1058 (25%) were double orphans (7 years). Ten-year post-ART survival was 93.4-95.2% across orphan categories. Clinic transfers were higher among single and double orphans than non-orphans (41% vs 11%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, children ≥3 years at ART initiation (hazard ratio 1.58 vs <3 years, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-2.24) were more likely to be lost to follow-up. Although post-ART mortality and retention did not differ by orphan status, orphans were at greater risk of starting ART at older ages, and with more severe immunosuppression and poorer growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  7. Hamid, A.J., Azmi, M.T.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction : A retrospective cohort study was conducted among ESRD who received dialysis treatment (Haemodialysis and CAPD) in all government hospitals in the State of Pahang from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2004.
    Objective : The aim of the study was to identify factors affecting the survival of patients undergoing dialysis in the state of Pahang.
    Methods : Survival time was measured from the date of dialysis until the subjects died, lost to follow up or until the end of the study period at 31st December 2004.
    Results : Diabetes mellitus was the major cause for ESRD (33%) out of 132 subjects eligible for the study. Seven (7.1%) and five (15.2%) deaths occurred among haemodialysis and CAPD patients respectively, but statistically of no difference between the two treatments (log-rank, p=0.093). Factors influencing the survival of haemodialysis patients were diabetes mellitus (p=0.014), albumin (p=0.0005), creatinine (p=0.020) and hemoglobin level (p=0.002), while age of treatment and diabetes mellitus affecting the survival of CAPD patient. Cox Proportional Hazard Regression showed that haemodialysis subjects with low albumin (HR 0.669 df 95% 0.513 - 0.873) and hemoglobin (HR 0.403 df 95% 0.225 - 0.720) level had lower survival rate but none for CAPD.
    Conclusion : Good nutritional status, higher hemoglobin level and prevention of diabetes mellitus are important for the survival of haemodialysis patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  8. Santoso A, Yoon TR, Park KS, Anwar IB, Utomo P, Soetjahjo B, et al.
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):18-23.
    PMID: 32296477 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.003
    Introduction: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip due to methicillin-resistant bacteria is difficult to treat and remain a challenge for arthroplasty surgeon.

    Material and Methods: Retrospective review was done to the patients who received two-stage revisions with an antibiotic loaded cement-spacer for PJI of the hip between January 2010 to May 2015. We found 65 patients (65 hips) with positive culture findings. Eight patients were lost to follow-up and excluded from the study. Among the rest of the 57 patients, methicillin-resistant infection (MR Group) was found in 28 cases. We also evaluate the 29 other cases that caused by the other pathogen as control group. We compared all of the relevant medical records and the treatment outcomes between the two groups.

    Results: The mean of follow-up period was 33.7 months in the methicillin-resistant group and 28.4 months in the control group (p = 0.27). The causal pathogens in the methicillin-resistant group were: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in 10 cases, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) in 16 cases and Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) in two cases. The reimplantation rate was 92.8% and 89.6% in the methicillin-resistant and control group, respectively (p= 0.66). The rates of recurrent infection after reimplantation were 23.1% (6/26) in the methicillin-resistant group and 7.6% (2/26) in the control group (p= 0.12). The overall infection control rate was 71.4% (20/28) and 89.6% (26/29) in the methicillin-resistant and control group, respectively (p = 0.08). Both groups showed comparable baseline data on mean age, BMI, gender distribution, preoperative ESR/CRP/WBC and comorbidities.

    Conclusions: Two-stage revision procedure resulted in low infection control rate and high infection recurrency rate for the treatment of methicillin-resistant periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip. Development of the treatment strategy is needed to improve the outcome of methicillin-resistant periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) of the hip.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  9. Payus, Alvin Oliver, Leow, Justin Wen Hsiang, Liew, Sat Lin, Malehah Mohd Noh
    MyJurnal
    Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) is clinically defined as the presence of portal hypertension in the background of non cirrhotic liver. It is diagnosed by the findings in ultrasound of the hepatobiliary system and also oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGDS) that consistent with that of a portal hypertension, but otherwise has a relatively normal liver function and echotexture. The treatment mainly focuses on primary and secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding both pharmacologically like non-selective beta-blockers and octreotide, and non-pharmacologically like endoscopic band ligation of varices and sclerotherapy. In advance cases, sometimes surgery such as Porto systemic shunt or splenectomy may be required especially in patients with uncontrolled variceal bleeding or with symptomatic hypersplenism. Here we report a case of a young man who presented with upper gastro-intestinal bleeding, which was initially thought from a bleeding ulcer but was found to be secondary to oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal varices. Apart from having mild ascites, he has no other features of portal hypertension. His liver biochemistry and echotexture were also normal. Unfortunately, the patient was lost to follow up while he was still in the early stage of investigating the condition. The purpose of this case report is to share an uncommon occurrence of NCPH in East Malaysia, where liver cirrhosis predominates the aetiology of portal hypertension. Also, to the best of our knowledge, there is a very limited reporting of a similar case in this region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  10. Fong CY, Saw MT, Li L, Lim WK, Ong LC, Gan CS
    Brain Dev, 2020 Dec 21.
    PMID: 33358123 DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.12.003
    OBJECTIVE: Describe the outcome of a Malaysian cohort of children with acute necrotising encephalopathy (ANE).

    METHOD: Retrospective study of children with ANE seen at University of Malaya Medical Centre from 2014 to 2019. All clinical details including ANE-severity score (ANE-SS), immunomodulation treatment and neurodevelopmental long-term outcome were collected.

    RESULTS: Thirteen patients had ANE and brainstem death occurred in 5. In 10 patients (77%) viruses were isolated contributing to ANE: 8 influenza virus, 1 acute dengue infection, and 1 acute varicella zoster infection. The ANE-SS ranged 2-7: 9 were high risk and 4 were medium risk. Among the 8 survivors; 1 was lost to follow-up. Follow-up duration was 1-6 years (median 2.2). At follow-up among the 4 high-risk ANE-SS: 2 who were in a vegetative state, 1 remained unchanged and 1 improved to severe disability; the other 2 with severe disability improved to moderate and mild disability respectively. At follow-up all 3 medium-risk ANE-SS improved: 2 with severe disability improved to moderate and mild disability respectively, while 1 in a vegetative state improved to severe disability. Early treatment with immunomodulation did not affect outcome.

    CONCLUSION: Our ANE series reiterates that ANE is a serious cause of encephalopathy with mortality of 38.5%. All survivors were in a vegetative state or had severe disability at discharge. Most of the survivors made a degree of recovery but good recovery was seen in 2. Follow-up of at least 12 months is recommended for accurate prognostication. Dengue virus infection needs to be considered in dengue endemic areas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  11. Ong SY, Tang MM, Dalawi I, Tan WC, Yeoh CA, Kho WM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):349-355.
    PMID: 32723993
    OBJECTIVES: High rates of syphilis have been reported worldwide among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to describe the clinical pattern and treatment response of syphilis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected MSM in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a retrospective study on all HIV-infected MSM with syphilis between 2011 and 2015. Data was collected from case notes in five centres namely Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Hospital Umum Sarawak, University of Malaya Medical Centre and Hospital Sungai Buloh.

    RESULTS: A total of 294 HIV seropositive MSM with the median age of 29 years (range 16-66) were confirmed to have syphilis. Nearly half (47.6%) were in the age group of 20-29 years. About a quarter (24.1%) was previously infected with syphilis. Eighty-three patients (28.2%) had other concomitant sexually transmitted infection with genital warts being the most frequently reported (17%). The number of patients with early and late syphilis in our cohort were almost equal. The median pre-treatment non-treponemal antibody titre (VDRL or RPR) for early syphilis (1:64) was significantly higher than for late syphilis (1:8) (p<0.0001). The median CD4 count and the number of patients with CD4 <200/μl in early syphilis were comparable to late syphilis. Nearly four-fifth (78.9%) received benzathine-penicillin only, 5.8% doxycycline, 1.4% Cpenicillin, 1% procaine penicillin, and 12.4% a combination of the above medications. About 44% received treatment and were lost to follow-up. Among those who completed 1 -year follow-up after treatment, 72.3% responded to treatment (serological non-reactive - 18.2%, four-fold drop in titre - 10.9%; serofast - 43.6%), 8.5% failed treatment and 17% had re-infection. Excluding those who were re-infected, lost to follow-up and died, the rates of treatment failure were 12.1% and 8.8% for early and late syphilis respectively (p=0.582).

    CONCLUSION: The most common stage of syphilis among MSM with HIV was latent syphilis. Overall, about 8.5% failed treatment at 1-year follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  12. Chew BH, Lee PY, Shariff-Ghazali S, Cheong AT, Ismail M, Taher SW
    Curr Diabetes Rev, 2015;11(2):122-31.
    PMID: 25619541
    This study examined the factors associated with follow-up non-attendance (FUNA) and mortality among the adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Data on 57780 T2DM patients from the 2009 diabetes registry were analyzed using multinomial logistic mixed model. Out of 57780 patients, 3140 (5.4%) were lost to follow-up and 203 (0.4%) patients had died. Compared with patients who were under active follow-up, men (OR 1.37), neither on insulin (OR 1.72), nor on antiplatelet agents (OR 1.47), having higher HbA1c (OR 1.15), higher LDL-C (OR 1.18) and complications (OR 1.33) were associated with FUNA. Older age (OR 1.09) and higher LDL-C (OR 2.27) have higher mortality. Across the four different health facilities, medication use (insulin and anti-platelet agents) to achieve better disease control in the younger age when diabetes complication is absent would not cause FUNA and might reduce mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
  13. Liew SM, Khoo EM, Ho BK, Lee YK, Mimi O, Fazlina MY, et al.
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis, 2015 Jul;19(7):764-71.
    PMID: 26056099 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.14.0767
    OBJECTIVES: To determine treatment outcomes and associated predictors of all patients registered in 2012 with the Malaysian National Tuberculosis (TB) Surveillance Registry.
    METHODS: Sociodemographic and clinical data were analysed. Unfavourable outcomes included treatment failure, transferred out and lost to follow-up, treatment defaulters, those not evaluated and all-cause mortality.
    RESULTS: In total, 21 582 patients were registered. The mean age was 42.36 ± 17.77 years, and 14.2% were non-Malaysians. The majority were new cases (93.6%). One fifth (21.5%) had unfavourable outcomes; of these, 46% died, 49% transferred out or defaulted and 1% failed treatment. Predictors of unfavourable outcomes were older age, male sex, foreign citizenship, lower education, no bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination scar, treatment in tertiary settings, smoking, previous anti-tuberculosis treatment, human immunodeficiency virus infection, not receiving directly observed treatment, advanced chest radiography findings, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extra-pulmonary TB. For all-cause mortality, predictors were similar except for rural dwelling and nationality (higher mortality among locals). Absence of BCG scar, previous treatment for TB and MDR-TB were not found to be predictors of all-cause mortality. Indigenous populations in East Malaysia had lower rates of unfavourable treatment outcomes.
    CONCLUSIONS: One fifth of TB patients had unfavourable outcomes. Intervention strategies should target those at increased risk of unfavourable outcomes and all-cause mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lost to Follow-Up
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