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  1. El-Sayed AM, Hamzaid NA, Abu Osman NA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(12):23724-41.
    PMID: 25513823 DOI: 10.3390/s141223724
    Alternative sensory systems for the development of prosthetic knees are being increasingly highlighted nowadays, due to the rapid advancements in the field of lower limb prosthetics. This study presents the use of piezoelectric bimorphs as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. An Instron machine was used in the calibration procedure and the corresponding output data were further analyzed to determine the static and dynamic characteristics of the piezoelectric bimorph. The piezoelectric bimorph showed appropriate static operating range, repeatability, hysteresis, and frequency response for application in lower prosthesis, with a force range of 0-100 N. To further validate this finding, an experiment was conducted with a single transfemoral amputee subject to measure the stump/socket pressure using the piezoelectric bimorph embedded inside the socket. The results showed that a maximum interface pressure of about 27 kPa occurred at the anterior proximal site compared to the anterior distal and posterior sites, consistent with values published in other studies. This paper highlighted the capacity of piezoelectric bimorphs to perform as in-socket sensors for transfemoral amputees. However, further experiments are recommended to be conducted with different amputees with different socket types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
  2. Kumar SN, Joseph LH, Pharmy Jalil A
    Clin Neurophysiol, 2015 Jul;126(7):1453-4.
    PMID: 25468242 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinph.2014.09.031
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology*
  3. Ku PX, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA
    Gait Posture, 2014 Feb;39(2):672-82.
    PMID: 24331296 DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.006
    Postural control has been widely evaluated for the normal population and different groups over the past 20 years. Numerous studies have investigated postural control in quiet standing posture among amputees. However, a comprehensive analysis is lacking on the possible contributing factors to balance. The present systematic review highlights the current findings on variables that contribute to balance instability for lower extremity amputees. The search strategy was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, and CINAHL and then followed by additional manual searching via reference lists in the reviewed articles. The quality of the articles was evaluated using a methodological quality assessment tool. This review included and evaluated a total of 23 full-text articles. Despite the inconsistencies in the methodological design of the studies, all articles scored above the acceptable level in terms of quality. A majority of the studies revealed that lower extremity amputees have increased postural sway in the standing posture. Asymmetry in body weight, which is mainly distributed in the non-amputated leg, was described. Aside from the centre of pressure in postural control, sensory inputs may be a related topic for investigation in view of evidence on their contribution, particularly visual input. Other balance-related factors, such as stump length and patients' confidence level, were also neglected. Further research requires examination on the potential factors that affect postural control as the information of standing postural is still limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology*
  4. Kamali M, Karimi MT, Eshraghi A, Omar H
    Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 2013 Dec;92(12):1110-8.
    PMID: 23900009 DOI: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31829b4b7a
    Lower-limb amputation is mainly a result of trauma, vascular disease, diabetes, or congenital disorders. Persons with amputation lose their ability to stand and walk on the basis of the level of amputation. Contribution of level of amputation, type of amputation, or cause of amputation to balance impairment has not been clearly defined. Furthermore, it is controversial how much the mentioned parameters influence standing stability. Therefore, the aim of this review article was to find the relationship between the abovementioned factors and balance impairment in the available literature. It was also aimed to find the possibility of improving standing stability by the use of different prosthesis components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology*
  5. Wan Hazmy CH, Chia WY, Fong TS, Ganendra P
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Feb;61 Suppl A:3-9.
    PMID: 17042220
    The post-operatve course of amputees is poorly documented. This cross-sectional survey was unertaken to determine functional outcomes of 213 patients who had undergone either a below-knee or above-knee amputation from 2000 to 2002 in a state-hospital setting. The study comprises a self-constructed questionnaire and interview conducted by phone. Of the 213 amputees, 41 out of 61 documented telephone numbers of the patients were useful for contact. Only 30 amputees were available for the study as the remaining 11 had passed away. Included in the questionnaire was the modified Barthel Index, a measurement to assess the amputees' ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL). It contains ten questions pertaining to ADL with a total score of 20 points. Two-thirds of the respondents (67%) use their prosthesis for less than six hours per day. The Barthel Index of 30 patients ranged from 9-20 (mean 17.7). However, the mean Barthel Index in those with and without prosthesis was 18.4 and 15.2 respectively, but this difference was not significant. Half of the respondents were unable to maintain their pre-amputation jobs, while the remaining 50% were still able to work. Forty seven percent of amputees took less than a year to return to their activities, while 33% took between one to two years. Regarding the adequacy of preamputation information provided by the doctors, 73% amputees responded in the affirmative, while 27% felt otherwise. Amputees were still facing substantial disabilities following major amputation of the lower limb. Although 80% of respondents surveyed own prosthesis, the full use of prosthesis is suboptimal due to prosthetic-related problems. Most amputees had a good functional outcome based on the modified Barthel Index. Some amputees were unhappy as they felt that they were insufficiently informed regarding post-amputation expectation prior to the amputation. Despite good support from family, the community support for amputees is still lacking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
  6. Fazreena Othman N, Salleh Basaruddin K, Hanafi Mat Som M, Shukry Abdul Majid M, Razak Sulaiman A
    Acta Bioeng Biomech, 2019;21(1):55-62.
    PMID: 31197285
    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the joint contact forces (JCF) between each limb as the LLD magnitude increases during walking activity.

    METHODS: Eighteen male healthy subjects volunteered to participate in the experiment. Walking gait analysis was conducted with eight different levels of insole to simulate the LLD, starting from 0 cm until 4.0 cm with 0.5 cm increment. Qualisys Track Manager System and C-motion Visual 3D biomechanical tools were used to analyse the results. Four joints (ankle, knee, hip, and pelvis) of lower limb of two legs were investigated. The increment of insoles was placed on the right leg to represent the long leg.

    RESULTS: The results suggest that the mean contact forces for all joints in the short leg were increased as the increment level increased. On the contrary, the mean contact forces in the long leg decreased when the LLD level increased. Among these four joints, JCF in hip shows a positive increment based on the ASI value. Means that hip shows the most affected joint as the LLD level increase.

    CONCLUSIONS: The result obtained in this study might help clinicians treat patients with a structural LLD for treatment plan including surgical intervention.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology*
  7. Karim HHA, Chern PM
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 09;75(5):519-524.
    PMID: 32918420
    INTRODUCTION: Increasing numbers of limb amputation are performed globally and in Malaysia due to the rise of complications because of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Limb amputation influences many aspects of an individual's life, and prosthesis restoration is one of the primary rehabilitation goals to help amputees resume daily activities. As limited information is available in Malaysia, this study aims to determine the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and prosthesis usage among the amputees.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study using self-developed survey form was conducted at 13 Medical Rehabilitation Clinics in Malaysia among 541 upper and lower limb amputees of any duration and cause.

    RESULTS: The study population had a mean age of 54 years. Majority were males, Malays, married and had completed secondary school. About 70% of amputations were performed due to DM complications and at transtibial level. Fifty-eight percent of unilateral lower limb amputees were using prosthesis with a mean (standard deviation) of 6.48 (±4.55) hours per day. Time since amputation was the true factor associated with prosthesis usage. Longer hours of prosthesis use per day was positively correlated with longer interval after prosthesis restoration (r=0.467).

    CONCLUSION: Higher aetiology of DM and lower prosthesis usage among amputees may be because of high prevalence of DM in Malaysia. The prosthesis usage and hours of use per day were low compared to the international reports, which may be influenced by sampling location and time since amputation. Nevertheless, this is a novel multicentre study on the characteristics and prosthesis usage of amputees. Hopefully, this research will assist to support, facilitate and promote prosthesis rehabilitation in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
  8. Piovella F, Wang CJ, Lu H, Lee K, Lee LH, Lee WC, et al.
    J Thromb Haemost, 2005 Dec;3(12):2664-70.
    PMID: 16359505
    The incidence of postsurgical venous thromboembolism is thought to be low in Asian ethnic populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
  9. Carpentier P, van Bellen B, Karetova D, Hanafiah H, Enriquez-Vega E, Kirienko A, et al.
    Int Angiol, 2017 Oct;36(5):402-409.
    PMID: 28206732 DOI: 10.23736/S0392-9590.17.03801-9
    BACKGROUND: Chronic venous disorders (CVD) is estimated to affect 30% to 50% of women and 10% to 30% of men. The most widely prescribed treatment for CVD worldwide is micronized purified flavonoid fraction 500 mg (MPFF). The aim of this clinical trial was to develop a new once daily 1000-mg oral suspension of MPFF.

    METHODS: In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, symptomatic individuals classified CEAP C0s to C4s were randomized in either treatment arm and treated for 8 weeks. Lower limb symptoms (discomfort, pain and heaviness) were assessed using Visual Analog Scales (VAS), and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the CIVIQ-20 Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: A total of 1139 patients were included in the study. Both MPFF treatment regimens were well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in lower limb symptoms. A non-inferiority of MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension once daily compared to MPFF 500-mg tablet twice daily (P<0.0001) was found for lower limb discomfort (-3.33 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.37 cm for MPFF 500 mg), leg pain (-3.27 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.31 cm for MPFF 500 mg) and leg heaviness (-3.41 cm for MPFF 1000 mg and -3.46 cm for MPFF 500 mg). The patients' QoL was improved by about 20 points on the CIVIQ scale in both groups (19.33 points for MPFF 1000 mg and 20.28 points for MPFF 500 mg).

    CONCLUSIONS: MPFF 1000-mg oral suspension and MPFF 500-mg tablets treatments were associated with similar reductions in lower limb symptoms and QoL improvement. The new once daily MPFF1000-mg oral suspension has a similar safety profile to two tablets of MPFF 500 mg, with the advantage of one daily intake, potentially associated with improved patient adherence and easier CVD management.

    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
  10. Hasnan N, Mohamad Saadon NS, Hamzaid NA, Teoh MX, Ahmadi S, Davis GM
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2018 Oct;97(43):e12922.
    PMID: 30412097 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000012922
    This study compared muscle oxygenation (StO2) during arm cranking (ACE), functional electrical stimulation-evoked leg cycling (FES-LCE), and hybrid (ACE+FES-LCE) exercise in spinal cord injury individuals. Eight subjects with C7-T12 lesions performed exercises at 3 submaximal intensities. StO2 was measured during rest and exercise at 40%, 60%, and 80% of subjects' oxygen uptake (VO2) peak using near-infrared spectroscopy. StO2 of ACE showed a decrease whereas in ACE+FES-LCE, the arm muscles demonstrated increasing StO2 from rest in all of VO2) peak respectively. StO2 of FES-LCE displayed a decrease at 40% VO2 peak and steady increase for 60% and 80%, whereas ACE+FES-LCE revealed a steady increase from rest at all VO2 peak. ACE+FES-LCE elicited greater StO2 in both limbs which suggested that during this exercise, upper- and lower-limb muscles have higher blood flow and improved oxygenation compared to ACE or FES-LCE performed alone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lower Extremity/physiopathology
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