Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 115 in total

  1. Tan G, Khoo P, Chan K
    Ann R Coll Surg Engl, 2018 Oct 05.
    PMID: 30286634 DOI: 10.1308/rcsann.2018.0143
    INTRODUCTION: The development of thoracic endovascular aortic repair has altered the approach and reduced the risk of treating the majority of descending thoracic aortic conditions. Primarily developed for the exclusion of thoracic aortic aneurysms, it is now used in place of open repair surgery for most descending thoracic aortic diseases, and has also been used to treat aortic arch diseases in selected cases.

    METHODS: A literature search was conducted of Medline and Embase databases from January 2007 to February 2017, using the key words 'aortic disease', 'thoracic aorta' and 'endovascular repair'; 205 articles were identified, of which 25 studies were selected for review based on their relevance.

    FINDINGS: The key findings of the indications, techniques, outcomes, complications and comparisons with open surgical repair were extracted from the published studies and are summarised in this review. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair is the preferred choice of intervention for patients with descending thoracic aortic disease. With time, it has improved to be safer and has the potential to expand aortic treatment choices in future.

    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  2. Nurul Akma Jamil
    Socio-cultural poses as the enabler and barrier in breastfeeding practice. A review of published literature
    was conducted and a total of 25 articles were reviewed to seek the answer: How religious belief and
    sociocultural influence breastfeeding practice? Published articles were identified through electronic
    searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Google scholars and IIUM Repository within timeframe of 2011
    to 2017. Through this searching, three key themes were identified: religious views on breastfeeding,
    sociocultural perspectives and challenges. A comprehensive understanding on religious recommendation
    and cultural influence would benefit in the reconstruction of breastfeeding promotion and education
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  3. Koh B, Sulaiman N, Fauzi MB, Law JX, Ng MH, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Cell Biosci, 2020;10:75.
    PMID: 32518618 DOI: 10.1186/s13578-020-00438-8
    Stem cell-based regenerative medicine is a promising approach for tissue reconstruction. However, a large number of cells are needed in a typical clinical study, where conventional monolayer cultures might pose a limitation for scale-up. The purpose of this review was to systematically assess the application of microcarriers in Mesenchymal Stem Cell cultures. A comprehensive search was conducted in Medline via Ebscohost, Pubmed, and Scopus, and relevant studies published between 2015 and 2019 were selected. The literature search identified 53 related studies, but only 14 articles met the inclusion criteria. These include 7 utilised commercially available microcarriers, while the rest were formulated based on different surface characteristics, all of which are discussed in this review. Current applications of microcarriers were focused on MSC expansion and induction of MSCs into different lineages. These studies demonstrated that MSCs could proliferate in a microcarrier culture system in-fold compared to monolayer cultures, and the culture system could simulate a three-dimensional environment which induces cell differentiation. However, detailed studies are still required before this system were to be adapted into the scale of GMP manufacturing.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  4. Hassan Y, Awaisu A, Al-Meman AA, Aziz NA
    PMID: 22589618
    Our objectives were to discuss a general overview on the description and recognition of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and present a critical review of the traditional and most recent advances in its pharmacotherapy. Computerized searches were done on MEDLINE and Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS) databases from June 2001 until June 2007 and from May 2005 until May 2007, respectively. Search terms used included 'heparin-induced thrombocytopenia', 'heparin-associated thrombocytopenia', therapeutics, HIT, HAT. We largely selected publications within the timeframe above, but did not exclude commonly referenced and highly regarded older publications. The commonly referenced published articles were obtained through manual searches derived from bibliographic citations and retrievals from the authors' personal files. Pertinent literatures (89 key articles) that were thought to have substantially contributed new information to the therapeutics of HIT within the last 6 years were identified, reviewed and presented. The following limits were used for the MEDLINE and IDIS searches: 'human', drug therapy', 'review', 'meta-analysis', 'clinical trial', and case reports. The therapeutics of HIT is rapidly evolving and needs to consider an evidence - based approach. It is imperative that practitioners be aware of the associated risk and be up-to-date with the current advances in the management of this fatal clinical condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  5. Makmor, T., Abdillah, N., NurulHuda, M.S., Raja Noriza, R.A., Roza Hazli, Z.
    JUMMEC, 2015;18(1):1-4.
    The family is an important factor that influences an individual’s decision for organ donation. The number of studies addressing the family’s role in organ donation is limited. It is imperative to explore these studies and offer recommendations that may help in addressing organ shortage. 15 studies with more than 2100 participants were selected for a systematic review. The studies were accessed by searching three databases: MEDLINE, Elsevier, and PsycINFO. This systematic review indicates that knowledge about brain death and the circumstances surrounding organ donation and transplantation are the most important factors that affect a family’s decision regarding organ donation. Educational efforts targeting the family should be initiated, which can then guide the family’s decision on organ donation. We suggest that educational efforts be consistent with other factors such as religious beliefs that influence the family’s decision.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  6. Zhu CZ, Ting HN, Ng KH, Ong TA
    J Cancer, 2019;10(17):4038-4044.
    PMID: 31417648 DOI: 10.7150/jca.28989
    Background and purpose: Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumour in the urinary system, with a high incidence and recurrence rate. While the incidence of bladder cancer has been rising in recent years, the prevalence of bladder carcinoma is showing an increasing tendency in the younger age group. There are several methods to detect bladder cancer, but different methods have varying degrees of accuracy which intrinsically depends on the method's sensitivity and specificity. Our aim was to comprehensively summarize the current detection methods for bladder cancer based on the available literature, and at the same time, to find the best combination of different effective methods which can produce a high degree of accuracy in detecting the presence of cancerous cells in the bladder. Materials and Methods: We used key word retrieval method for searching related references in English that had been indexed in PubMed and Medline. Results and Discussion: This paper discussed the different detection methods and their sensitivities/specificities as well as the advantages and disadvantages. We summarized the best identified cancer cell detection methods with higher sensitivity/specificity. Conclusion: The results of this review can positively help to identify accurate methods for detecting bladder cancer and highlight areas to be further improved for future research work.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  7. Hanani Nabilah, M.S.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(1):41-49.
    Child abuse is a part of violence and maltreatment towards a child. It has led to many immediate and longterm
    consequences. The factors pertaining to the perpetrators of physical and emotional abuse were least
    explored in the literature. The aim of this systematic review is to comprehend the factors of vulnerability
    among the perpetrators of child abuse, and to identify the most common reported characteristics of child
    abuse perpetrators in the literature globally. A systematic search of articles published between 2013 and
    2018 was conducted in several databases (Scopus, Ovid Medline, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar). Fourteen
    studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The risk factors and characteristics of
    child abuse perpetrators are classified into three different levels; individual, relationship and community.
    The most common reported characteristics are at the individual level. Family background plays an important
    role in determining the risk of being a child abuse perpetrator. Low socioeconomic status of the family is the
    prominent contributing risk factor for abusing own children.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  8. Cheong WL, Mohan D, Warren N, Reidpath DD
    Front Neurol, 2018;9:432.
    PMID: 29937752 DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00432
    Background: Multiple sclerosis is thought to be relatively uncommon in the Asia Pacific region with prevalence estimated between 0 and 20 per 100,000. There is reason to doubt these estimates due to the lack of data from many countries and the growing evidence of variability in prevalence across small geographic areas. This study was conducted to systematically review the population prevalence, incidence, mortality and disability progression estimates of MS within the Asia Pacific region. Methods: The systematic review was conducted on articles from 1985 till 31st July 2017 within the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and The Cochrane Library databases. The review included articles that were population-based studies conducted on patients with MS in the Asia Pacific region that reported either incidence, prevalence, mortality, or disease progression. Hospital-based studies and non-research articles were excluded to ensure that only information representative of the population was included for analysis. Data appraisal and extraction was done by independent reviewers. This review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42017082760). Findings: Of the 2,757 articles found, 16 studies were included. Information on 6 (18.75%) of 32 Asia Pacific countries was found, with data representing 8% of the total population. Prevalence estimates were available for 6 countries while estimates for incidence (3 countries), mortality (4 countries), and disease progression (2 countries) were limited. Interpretation: The lack of epidemiological data available in the Asia Pacific region creates a blind spot in the surveillance of MS which obscures the true burden of MS, causing patients to struggle to receive the resources and funding that they need.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  9. Tan TL, Tang YJ, Ching LJ, Abdullah N, Neoh HM
    Sci Rep, 2018 11 12;8(1):16698.
    PMID: 30420768 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-35144-6
    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the ability of the qSOFA in predicting short- (≤30 days or in-hospital mortality) and long-term (>30 days) mortality among patients outside the intensive care unit setting. Studies reporting on the qSOFA and mortality were searched using MEDLINE and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved patients presenting to the ED with suspected infection and usage of qSOFA score for mortality prognostication. Data on qSOFA scores and mortality rates were extracted from 36 studies. The overall pooled sensitivity and specificity for the qSOFA were 48% and 86% for short-term mortality and 32% and 92% for long-term mortality, respectively. Studies reporting on short-term mortality were heterogeneous (Odd ratio, OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 4.6-6.8; Higgins's I2 = 94%), while long-term mortality studies were homogenous (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.5-6.1; Higgins's I2 = 0%). There was no publication bias for short-term mortality analysis. The qSOFA score showed poor sensitivity but moderate specificity for both short and long-term mortality, with similar performance in predicting both short- and long- term mortality. Geographical region was shown to have nominal significant (p = 0.05) influence on qSOFA short-term mortality prediction.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  10. Lee ZX, Ng KT, Ang E, Wang CY, Binti Shariffuddin II
    Int J Surg, 2020 Oct;82:192-199.
    PMID: 32871271 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.08.034
    BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that general anesthesia (GA), especially volatile agents were associated with higher cancer recurrence rate after cancer resection surgery. However, the effect of supplementary regional anesthesia (RA) in reducing the use of anesthetic agents on oncological outcomes remains unclear. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of adjunctive use of RA on the cancer recurrence rate in adults undergoing cancer resection surgery.

    METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched for randomized control trials (RCTs) from its inception until April 2020.

    RESULTS: Six RCTs (n = 3139 patients) were included. In comparison to the GA alone, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the cancer recurrence rate in patients who received the adjunctive use of RA in the routine care of GA (3 studies, n = 2380 patients; odds ratio 0.93, 95%CI 0.63-1.39, ρ = 0.73, certainty of evidence = very low). Our review also showed no significant difference in cancer-related mortality (2 studies, n = 545; odds ratio 1.20, 95%CI 0.83-1.74, ρ = 0.33, certainty of evidence = low), all-cause mortality (3 studies, n = 2653; odds ratio 0.98, 95%CI 0.69-1.39, ρ = 0.89, certainty of evidence = low) and duration of cancer-free survival (2 studies, n = 659; mean difference 0.00 years, 95%CI -0.25-0.25, ρ = 1.00, certainty of evidence = high).

    CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis concluded that the adjunctive use of RA in the routine care of GA did not reduce cancer recurrence rate in cancer resection surgery. However, this finding needs to be interpreted with caution due to low level of evidence, substantial heterogeneity and potential risk of bias across the included studies.


    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  11. Naomi R, Ardhani R, Hafiyyah OA, Fauzi MB
    Polymers (Basel), 2020 Sep 13;12(9).
    PMID: 32933133 DOI: 10.3390/polym12092081
    Collagen (Col) is a naturally available material and is widely used in the tissue engineering and medical field owing to its high biocompatibility and malleability. Promising results on the use of Col were observed in the periodontal application and many attempts have been carried out to inculcate Col for gingival recession (GR). Col is found to be an excellent provisional bioscaffold for the current treatment in GR. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to scrutinize an overview of the reported Col effect focusing on in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials in GR application. A comprehensive literature search was performed using EBSCOhost, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Medline & Ovid databases to identify the potential articles on particular topics. The search query was accomplished based on the Boolean operators involving keywords such as (1) collagen OR scaffold OR hybrid scaffold OR biomaterial AND (2) gingiva recession OR tissue regeneration OR dental tissue OR healing mechanism OR gingiva. Only articles published from 2015 onwards were selected for further analysis. This review includes the physicochemical properties of Col scaffold and the outcome for GR. The comprehensive literature search retrieved a total of 3077 articles using the appropriate keywords. However, on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 15 articles were chosen for further review. The results from these articles indicated that Col promoted gingival tissue regeneration for GR healing. Therefore, this systematic review recapitulated that Col enhances regeneration of gingival tissue either through a slow or rapid process with no sign of cytotoxicity or adverse effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  12. Zhong X, Xiong Y, Wei D, Wang S, Xiao Z, Liu M, et al.
    Complement Ther Med, 2020 Aug;52:102491.
    PMID: 32951740 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102491
    BACKGROUND: Inconsistencies exist with regard to effect of maternal vitamin D supplementation on infant vitamin D status. The inconsistencies could be attributed to numerous factors, such as duration of intervention and dosage, among others. In this work, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the influence of maternal vitamin D supplementation on infant vitamin D status.

    METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed in Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and PubMed/MEDLINE, by investigators, from database inception until November 2019, without using any restrictions. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI was used for assessing the effects of maternal vitamin D supplementation on 25(OH) D levels in infants.

    RESULTS: Overall results from 14 studies revealed a non-significant effect of maternal vitamin D administration on the level of 25(OH) D in breastfeeding infants (WMD: -0.464 ng/mL, 95 % CI: -6.68 to 5.75, p = 0.884, I2 = 98 %). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation dosage ≥2000 IU/day (WMD: 9 ng/mL, 95 % CI: 8.19, 9.82, I2 = 99 %) and intervention duration ≥20 weeks (WMD: 16.20 ng/mL, 95 % CI: 14.89, 17.50, I2 = 99 %) significantly increased 25(OH) D.

    CONCLUSIONS: The main results indicate a non-significant increase in infant vitamin D following maternal vitamin D supplementation. Additionally, vitamin D supplementation dosage ≥2000 IU/day and intervention duration ≥20 weeks significantly increased infant 25(OH) D.

    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  13. Xia W, Tang N, Kord-Varkaneh H, Low TY, Tan SC, Wu X, et al.
    Pharmacol Res, 2020 Aug 02;161:105113.
    PMID: 32755613 DOI: 10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105113
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Previous studies lack consistent conclusions as to whether astaxanthin is actually linked to various health benefits as claimed. Here, we attempt to unravel the association of astaxanthin consumption with selected health benefits by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    METHODS: Online literature search databases including Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed/Medline, Embase and Google Scholar were searched to discover relevant articles available up to 17 March 2020. We used mean changes and SD of the outcomes to assess treatment response from baseline and mean difference, and 95 % CI were calculated to combined data and assessment effect sizes in astaxanthin and control groups.

    RESULTS: 14 eligible articles were included in the final quantitative analysis. Current study revealed that astaxanthin consumption was not associated with FBS, HbA1c, TC, LDL-C, TG, BMI, BW, DBP, and SBP. We did observe an overall increase in HDL-C (WMD: 1.473 mg/dl, 95 % CI: 0.319-2.627, p = 0.012). As for the levels of CRP, only when astaxanthin was administered (i) for relatively long periods (≥ 12 weeks) (WMD: -0.528 mg/l, 95 % CI: -0.990 to -0.066), and (ii) at high dose (> 12 mg/day) (WMD: -0.389 mg/dl, 95 % CI: -0.596 to -0.183), the levels of CRP would decrease.

    CONCLUSION: In summary, our systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that astaxanthin consumption was associated with increase in HDL-C and decrease in CRP. Significant associations were not observed for other outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  14. Haque S, Alam MK, Arshad AI
    PMID: 25892945 MyJurnal
    In the contemporary era, the demand for orthodontic treatment is ever rising. Orthodontic treatment duration can range from a year to a few years. Our aim is to assess the available techniques of categorising treatment effectiveness in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and to study their effect on improvement of treatment outcomes. The electronic databases including Medline-PUBMED, Science Direct, and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched from 1987 to 2013, and 40 311 relevant articles were found. Of these, we identified 22 articles including original articles as well as literature reviews. The different parameters and indices that are applied to speed-up orthodontic treatment outcomes in patients with CLP were identified as the GOSLON Yardstick, 5-year-old index, EUROCRAN index, Huddart Bodenham system, modified Huddart Bodenham system, GOAL Yardstick and, Bauru-Bilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Yardstick. This overview can create better awareness regarding the uses, advantages, and disadvantages of the different indices. It can enable better assessment and provide the impetus needed for a sustained upgrade in the standards of care for CLP in daily orthodontics.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  15. Nikmat AW, Hawthorne G, Al-Mashoor SHA
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2011;12(1):95-101.
    Objective: The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reductions in both fertility and mortality rates, better living standards, nutrition and health care are claimed to be the key factors that increase the proportion of aged people within the population. Nevertheless, growing numbers of older adults also increases the susceptibility to diseases that commonly afflict the elderly, such as dementia. In this article, we discuss on the current issues of dementia in Malaysia and its challenge in providing a
    better management and services for this population. Methods and Results:Review of literature by searching the databases CINAHL, SCOPUS, MEDLINE and PsychINFO from June 2010 to November 2010 was done on the issues involving dementia patients in Malaysia such as ageing trend, awareness and availability of services. Conclusion: Despite a limited number of studies on dementia in Malaysia, literature revealed the importance of
    acknowledging the issues and improving the services for the patients. Efforts should be made by the government and private sectors to promote healthy ageing in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  16. Nurnazahiah A, Lua PL, Shahril MR
    PMID: 28090175 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2016.23.6.2
    The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to 'objectively measured' physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  17. Ruszymah Idrus, Nur Qisya Afifah Veronica Sainik, Ayu Suraya Ansari, Rabiatul Adawiyah Razali, Abid Nordin, Aminuddin Saim, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2741-2755.
    Ficus carica, a native plant to the Middle East and Western Asia, is of high value in folk medicine. The therapeutic potential
    of Ficus carica has led to the extensive studies in recent years, focusing on evaluating and validating its pharmacological
    effect. The present systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of Ficus carica on promoting bone health focusing on
    osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis via mineral contents and RANKL pathway. The search was done with Medline via
    Ebscohost, Scopus and Google Scholar databases to obtain relevant articles published between 1946 and December
    2016. The main inclusion criteria were research articles published in English that reported effect of Ficus carica on
    bone health. The literature search returned 716 potentially relevant articles, whereby 5 met the inclusion criteria. This
    systematic review concludes Ficus carica plays an important role in the promotion of bone health and can be a potential
    pharmaceutical product in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  18. Mohammad Farris Iman Leong Abdullah, Mohd Afifuddin Mohamad
    This narrative review present and critically appraise the evidence of psychosocial interventions in enhancing post- traumatic growth (PTG) and spirituality in cancer patients and survivors. A comprehensive search of published En- glish language literatures which include both quantitative and qualitative studies was conducted via Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science up to September 2018. Out of an initial 17,000 articles, 10 studies were finally included in the review. There were three randomized controlled trials, two non-randomized comparison trials, three time series/pre and post-intervention designs, one mixed design study and one qualitative study which demonstrated psychosocial interventions enhanced PTG and spirituality in cancer patients and survivors. We concluded mindfulness-based interventions may be promising to enhance PTG and spirituality in cancer patients and survivors. On the contrary, evidence for psycho-spiritual therapy, cancer sup- port group, health behavioural change intervention and individual psychotherapy were lacking and poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  19. Raveendran M
    J Craniofac Surg, 2019 Mar 19.
    PMID: 30896517 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005444
    Facial anthropometric data has significant ethnic variation. East Asia, comprised of fourteen countries, represents a significant proportion of the global population. This systematic review presents the facial anthropometric data collected from these countries. The systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search of the MEDLINE database returned 3054 articles. Twenty articles were considered eligible for inclusion. Nine studies were conducted in China, 1 in Indonesia, 2 in Japan,3 in Korea, 4 in Malaysia, and 1 was a multicentre study conducted in China, Japan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Qualitative and quantitative parameters were extracted from the20 studies. No data was found for the other East Asian countries. There is a paucity of facial anthropometric data for East Asian countries despite their high burden of craniofacial anomalies and a strong demand for cosmetic facial surgery, both of which would benefit from the collection of robust craniofacial norms. It is in the interest of both the craniofacial surgeon and the East Asian patient to collect baseline facial anthropometric data for this population.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
  20. Khaiyom JHA, Mukhtar F, Po OT
    PMID: 31303848 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.3.2
    This current study aims to systematically review the treatments for anxiety disorders in Malaysia. PsycINFO, MEDLINE databases, and 28 local journals were used to search published papers in this area. Eight articles were subjected to review after excluding 273 papers that did not meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 598 participants with various types of anxiety disorders were included in the review. Based on the findings, the combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy provided better treatment outcomes if compared to psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy alone. The combination of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behaviour therapy was considered as one of the most effective treatment to treat patients with anxiety disorders in Malaysia. This is in line with the clinical practice guidelines from the Ministry of Health Singapore and Canada. Even though there were some limitations in the methodology and reporting of the results, it can be concluded that efforts have been taken to conduct studies related to treatments for patients with anxiety disorders in Malaysia. Future studies are suggested to make conscious efforts to overcome these limitations.
    Matched MeSH terms: MEDLINE
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