RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.
CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: 1H-MRS utilising the Single-Voxel Spectroscopy (SVS) technique was performed using a 3.0Tesla MRI on 45 optic radiations (15 from healthy subjects, 15 from mild glaucoma patients, and 15 from severe glaucoma patients). A standardised Volume of Interest (VOI) of 20 × 20 × 20 mm was placed in the region of optic radiation. Mild and severe glaucoma patients were categorised based on the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson (HPA) classification. Mean and multiple group comparisons for metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between glaucoma grades and healthy subjects were obtained using one-way ANOVA.
RESULTS: The metabolite concentration and metabolite concentration ratio between the optic radiations of glaucoma patients and healthy subjects did not demonstrate any significant difference (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our findings show no significant alteration of metabolite concentration associated with neurodegeneration that could be measured by single-voxel 1H-MRS in optic radiation among glaucoma patients.
KEY POINTS: • Glaucoma disease has a neurodegenerative component. • Metabolite changes have been observed in the neurodegenerative process in the brain. • Using SVS, no metabolite changes in optic radiation were attributed to glaucoma.