Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 89 in total

  1. Lim VKE
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):1-3.
    PMID: 10968128
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 1961 Jul;55:180-6.
    PMID: 13740488
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  3. Sandosham AA
    Med J Malaysia, 1984 Mar;39(1):5-20.
    PMID: 6334800
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  4. Chiang GL, Loong KP, Chan ST, Eng KL, Yap HH
    PMID: 1687932
    Mark-release-recapture experiments were undertaken in January 1989, in Pos Betau, Pahang, Malaysia, with the malaria vector Anopheles maculatus. On two consecutive nights, 121 and 175 blood-fed mosquitos were released. A mean recapture rate of 11.5% and survival rates of 0.699-0.705 with an estimated oviposition cycle period of 2.35 days were obtained from the releases. About 68% of all recaptures were taken within a distance of 0.5 km from their release points and the longest detected flight was 1.6 km. No heterogeneity was found between indoor and outdoor biters of An. maculatus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  5. Hii JL, Kan S, Vun YS, Chin KF, Lye MS, Mak JW, et al.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1985;79(5):677-80.
    PMID: 3913069
    Seven villages in Banggi Island, Sabah, Malaysia, were surveyed four times to evaluate the roles of local mosquitoes as vectors of malaria and Bancroftian filariasis. 11 species of Anopheles were found biting man. 53.9% of the anophelines caught were An. flavirostris, 27.1% An. balabacensis, 6% An. donaldi and 4.2% An. subpictus. Infective malaria sporozoites, probably of human origin, were found in two of 336 An. flavirostris and 12 of 308 An. balabacensis. Sporozoites, probably of a non-human Plasmodium, were found in An. umbrosus. Nine of 1001 An. flavirostris and four of 365 An. balabacensis harboured L2 or L3 filarial larvae identified as those of Wuchereria bancrofti. This is the first record of An. flavirostris as a natural vector of malaria and W. bancrofti in Sabah.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  6. Khoon CC
    PMID: 4023806
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  7. White NJ
    Clin Infect Dis, 2008 Jan 15;46(2):172-3.
    PMID: 18171246 DOI: 10.1086/524889
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  8. Vythilingam I, Wong ML, Wan-Yussof WS
    Parasitology, 2018 01;145(1):32-40.
    PMID: 27222102 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182016000901
    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  9. Hassan AA, Rahman WA, Rashid MZ, Shahrem MR, Adanan CR
    J. Vector Ecol., 2001 Jun;26(1):70-5.
    PMID: 11469187
    Nine species of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected biting humans indoors and outdoors in a malaria endemic village in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Outdoor biting was higher than that observed indoors. Biting of An. maculatus was observed throughout the night. Peak indoor biting occurred at 2130 h while outdoor biting was higher after midnight. Outdoor biting of Anopheles barbirostris and An. sinensis was observed throughout the night with several peaks after the second half of the night. Outdoor biting activities of An. kochi and An. philippinensis were primarily active after dusk and steadily declined after 2130 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  10. Chang MS, Hii J, Buttner P, Mansoor F
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1997 7 1;91(4):382-6.
    PMID: 9373626
    Surveys were conducted of adult and immature mosquitoes in an area undergoing oil palm development in north Sarawak. Point prevalence data from 2 sites were collected annually, coinciding with annual phases of forest clearing, burning/cultivation, and maintenance. Major habitat perturbation during the forest/clearing transition shifted the major mosquito faunal equilibrium in terms of species composition, relative density and occurrence. Analyses of variance showed that the mean numbers of 4 species of Anopheles decreased significantly after forest clearing. Relative densities of immature stages decreased after forest clearing, but A. letifer and Culex tritaeniorhynchus remained relatively unchanged after the second year. Comparisons with the pre-development forest stage showed that the reductions in person-biting rates, adult survival and combined entomological inoculation rates (EIR) of A. donaldi and A. letifer decreased the risk of malaria transmission by 90% over the 4 years period. Concomitant reductions in EIR and annual malaria incidence were also correlated. This study highlighted the 'law of unintended consequences', since 2 contrasting effects were observed: reduction of malaria vectors but concomitant increase of dengue vectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  11. Rahman WA, Abu Hassan A, Adanan CR
    Acta Trop, 1993 Dec;55(4):263-5.
    PMID: 8147283
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  12. Baimai V, Harbach RE, Sukowati S
    J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 1988 Mar;4(1):44-50.
    PMID: 3193098
    Karyotypes and crossing relationships were investigated for three allopatric populations of Anopheles leucosphyrus in Southeast Asia: South Kalimantan, Sumatra and Thailand. The mitotic karyotypes of these populations were similar to those previously observed in other species of the An. leucosphyrus group. Populations from Thailand and South Kalimantan exhibited telocentric and subtelocentric sex chromosomes, respectively, with a distinctive band of intercalary heterochromatin in the X chromosome. Strikingly different submetacentric X and Y chromosomes were observed in the population from Sumatra, and it seems likely that the evolution of these chromosomes occurred through the acquisition of constitutive heterochromatin. Sterile F1 males were observed in crosses between the Sumatra population and the populations from South Kalimantan and Thailand. No genetic incompatibility was observed in crosses between the latter two populations. We believe that the present concept of An. leucosphyrus includes two allopatric species, one inhabiting Borneo, West Malaysia and southern Thailand and one confined to Sumatra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  13. Reid JA
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1980;74(3):337-9.
    PMID: 7001688
    Anopheles donaldi Reid, a member of the A. barbirostris species group, is a vector of human filariasis and probably malaria. The discovery of some old specimens of this species, collected in Kuala Lumpur town where it no longer occurs, together with evidence from the literature about past malaria in the town, suggest that donaldi may have played a part in transmitting that malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  14. Wharton RH, Eyles DE
    Science, 1961 Jul 28;134(3474):279-80.
    PMID: 13784726 DOI: 10.1126/science.134.3474.279
    Anopheles hackeri, a mosquito commonly found breeding in nipa palm leaf bases along the Malayan coast, was demonstrated to be infected with Plasmodium knowlesi by the inoculation of sporozoites into an uninfected rhesus monkey. This was the first demonstration of a natural vector of any monkey malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  15. Wharton RH, Eyles DE, Warren M, Moorhouse DE
    Science, 1962 Sep 7;137(3532):758.
    PMID: 14006429 DOI: 10.1126/science.137.3532.758
    Anopheles leucosphyrus, an important vector of human malaria in Sarawak, Borneo, was shown to be infected with Plasmodium inui in Malaya by the inoculation of sporozoites into an uninfected rhesus monkey. The mosquito was caught while biting a man, thus demonstrating that it would be possible for a monkey infection to be transmitted to man in nature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  16. Chand G, Behera P, Bang A, Singh N
    Pathog Glob Health, 2017 Oct;111(7):362-366.
    PMID: 28971738 DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2017.1378836
    An. culicifacies is the major vector of malaria in tribal community and tribal dominated areas in India. Development of resistance to insecticides is the major challenge to curb the transmission. Gadchiroli (Maharashtra) is a tribal district in central India where incidence of malaria increased from 2012 to 2015 despite indoor space spray with synthetic pyrethroids. To determine the susceptibility status of An. culicifacies against commonly used insecticides in public health program in Gadchiroli. standard WHO method and test kit were used. The insecticide impregnated papers were procured from vector control unit Malaysia. An. culicifacies found resistance to three major groups of pesticides i.e. organochlorine (DDT 4%), organophosphorous (Malathion 5%) and pyrethroids (Cyfluthrin 0.15%, Deltametherin 0.05% and Lambdacyhalothrin 0.05%). The susceptibility status in Permethrin 0.75% needs further confirmation. Development of resistance to different insecticides of varied groups is an adverse finding for the elimination of malaria, explaining the recent increase in malaria incidence in Gadchiroli. The phenomenon further needs to be studied in different locations and the susceptibility needs to test against other insecticides. The findings may have significant implications to the choice of insecticides in the malaria control program in tribal areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
  17. Grigg MJ, William T, Drakeley CJ, Jelip J, von Seidlein L, Barber BE, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2014 Aug 22;4(8):e006004.
    PMID: 25149186 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006004
    INTRODUCTION: Plasmodium knowlesi has long been present in Malaysia, and is now an emerging cause of zoonotic human malaria. Cases have been confirmed throughout South-East Asia where the ranges of its natural macaque hosts and Anopheles leucosphyrus group vectors overlap. The majority of cases are from Eastern Malaysia, with increasing total public health notifications despite a concurrent reduction in Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The public health implications are concerning given P. knowlesi has the highest risk of severe and fatal disease of all Plasmodium spp in Malaysia. Current patterns of risk and disease vary based on vector type and competence, with individual exposure risks related to forest and forest-edge activities still poorly defined. Clustering of cases has not yet been systematically evaluated despite reports of peri-domestic transmission and known vector competence for human-to-human transmission.

    METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A population-based case-control study will be conducted over a 2-year period at two adjacent districts in north-west Sabah, Malaysia. Confirmed malaria cases presenting to the district hospital sites meeting relevant inclusion criteria will be requested to enrol. Three community controls matched to the same village as the case will be selected randomly. Study procedures will include blood sampling and administration of household and individual questionnaires to evaluate potential exposure risks associated with acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. Secondary outcomes will include differences in exposure variables between P. knowlesi and other Plasmodium spp, risk of severe P. knowlesi malaria, and evaluation of P. knowlesi case clustering. Primary analysis will be per protocol, with adjusted ORs for exposure risks between cases and controls calculated using conditional multiple logistic regression models.

    ETHICS: This study has been approved by the human research ethics committees of Malaysia, the Menzies School of Health Research, Australia, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission*
  18. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Mahdy MA, Azazy AA, Fong MY
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2011 Apr;105(3):187-95.
    PMID: 21801497 DOI: 10.1179/136485911X12987676649421
    Between June 2008 and March 2009, a cross-sectional study of human malaria was carried out in four governorates of Yemen, two (Taiz and Hodiedah) representing the country's highlands and the others (Dhamar and Raymah) the country's coastal plains/foothills. The main aims were to determine the prevalences of Plasmodium infection among 455 febrile patients presenting for care at participating health facilities and to investigate the potential risk factors for such infection. Malarial infection was detected in 78 (17·1%) of the investigated patients and was more likely to be detected among the febrile patients from the highlands than among those presenting in the coastal plains/foothills (22·6% v.13·9%; χ(2)=10·102; P=0·018). Binary logistic-regression models identified low household income [odds ratio (OR)=13·52; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2·62-69·67; P=0·002], living in a household with access to a water pump (OR=4·18; CI=1·60-10·96; P=0·004) and living in a household near a stream (OR=4·43; CI=1·35-14·56; P=0·014) as significant risk factors for malarial infection in the highlands. Low household income was the only significant risk factor identified for such infection in the coastal plains and foothills (OR = 8·20; CI=1·80-37·45; P=0·007). It is unclear why febrile patients in the highlands of Yemen are much more likely to be found to have malarial infection than their counterparts from the coastal plains and foothills. Although it is possible that malarial transmission is relatively intense in the highlands, it seems more likely that, compared with those who live at lower altitudes, those who live in the highlands are less immune to malaria, and therefore more likely to develop febrile illness following malarial infection. Whatever the cause of the symptomatic malarial infection commonly found in the highlands of Yemen, it is a matter of serious concern that should be addressed in the national strategy to control malaria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaria/transmission
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