DESIGN: Here, we have investigated these individual plant extracts and its synergistic mixture (PEM) for its anti-cariogenic effect to reduce populations of single and mixed-species of Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic or/and biofilm and their others reduced virulence. Bacterial populations in the biofilm after 24 h, hydrophobic cell surface activity to n-hexadecane and pH changes at 5 min' intervals until 90 min of incubation were recorded. Total phenolic content and bioactive compounds in the crude aqueous plant extracts were analysed. Regulatory gene expressions of S. mutans adhesins genes (gtfB, gtfC, gbpB and spaP) upon treatment with PEM were investigated in planktonic and biofilm conditions.
RESULTS: All plant extracts strongly reduced S. mutans in the biofilm compared to S. sanguinis in single and mixed-species. PEM reduced S. mutans by 84% with S. sanguinis 87% in the mixed population. Psidium sp. and PEM highly reduced cell-surface hydrophobicity of the two bacteria thus reducing adherence and biofilm formation. PEM and Mangifera sp. lowered initial pH change in the mixed populations of S. sanguinis and S. mutans. PEM downregulated the S. mutans gtfB gene expression in the single species planktonic and mixed-species biofilms.
CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of PEM in reducing S. mutans within the biofilm, cell-surface hydrophobicity, acid production and adhesin gene (gtfB) expression in mixed-species with S. sanguinis indicates its potential as an antibacterial agent against dental caries. This is attributed to the phenolic content in the PEM.
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