As internet-based marketing utilizes channels of social media to interact and attract prospective customers to make online purchase for apparels there is a need to ascertain the extent to which salient features of social media such as customer engagement, attractive visual presentation and copywriting that are capable of driving such purchase. A total of 128 usable questionnaires were included in this study. Distribution of online questionnaires was assisted where the online questionnaire link in Google document was emailed to the company’s sales team who in turn blasted the online questionnaire via email to all of their online customers in their data base. A positive significant (0.01) high correlation of .709 for customer engagement and .711 were obtained for visual presentation with online purchase for apparels. In addition, a positive significant (0.01) modest correlation of .653was secured for copywriting and online purchase of apparels. The study affirms that online firms using social media marketing must ensure they engage their online customers through discussions, reviews, contest and comments to understand them better and to build relationship between their brand and customer’s which has a positive impact on sales. Social media marketing too needs an exemplary visual presentation to explain abstract concepts and facilitates retention of information and maintain audience interest which ultimately has a positive impact on sale. Consequently, copywriting too performs an important role of convincing people about a product by transforming product features into benefits to convince readers into making a purchase.
This study attempts to identify the optimum social marketing mix for marketing energy conservation behaviour to students in Malaysian universities. A total of 2000 students from 5 major Malaysian universities were invited to provide their preferred social marketing mix. A choice-based conjoint analysis identified a mix of five social marketing attributes to promote energy conservation behaviour; the mix is comprised of the attributes of Product, Price, Place, Promotion, and Post-purchase Maintenance. Each attribute of the mix is associated with a list of strategies. The Product and Post-purchase Maintenance attributes were identified by students as the highest priority attributes in the social marketing mix for energy conservation behaviour marketing, with shares of 27.12% and 27.02%, respectively. The least preferred attribute in the mix is Promotion, with a share of 11.59%. This study proposes an optimal social marketing mix to university management when making decisions about marketing energy conservation behaviour to students, who are the primary energy consumers in the campus. Additionally, this study will assist university management to efficiently allocate scarce resources in fulfilling its social responsibility and to overcome marketing shortcomings by selecting the right marketing mix.
Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers' choices and designers' understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons.
In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.
Bakery products become a regular food in most part of the world and are essential commodities today. There is a high potential for business growth in selling bakery products. In the business world, Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are primarily engaged in the bakery business, but cannot compete with the branded bakery Industry. The SMEs in Malaysia are striving hard to achieve growth in the business of bakery products. The present case study deals with the issues faced by SMEs and provided some valid recommendations to resolve the existing problems in the bakery business. The case analysis and its findings reveal that SMEs have unstructured marketing strategies and needs enhancements in the areas of packaging, value add to the bakery products, focus on promotion and appropriate advertising strategies. Further, the analysis reveals that more coverage of selling points for bakery products, the increased number of distribution centers and proper incentives to the agents may definitely improve the marketing of bakery products.
Agents are the most important marketing tools for company to become a successful in business. Agents not only operate as a channel to customers, but they also play an important role in providing customers with a variety of services before and after the sales. The main purpose of this study is to identify the factor influencing agent’s sales at an Apparel Manufacturing company. There are three categories of agents at the company namely, Trial agent, Basic agent and Premium agent. Based on the sales records in May 2018, the sales of product obtained by Trial Agent is lower than Basic and Premium Agents in this company. Therefore, this study aims to determine difference mean on record sales by agent among three categories of agents. This study also investigates the relationship between sales records by agents and years of experienced in business. Data was collected using questionnaire from 46 active agents at the company. Data was analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlation coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. Result showed that there is a statistically significant difference in the mean sales records among the three of agent’s categories. Furthermore, there is a strong positive correlation between sales records by agent and years of experienced in business. Meanwhile, factors of knowledge and skills in business are most contributed to the agent’s sales. This study can help the company to create a strategic business plan and conducting several workshop trainings for agents to increase their knowledge and skills in business.
The proliferation of home sharing in the extant marketing and tourism literature has only been accelerated in recent times due to the emergence of the sharing economy. This paper contends that it is now an opportune time to pursue a stock take of existing knowledge in order to guide future marketing and tourism research on home sharing. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review and propose an agenda for home sharing from a marketing and tourism perspective. Through a framework-based systematic review, this paper offers an organized, retrospective view of the antecedents, decisions, and outcomes (ADO) of home sharing in marketing and tourism. The paper also provides a snapshot on the theories, contexts, and methods (TCM) employed to gain this understanding before concluding with a discussion on the extant knowledge gaps and the ways in which these gaps could be addressed through pertinent ideas for future marketing and tourism research on home sharing.
Digital signage is widely utilized in digital-out-of-home (DOOH) advertising for marketing and business. Recently, the combination of the digital camera and digital signage enables the advertiser to gather the audience demographic for audience measurement. Audience measurement is useful for the advertiser to understand the audience's behavior and improve their business strategies. When an audience is facing the digital display, the vision-based DOOH system will process the audience's face and broadcast a personalized advertisement. Most of the digital signage is available in an uncontrolled environment of public areas. Thus, it poses two main challenges for the vision-based DOOH system to track the audience's movement, which are multiple adjacent faces and occlusion by passer-by. In this paper, a new framework is proposed to combine the digital signage with a depth camera for tracking multi-face in the three-dimensional (3D) environment. The proposed framework extracts the audience's face centroid position (x, y) and depth information (z) and plots into the aerial map to simulate the audience's movement that is corresponding to the real-world environment. The advertiser can further measure the advertising effectiveness through the audience's behavior.
Over the last few years, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) as part of its global marketing initiative opened its doors to international students to take up elective as well full time programmes. In September 2017, 36 nursing students from a university in China completed a 12-week elective /mobility programme in UMS.
This paper aims to explore the readi n ess of takaful operators to integrate waqf as part of their product feature by assessing on the components of as proposed in the New Product Development Model: marketing supports; formalized development process and top management supports. Questionnaire w a s employed in this survey and takaful operators’ employees who involved in product development were selected such as actuaries, business development managers and their executives. Unexpectedly, several takaful operators withdrew from participating in the s urvey (it was last minute) which is limitation in this study. Accordingly, it caused the use of non parametric tests in this study since the data is not normally distributed. Spearman rank correlation shows that formalized development process is the sig n ificant factor that influenced the readiness of the takaful operators to integrate waqf in their products. However, the other two independent variables which are marketing supports and top management supports depicted insignificant result. Nevertheless, t h e findings were still able to provide insights on the integration of waqf by takaful operators as their latest products’ feature.
Recent studies of drug promotion and labeling in Third World countries since 1972 have observed important changes in the policies of multinational corporations. Earlier studies found that multinational and national drug companies often grossly exaggerated the indications for the drugs and minimized or ignored the hazards. In the latest study, initiated in 1987, considerable improvement in promotional practices of the multinational corporations has been found, but little or no improvement on the part of the national companies. As a result, physicians are still provided with grossly exaggerated claims and the hazards of prescription drugs are covered up or glossed over. A very serious problem--the marketing of fraudulent drug products--has been identified in a number of Third World countries. Drug products are shaped and colored to resemble the original multinational company product, but contain only a small percentage of the active ingredient stated on the label, or perhaps none at all. In Indonesia fraudulent drug products may represent 20-30% of all drug products in the market. Similar fraudulent products have been reported in Brazil, Thailand, Bangladesh and Malaysia.
Matched MeSH terms: Marketing of Health Services/methods*
Prescribing decisions are a complex phenomenon and influenced by many pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors. Little is known about the actual prescribing behaviors of physicians or the factors behind their prescribing decisions.
With increasing public health awareness worldwide, demand for functional food with multiple health benefits has also increased. The use of medicinal food from folk medicine to prevent diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular problems is now gaining momentum among the public. Seed from Salvia hispanica L. or more commonly known as chia is a traditional food in central and southern America. Currently, it is widely consumed for various health benefits especially in maintaining healthy serum lipid level. This effect is contributed by the presence of phenolic acid and omega 3/6 oil in the chia seed. Although the presence of active ingredients in chia seed warrants its health benefits, however, the safety and efficacy of this medicinal food or natural product need to be validated by scientific research. In vivo and clinical studies on the safety and efficacy of chia seed are still limited. This paper covers the up-to-date research on the identified active ingredients, methods for oil extraction, and in vivo and human trials on the health benefit of chia seed, and its current market potential.
Introduction : Economic evaluations can provide “value-for money” information to those making decisions about the allocation of limited health care resources. In particular, economic evaluations can be used to identify interventions that are worth providing and those that are not. Furthermore, evaluations can be used with other approaches to help set priorities, such as program-budgeting marginal-analysis.
Methodology : Compile and systematically describe from the publications, articles and reports on economic evaluation in healthcare decision making.
Result : A high quality economic evaluation should provide decision makers with information that is useful, relevant, and timely. In addition, evaluations should be based on rigorous analytical methods, be balanced and impartial (credible), and be transparent and accessible to the reader. There are many situations where economic evaluations can assist decision makers: decisions by various levels of government or administrative bodies (e.g., regional health authorities, hospitals, drug plans) to fund a program, service or technology, pricing decisions by government regulators and technology manufacturers, clinical practice guidelines, priorities for research funding by governments and researchbased firms, post-marketing surveillance and updates of economic information based on the use of the technology in the “real world” (which can then be used to inform one of the other types of decisions).
Conclusion: This requires that decision makers take a broad view of the impact of a technology, and decision that are more explicit and transparent. The ultimate test of an evaluation is whether it leads to better decision in the presence of uncertainty, and results in the more efficient and effective use of resources.
The practice of development planning does not empower the local authority to prepare a development
plan, as planning and development control is under the jurisdiction of the State Planning Authority
(SPA). Rapid growth in the housing sector shows a positive indicator towards urbanization in Sarawak.
This study showed that the current centralised process is fair to all parties, for it ensures equilibrium in
all areas. Beside that, the study also found that there is some confusion in the roles played by the
involved parties. The study also identified few problems that often occur, among them complicated
procedures, slow approval process, bureaucracy, and risks in planning and marketing. However, the
practice of development planning is concerned with aspects quality and quantity so as not to burden the
purchaser. The state government, through the SPA, controls the price of housing to ensure equilibrium
and to avoid the occurrence of abandoned housing projects.
To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the 'persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model', the stimuli-response marketing model', the 'agency theory', the theory of planned behaviour,' and 'social power theory,' in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.
Previous studies have found that luminance contrast may enhance attention and attention is positively correlated with memory. However, little attention has been given to understand the impact of luminance contrast on memory. The present study attempts to address this gap by examining the effect of luminance contrast on attention and memory. A total of 159 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three luminance contrast conditions (high vs. moderate vs. low) and were administered a modified d2 test and modified words memory test. Multivariate analysis of variance showed significant effect of luminance contrast on memory performance. Participants in the high and moderate luminance contrast groups recalled more words than counterparts in the low contrast group. However, the effect of luminance contrast on attention was not significant, though planned comparison found that high contrast group scored higher than low contrast group. The findings not only shed light on improvement of memory but also have implication for design and marketing and consumer behaviours study.
In the age of modern competitive market force, where traditional marketing system is not enough to capture the loyalty from customers, and the increasing consciousness toward the brand making the marketer more concern to survive and the competition are becoming more difficult. So, customers are more conscious about their choice and giving more priority on the right product with right features, conditions, images and quality at the right price. The aim of this study is to explore customer consciousness toward brand loyalty between Malaysian and International Students. Quantitative research method is being used to evaluate the outcome of the research where total survey respondents were 197 (140 Malaysian and 57 International students) and the scope of the research is limited to the respondent of University Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan. The result of regression linear and Pearson Correlation showed that except price-consciousness, brand-consciousness, quality-consciousness and social-consciousness have positive significant relationship toward brand loyalty.