A case is presented in which a camera recovered from a site of bomb blast was linked to some incriminating film negatives by the characteristic markings existing along a small portion of the edge of the film negatives.
Objective: Mental health is often stigmatized in Asia, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is portrayed negatively in the media. The objective of this short report is to obtain an insight on Asian countries’ perception on Electroconvulsive Therapy, mainly through the media.
Methods: Several online movie databases were searched, with emphasis on Asian movies’ portrayal of Electroconvulsive Therapy.
Results: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) was portrayed in 9 television programme, 4 in films and 2 on Youtube. All patients (15) had no proper information given on possible side effects and consent not taken in all of them. 5 patients (33%) were tortured via ECT, 3(20%) of them had, ECT for Schizophrenia. In all scenes (15/15, 100%) ECT were given without general anaesthesia and the patients were fully awake. Basic monitoring (2/15, 13%) was performed, and all patients had no oxygenation. Tonic Clonic seizures were visible because all patients received no muscle relaxant. Bilateral electrode's placements (13/15, 87%) were common. One (6.6%) patient had a trilateral electrode placement. Most patients (9/15, 60%) received one shock, 4 patients (27%) received 2 shocks. One patient (6.6%) received 3 and 1 patient (6.6%) 4 shocks. 100% of patients were in obvious discomfort and ECT was portrayed as barbaric. There was no death depicted post ECT.
Conclusion: ECT is under portrayed in the Asian media. Only the Indian and Pakistani medium broached the subject. In the majority of the scenes, ECT was portrayed
negatively. This shows a total lack of knowledge of ECT among the Asian population. Alarmingly, ECT was used as a torture device in 5 mediums. This only adds to the stigma of ECT in Asia. More needs to be done to correct the misconceptions of ECT in Asia.
A complete nanoscale study on GaN thin films doped with Mg. This study was carried out using TEM and associated techniques such as HREM, CBED, EDX and EELS. It was found that the presence of triangular defects (of few nanometers in size) within GaN:Mg films were at the origin of unexpected electrical and optical behaviors, such as a decrease in the free hole density at high Mg doping. It is shown that these defects are inversion domains limited with inversion-domains boundaries.
Mass-media reports on an epidemic or pandemic have the potential to modify human behaviour and affect social attitudes. Here we construct a Filippov model to evaluate the effects of media coverage and quarantine on the transmission dynamics of influenza. We first choose a piecewise smooth incidence rate to represent media reports being triggered once the number of infected individuals exceeds a certain critical level [Formula: see text] . Further, if the number of infected cases increases and exceeds another larger threshold value [Formula: see text] ( [Formula: see text] ), we consider that the incidence rate tends to a saturation level due to the protection measures taken by individuals; meanwhile, we begin to quarantine susceptible individuals when the number of susceptible individuals is larger than a threshold value Sc. Then, for each susceptible threshold value Sc, the global properties of the Filippov model with regard to the existence and stability of all possible equilibria and sliding-mode dynamics are examined, as we vary the infected threshold values [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] . We show generically that the Filippov system stabilizes at either the endemic equilibrium of the subsystem or the pseudoequilibrium on the switching surface or the endemic equilibrium [Formula: see text] depending on the choice of the threshold values. The findings suggest that proper combinations of infected and susceptible threshold values can maintain the number of infected individuals either below a certain threshold level or at a previously given level.
The effects of different post-deposition annealing ambients (oxygen, argon, forming gas (95% N2 + 5% H2), and nitrogen) on radio frequency magnetron-sputtered yttrium oxide (Y2O3) films on n-type gallium nitride (GaN) substrate were studied in this work. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was utilized to extract the bandgap of Y2O3 and interfacial layer as well as establishing the energy band alignment of Y2O3/interfacial layer/GaN structure. Three different structures of energy band alignment were obtained, and the change of band alignment influenced leakage current density-electrical breakdown field characteristics of the samples subjected to different post-deposition annealing ambients. Of these investigated samples, ability of the sample annealed in O2 ambient to withstand the highest electric breakdown field (approximately 6.6 MV/cm) at 10-6 A/cm2 was related to the largest conduction band offset of interfacial layer/GaN (3.77 eV) and barrier height (3.72 eV).
The advent of green technology has flourished biomolecule applications in medical, pharmaceutical and food products. Unlike synthetic materials, gelatin-polysaccharide matrixes are generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Gelatin-polysaccharide complexes are currently being utilized for the development of nano- and micro-particles, hydrogel, aerogel and films. Gelatin-polysaccharide based materials have offered improved characteristics depending on the type and concentration of polysaccharide and crosslinking agent. Gelatin-polysaccharide based materials function as bioactive compounds entrapment and encapsulation and anti-bacteria. This review provides concise information on the theory and technological applications of gelatin-polysaccharides based materials.
Corrosion inhibitory effects of new synthesized compound namely 5,5'- ((1Z,1'Z)-(1,4-phenylenebis(methanylylidene))bis(azanylylidene))bis(1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol) (PBB) on mild steel in 1.0 M HCl was investigated at different temperatures using open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that PBB inhibited mild steel corrosion in acid solution and indicated that the inhibition efficiencies increased with the concentration of inhibitor, but decreased proportionally with temperature. Changes in impedance parameters suggested the adsorption of PBB on the mild steel surface, leading to the formation of protective films.
This study is premised on the increasing global concerns over the widespread resistance to polio eradication campaign in northern Nigeria. It aims to determine the level of campaign acceptance and compare the influences of mass media and interpersonal communication sources in Zaria local government area, being one of the high-risk (WPV-endemic) areas in northern Nigeria, where campaign resistance is known to be high. By way of quantitative survey, the study utilized 10% sample of the populations of eight out of the thirteen Wards in Zaria local government area, with a response rate of 78.6%. Findings reveal close ranks between campaign acceptance and resistance in the local government area, thus further confirming the difficulties still faced in polio eradication campaign in the region. This study also indicates higher performance of Interpersonal than Mass Media sources in influencing campaign acceptance and resistance in the local communities. Contact with friends and relations was rated the most influential interpersonal sources in the acceptance and resistance decision of individuals, while newspapers and magazines were rated most influential media sources that influenced campaign resistance in the local communities. The study concludes that a polio eradication campaign, backed with competent and sufficient communication expertise that utilizes knowledge-based indigenous interpersonal communication strategies will likely result in greater community acceptance in northern Nigeria.
Piezoelectric poly(vinyliden fluoride) (PVDF) is attractive because of their low cost, lightweight, biocompatibility and superior mechanical flexibility. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique has the capability of conformally deposit PVDF film on uneven surface target. Nevertheless, knowledge of the role of dispersion formulating process is crucial for achieving an even and uniform PVDF film. Sedimentation test showed PVDF polymer dispersions are more stable and well-dispersed in DMF than in MEK media. For MEK-based dispersion, higher stirring temperature produced less stable and more agglomerated PVDF dispersion, whereas longer stirring time reduced the degree of the PVDF polymer agglomeration. More stable DMF-based dispersions produced lower PVDF depositions than the less stable MEK-based dispersions. PVDF dispersions with higher degree of agglomeration produced films with higher surface roughness and porosity feature.
The photodegradation rate constant and surface morphology of poly(vinyl chloride), upon irradiation with ultraviolet light was investigated in the presence of polyphosphates as photostabilizers. Poly(vinyl chloride) photodegradation rate constant was lower for the films containing polyphosphates compared to the blank film. In addition, the surface morphology of the irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) containing polyphosphates, examined by scanning electron microscopy, indicates that the surface was much smoother compared to the blank film.
This paper describes the effect of pro-degradant additives (PDA) on photo-oxidative aging of polypropylene (PP) films after being time accelerated in UV-weathering chamber. Thin films (0.12 mm) containing these additives were prepared by sheeting process. The effect of UV on PP films in the presence of these additives was investigated. Changes in the PP films appearance, tensile properties and carbonyl index (CI) were used to investigate the degradation behavior. The films became completely pulverised after 100 h of photo-oxidative treatment and could not be tested further. Films containing PDA showed rapid loss in tensile properties within 100 h of photo-oxidative aging. In addition, the CI results of photo-oxidative films increased with increasing PDA amount within the time interval of aging and the activity was due to the mechanism reaction of PP with PDA particles. During the aging process the material becomes denser due to tighter packing and incorporation of oxygen into the amorphous regions of the polymer. The results indicated that the presence of PDA contributed to the photo degradation and the activity was very much influenced by the amount PDA.
CaxZn(1_x)Al204thin films (x = 0.00; 0 .05 ; 0.10; 0.15 and 0.20) were prepared by sol-gel method with the substitution of Zn2+ by Ca" in the framework of ZnAl204. The effect of Ca addition on the structure and morphology of CaZnAl204thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction (xRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDx), ultra-violet visible (uv-Vis) and atomic force microscope (AFM). The xRD patterns showed the characteristic peaks of face-centred cubic (fcc)ZnAl204and CaZnAl204. The addition of Ca increased the crystallite size from 8.9 to 302 nm. The bandgap of CaxZnuld204 thin film was found in the range of 3.40 to 3.84 eV. sEm micrograph shows the morphology of all thin films is sphere-like, with the grain size increased from 33 to 123 nm. The AFM images show the roughness of surface morphology increased. The substitution of Zn2+ by Ca" increased the crystallite size, grain size and surface roughness which evidently increased the density (4.59 to 4.64 glcm3) and dielectric constant (8.48 to 9.54). The composition of CaxZn(1_x)Al204is considered as suitable material for GPS patch antennas.
In this work, the preparation of ZnO, N-doped ZnO (NZO), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Al, N-doped ZnO (ANZO) thin films by the sol-gel spin-coating method is reported. The structural properties and surface morphologies of films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The optical properties of the films were interpreted from their transmission spectra using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The XRD and SEM results disclosed that the crystallization quality and grain size of as-prepared films were highly influenced by N and Al doping. UV-VIS spectrophotometer results indicated that Al and N additives could significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.
If we were given a questionnaire of “How do we measure a researcher as a true scientist? with optional answers like (a) Having a good number of publications, (b) having attending numerous conferences, (c) with a high popularity as always appeared in mass media, and (d) good international networking and good public relations. Options (c) and (d) always come later after option (a) has been achieved, while option (b) can be simply achieved or abstract be accepted for presentation in any conference. Hitherto, publishing in any peer-reviewed journals carry a certain quality since they are highly subjected to peer review evaluation before the paper can be accepted for publication in a journal. Needless to say, those constructive comments given by the reviewers are very crucial in shaping our scientific understanding in our subject area rather than rejection experience (Yap, 2009). Having said so, option (a) will definitely be the best answer. The fact is that option (a) should not be argued whatsoever as the best answer [since publications speaks louder than anything else] and options (a), (b) and (c) are supplementary criteria to option (a) but they are not as vital as option (a). When we are asked ‘What is your scientific research performance or research output?’, the answer could always be ‘Having a good number of publications.’ Then, the next question forwarded is that ‘What is the quality and impact of your published papers to the scientific community?’ Of course, good and high impact factor journals always accept papers with high novelty in the subject area. Therefore, papers published in good journals are always highly cited and subsequently resulting in high impact (or citations) of the research done to the scientific community. However, the last question is sometimes very subjective and difficult to answer until h-index is introduced and discussed among the researchers. This paper aimed to discuss the h-index based on Elsevier’s Scopus database as an indicator of research achievement for young Malaysian scientists.
In an effort to enhance public awareness, we develop Dikir Farmasi as an innovative approach to deliver health information. Dikir Farmasi combines the elements of dikir barat (a type of traditional folk song rhythm) and traditional sketches which are popular in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. These sketches and dikir barat rhythmic songs, with lyrics touch on issues such as drug abuse and regulation are presented in an entertaining and humorous way. Health promotion messages are disseminated using Dikir Farmasi in the form of compact disks, video compact disks, stage performance, exhibition, social media, printed media (signboard, brochure and flyer).
The authors outline the steps being taken in Malaysia aimed at persuading people to avoid the unhealthy lifestyles commonly associated with socioeconomic development and increased affluence, and to adopt health dietary and other habits.
There had been increased and strong public interests in rare diseases and orphan drugs as well as the issue of
compulsory licencing for expensive medications in Malaysia in the mass-media and social media. We reviewed
the issues of orphan drugs and the challenges faced in many countries in developing appropriate health financial
modelling as well as getting accurate data on rare diseases. We also reviewed the old off-patent medications
and the developments on how policy-makers can intervene to make expensive treatment affordable and
sustainable for patients and the country.
Immunization has been introduced for decades to eradicate fatal infectious diseases by inoculating attenuated, killed or toxoid of microorganisms such as bacteria and virus. The triggering action to the immune system would not harm the host; despite can boost the immune responses to any infection. However, several cases of the eradicated infectious disease have re-emerged due to the existence of vaccine hesitancy group. Vaccine hesitancy has been observed emerging worldwide due to rejection in receiving vaccine. The main obstacle in vaccination program was identified according to the misconception that they received from internet or any mass media without boundaries. Various actions from the government have met the needs to enforce and educate the public especially the hesitant group towards better disease prevention with vaccination. The strategy would cover any interaction activities or programs with the public in transferring the information about the vaccination and its benefit to the health of herd community.