OBJECTIVE: In this study, we endeavored to develop a rapid method for multiresidue analysis of glyphosate (+aminomethylphosphonic acid) and glufosinate (+3-methylphosphinicopropionic acid and N-acetyl-glufosinate) in refined and crude palm oil matrices using liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).
METHOD: The optimized sample preparation workflow included extraction of refined or crude palm oil (10 g) with acidified water (0.1 M HCl), cleanup by phase separation with dichloromethane, and analysis by LC-MS/MS with multiple reaction monitoring.
RESULTS: The use of a Torus-DEA LC column ensured simultaneous analysis of these compounds within a runtime of 10 min. The LOQ of these analytes was 0.01 mg/kg, except that of aminomethylphosphonic acid which was 0.02 mg/kg. The method sensitivity complied with the national maximum residue limits of Malaysia and the European Union. Also, the method selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were aligned with the SANTE/12682/2019 guidelines of analytical quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: The potentiality of the optimized method lies in a high throughput direct analysis of glyphosate and glufosinate with their metabolites in a single chromatographic run. The method is fit for purpose for regulatory testing of these residues in a broad range of palm oil matrices.
HIGHLIGHTS: The study reports for the first time a validated method for simultaneous analysis of glyphosate, glufosinate, and their metabolites in a range of palm oil products. The method did not require a derivatization step and provided a high throughput analysis of these compounds with satisfactory selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this trial, a total of 56 eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the fasting group and the postprandial group. The two groups were given 250 mg of the test and reference preparation, respectively. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the plasma concentration of cefalexin. PhoenixWinNonlin software (V7.0) was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters of cefalexin using the non-compartmental model (NCA), and the bioequivalence and safety results were calculated by SAS (V9.4) software.
RESULTS: The main pharmacokinetic parameters of the test and reference preparations were as follows, the fasting group: Cmax 12.59 ± 2.65 μg/mL, 12.72 ± 2.28 μg/mL; AUC0-8h 20.43 ± 3.47 h×μg/mL, 20.66 ± 3.38 h×μg/mL; AUC0-∞ 20.77 ± 3.53 h×μg/mL, 21.02 ± 3.45 h×μg/mL; the postprandial group: Cmax 5.25 ± 0.94 μg/mL, 5.23 ± 0.80 μg/mL; AUC0-10h 16.92 ± 2.03 h×μg/mL, 17.09 ± 2.31 h×μg/mL; AUC0-∞ 17.33 ± 2.09 h×μg/mL, 17.67 ± 2.45 h×μg/mL.
CONCLUSION: The 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean ratios of test preparation and reference preparation were calculated, and the 90% confidence intervals of geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUC0-10h, and AUC0-∞ were within the 80.00% ~ 125.00% range in both groups. Both Cmax and AUC met the pre-determined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. The test and reference products were bioequivalent after administration under fasting as well as under fed conditions in healthy Chinese subjects. This study may suggest that successful generic versions of cefalexin not only guarantee the market supply of such drugs but can also improve the safety and effectiveness and quality controllability of cefalexin through a new process and a new drug composition ratio.