The present paper is based on a recent success of the second-order stochastic fluctuation theory in describing time autocorrelations of equilibrium and nonequilibrium physical systems. In particular, it was shown to yield values of the related deterministic parameters of the Langevin equation for a Couette flow in a microscopic molecular dynamics model of a simple fluid. In this paper we find all the remaining constants of the stochastic dynamics, which then is simulated numerically and compared directly with the original physical system. By using these data, we study in detail the accuracy and precision of a second-order Langevin model for nonequilibrium physical systems theoretically and computationally. We find an intriguing relation between an applied external force and cumulants of the resulting flow fluctuations. This is characterized by a linear dependence of an athermal cumulant ratio, an apposite quantity introduced here. In addition, we discuss how the order of a given Langevin dynamics can be raised systematically by introducing colored noise.
In a modern small gasoline engine fuel injection system, the load of the engine is estimated based on the measurement of the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) sensor, which took place in the intake manifold. This paper present a more economical approach on estimating the MAP by using only the measurements of the throttle position and engine speed, resulting in lower implementation cost. The estimation was done via two-stage multilayer feed-forward neural network by combining Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm, Bayesian Regularization (BR) algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Based on the results found in 20 runs, the second variant of the hybrid algorithm yields a better network performance than the first variant of hybrid algorithm, LM, LM with BR and PSO by estimating the MAP closely to the simulated MAP values. By using a valid experimental training data, the estimator network that trained with the second variant of the hybrid algorithm showed the best performance among other algorithms when used in an actual retrofit fuel injection system (RFIS). The performance of the estimator was also validated in steady-state and transient condition by showing a closer MAP estimation to the actual value.
A set of coupled particle and thermal transport equations is used to study a formation and sustainability of an edge transport barrier (ETB) in tokamak plasmas based on two-field bifurcation. The two transport equations are numerically solved for spatio-temporal profiles of plasma pressure and density. The plasma core transport includes both neoclassical and turbulent effects, where the latter can be suppressed by flow shear mechanism. The flow shear, approximated from the force balance equation, is proportional to the product of pressure and density gradients, resulting in non-linearity behaviors in this calculation. The main thermal and particle sources are assumed to be localized near plasma center and edge, respectively. It is found that the fluxes versus gradients regime illustrates bifurcation nature of the plasma. This picture of the plasma implies hysteresis properties in fluxes versus gradients space. Hence, near marginal point, the perturbation in thermal or particle sources can trigger an L-H transition. Due to hysteresis, the triggered H-mode can be sustained and the central plasma pressure and density can be enhanced.
Six impact energy values, ranging from 2.5 J to 10 J, were applied to study the impact properties of neat epoxy and bamboo composites, while six impact energy values, ranging from 10 J to 35 J, were applied on bamboo/glass hybrid composites. Woven glass fibre was embedded at the outermost top and bottom layer of bamboo powder-filled epoxy composites, producing sandwich structured hybrid composites through lay-up and molding techniques. A drop weight impact test was performed to study the impact properties. A peak force analysis showed that neat epoxy has the stiffest projectile for targeting interaction, while inconsistent peak force data was collected for the non-hybrid composites. The non-hybrid composites could withstand up to 10 J, while the hybrid composites showed a total failure at 35 J. It can be concluded that increasing the filler loading lessened the severity of damages in non-hybrid composites, while introducing the woven glass fibre could slow down the penetration of the impactor, thus lowering the chances of a total failure of the composites.
This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer.
Tendons are adapted to carry large, repeated loads and are clinically important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an increasing, actively ageing population, as well as in elite athletes. Tendons are known to adapt to mechanical loading. Also, their healing and disease processes are highly sensitive to mechanical load. Computational modelling approaches developed to capture this mechanobiological adaptation in tendons and other tissues have successfully addressed many important scientific and clinical issues. The aim of this review is to identify techniques and approaches that could be further developed to address tendon-related problems. Biomechanical models are identified that capture the multi-level aspects of tendon mechanics. Continuum whole tendon models, both phenomenological and microstructurally motivated, are important to estimate forces during locomotion activities. Fibril-level microstructural models are documented that can use these estimated forces to detail local mechanical parameters relevant to cell mechanotransduction. Cell-level models able to predict the response to such parameters are also described. A selection of updatable mechanobiological models is presented. These use mechanical signals, often continuum tissue level, along with rules for tissue change and have been applied successfully in many tissues to predict in vivo and in vitro outcomes. Signals may include scalars derived from the stress or strain tensors, or in poroelasticity also fluid velocity, while adaptation may be represented by changes to elastic modulus, permeability, fibril density or orientation. So far, only simple analytical approaches have been applied to tendon mechanobiology. With the development of sophisticated computational mechanobiological models in parallel with reporting more quantitative data from in vivo or clinical mechanobiological studies, for example, appropriate imaging, biochemical and histological data, this field offers huge potential for future development towards clinical applications.
The current study presents about the effect of cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) filler on the thermal and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of epoxy composites as a function of temperature. In this study hand lay-up method was used to fabricate CNF reinforced Epoxy nanocomposites with CNF loading of 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% into epoxy resin. The obtained thermal and DMA results illustrates that thermal stability, char content, storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E") and glass transition temperature (Tg) increases for all CNF/epoxy nanocomposites compared to the pure epoxy. Thermal results revealed that 0.75% offers superior resistance or stability towards heat compared to its counterparts. In addition, 0.75% CNF/epoxy nanocomposites confers highest value of storage modulus as compared to 0.5% and 1% filler loading. Hence, it is concluded that 0.75% CNFs loading is the minimal to enhance both thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the epoxy composites and can be utilized for advance material applications where thermal stability along with renewability are prime requirements.
The Chêneau brace has proven its effectiveness in treating the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. However, no studies reported on the analysis of interface pressure in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. In this study, we evaluated the interface pressure of the Chêneau brace action in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patient treatment. A total of 72 (60 girls and 12 boys) patients aged 10 years and above participated in the study. The F-Socket transducers (9811E) were used to evaluate the pressure on the right thoracic and left thoracolumbar curves between normal and maximum strap tension and variation in these interface pressures with other tasks. Each patient was asked to do nine different tasks corresponding to daily activities, and the interface pressures for each activity were recorded for both normal and maximum tension. The resultant mean peak pressure in double-curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was higher for right thoracic curves than left thoracolumbar curves in all tasks. The pressure significantly increased at the task of maximal inspiration (p
This research has proved that mechanomyographic (MMG) signals can be used for evaluating muscle performance. Stimulation of the lost physiological functions of a muscle using an electrical signal has been determined crucial in clinical and experimental settings in which voluntary contraction fails in stimulating specific muscles. Previous studies have already indicated that characterizing contractile properties of muscles using MMG through neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) showed excellent reliability. Thus, this review highlights the use of MMG signals on evaluating skeletal muscles under electrical stimulation. In total, 336 original articles were identified from the Scopus and SpringerLink electronic databases using search keywords for studies published between 2000 and 2020, and their eligibility for inclusion in this review has been screened using various inclusion criteria. After screening, 62 studies remained for analysis, with two additional articles from the bibliography, were categorized into the following: (1) fatigue, (2) torque, (3) force, (4) stiffness, (5) electrode development, (6) reliability of MMG and NMES approaches, and (7) validation of these techniques in clinical monitoring. This review has found that MMG through NMES provides feature factors for muscle activity assessment, highlighting standardized electromyostimulation and MMG parameters from different experimental protocols. Despite the evidence of mathematical computations in quantifying MMG along with NMES, the requirement of the processing speed, and fluctuation of MMG signals influence the technique to be prone to errors. Interestingly, although this review does not focus on machine learning, there are only few studies that have adopted it as an alternative to statistical analysis in the assessment of muscle fatigue, torque, and force. The results confirm the need for further investigation on the use of sophisticated computations of features of MMG signals from electrically stimulated muscles in muscle function assessment and assistive technology such as prosthetics control.
One of the concerns in power system preventive control and security assessment is to find the point where the voltage and frequency collapse and when the system forces a severe disturbance. Identifying the weakest bus in a power system is an essential aspect of planning, optimising and post-event analysing procedures. This paper proposes an approach to identify the weakest bus from the frequency security viewpoint. The transient frequency deviation index for the individual buses is used as the weakest bus identification as well as a frequency security indicator. This approach will help to determine the bus with the worst deviation, which helps to analyse the system disturbance, takes proper control action to prevent frequency failure, and most importantly, observes consumer frequency. The approach is applied to the WSCC 9 bus test system to show the feasibility of the method.
The walking of a humanoid robot needs to be robust enough in order to maintain balance in a dynamic environment especially on uneven terrain. A walking model based on multi-sensor is proposed for a Robotis DARwIn-OP robot named as Leman. Two force sensitive resistor (FSRs) on both feet equipped to Leman to estimate the zero moment point (ZMP) alongside with accelerometer and gyrosensor embedded in the body for body state estimation. The results show that the FSRs can successfully detect the unbalanced walking event if the protuberance exists on the floor surface and the accelerometer and gyrosensor (Inertial Measurement Unit, IMU) data are recorded to tune the balancing parameter in the model.
Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force. Prior to fabrication, a finite element modeling (FEM) was investigated for tomato to obtain the stress distribution and failure point of tomato by applying different external loads. Then, the extracted computational analysis information was utilized to design and fabricate nanocomposite based artificial fingertip to examine the maturity analysis of tomato. The obtained results demonstrate that the fabricated conformable and scalable artificial fingertip shows different electrical property for ripe and unripe tomato. The artificial fingertip is compatible with the development of brain-like systems for artificial skin by obtaining periodic response during an applied load.
The optimal functionalities of materials often appear at phase transitions involving simultaneous changes in the electronic structure and the symmetry of the underlying lattice. It is experimentally challenging to disentangle which of the two effects--electronic or structural--is the driving force for the phase transition and to use the mechanism to control material properties. Here we report the concurrent pumping and probing of Cu2S nanoplates using an electron beam to directly manipulate the transition between two phases with distinctly different crystal symmetries and charge-carrier concentrations, and show that the transition is the result of charge generation for one phase and charge depletion for the other. We demonstrate that this manipulation is fully reversible and nonthermal in nature. Our observations reveal a phase-transition pathway in materials, where electron-induced changes in the electronic structure can lead to a macroscopic reconstruction of the crystal structure.
Efficient machining of the polyester nanocomposite components requires a better understanding of machinability characteristics of such material, which has become an urgent requirement for modern industrial production. In this research, the micro-milling of polyester/halloysite nano-clay (0.1, 0.3, 0.7, 1.0 wt%) nanocomposites were carried out and the outcomes in terms of tool wear, cutting force, the size effect, surface morphology, and surface roughness were compared with those for plain polyester. In order to accomplish the machining of the material in ductile mode, the required feed per tooth was found to be below 0.3 µm. The degree of surface breakage was also found to decrease in ductile mode. A maximum flank wear VB of 0.012 mm after removing 196 mm3 of workpiece material was measured.
A computational fluid dynamic analysis (CFD) is presented in the study of low Reynolds number fluid flow moving past bluff bodies. The study is focusing on the understanding of the effects of the apex-angles orientation on the flow structure and related occurring force. The apex-angle both facing upstream and downstream were computationally investigated. The simulation results of the cylinder solid are compared with available experimental data to justify the results and the model used. Results obtained in the present work were Strouhal number, drag coefficient, and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The study had found that the value of the drag force is increasing directly proportional to the apex angle. In contrast, the value of Strouhal number inversely proportional to the increasing of the apex angle. This was due to the flow over a cylinder creating a vortex shedding in the wake region which influenced the flow separation of fluid. Through the changing on orientation of the apex angle, it was also found that the characteristic linear dimension of the geometry will also be changed, thus affecting the flow pattern.
In the present research work, an effort has been made to explore the potential of using the adhesive tapes while drilling CFRPs. The input parameters, such as drill bit diameter, point angle, Scotch tape layers, spindle speed, and feed rate have been studied in response to thrust force, torque, circularity, diameter error, surface roughness, and delamination occurring during drilling. It has been found that the increase in point angle increased the delamination, while increase in Scotch tape layers reduced delamination. The surface roughness decreased with the increase in drill diameter and point angle, while it increased with the speed, feed rate, and tape layer. The best low roughness was obtained at 6 mm diameter, 130° point angle, 0.11 mm/rev feed rate, and 2250 rpm speed at three layers of Scotch tape. The circularity error initially increased with drill bit diameter and point angle, but then decreased sharply with further increase in the drill bit diameter. Further, the circularity error has non-linear behavior with the speed, feed rate, and tape layer. Low circularity error has been obtained at 4 mm diameter, 118° point angle, 0.1 mm/rev feed rate, and 2500 RPM speed at three layers of Scotch tape. The low diameter error has been obtained at 6 mm diameter, 130° point angle, 0.12 mm/rev feed rate, and 2500 rpm speed at three layer Scotch tape. From the optical micro-graphs of drilled holes, it has been found that the point angle is one of the most effective process parameters that significantly affects the delamination mechanism, followed by Scotch tape layers as compared to other parameters such as drill bit diameter, spindle speed, and feed rate.
Ground improvement using artificial crust composite foundation, consisting of stabilization of soft clay and composite foundation, is an effective technique for the treatment of deep soft soil layers under infrastructure embankments. In this study, the load responses and settlement performance of this improvement technique were investigated using two centrifuge model tests to compare the variations of the vertical deformation, pore water pressure, axial force of the piles and tensile stress at the bottom of the artificial crust in the crust composite foundation with those in pile-supported embankment. The results of centrifuge model tests showed that the load responses and settlement performance of artificial crust composite foundation was different from the pile-supported embankment, which displayed mainly that the final middle settlement of crust composite foundation can be reduced by about 15% compared with those of pile-supported embankment with the same length of pile and construction cost. The deformation of the crust with the characteristics of the plate was found based on the change of the tensile stress. Additionally, the excess pore water pressure in the crust composite foundation was lower owing to the stress diffusion effect of the crust during the loading period and the dissipation rate of excess pore water pressure was slower due to lower permeability of the crust at the same loading period. Eventually, the axial force of the middle piles was reduced. At the same time, the boundary stress was functioned with the crust, the axial force of the side piles was improved. The comparison of measured and calculated results was carried out using the stress reduction ratio, the result shows that the bearing capacity of the subsoil in the crust composite was improved.
This study investigated the influence of the intention to lean the body forward on spatiotemporal and ground reaction force variables during the acceleration phase of a sprint. Fourteen active adults performed two 50 m sprints (with and without the intention to lean), during which spatiotemporal variables and impulses were obtained using a long force platform system. Effect size (Cohen's d) was used to examine the differences between the two trials. We found that running speed and net anteroposterior impulse did not change by the intention for all steps. However, step frequency increased in the initial two steps through decreases in support time and flight time by the intention. Moreover, these shorter support and flight times were caused by a decrease in the vertical impulse. The propulsive impulse did not change during the initial part of acceleration phase, but the braking impulse decreased at the first step. This study demonstrates that an intention to lean the body forward leads to a smaller braking impulse and a higher step frequency through shorter support and flight times and a smaller vertical impulse during the initial part of the acceleration phase of a sprint.
The stiffness response or load-deformation/displacement behavior is the most important mechanical behavior that frequently being utilized for validation of the mathematical-physical models representing the mechanical behavior of solid objects in numerical method, compared to actual experimental data. This numerical study aims to investigate the linear-nonlinear stiffness behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites at material and structural levels, and its dependency to the sets of individual/group elastic and damage model parameters. In this regard, a validated constitutive damage model, elastic-damage properties as reference data, and simulation process, that account for elastic, yielding, and damage evolution, are considered in the finite element model development process. The linear-nonlinear stiffness responses of four cases are examined, including a unidirectional CFRP composite laminate (material level) under tensile load, and also three multidirectional composite structures under flexural loads. The result indicated a direct dependency of the stiffness response at the material level to the elastic properties. However, the stiffness behavior of the composite structures depends both on the structural configuration, geometry, lay-ups as well as the mechanical properties of the CFRP composite. The value of maximum reaction force and displacement of the composite structures, as well as the nonlinear response of the structures are highly dependent not only to the mechanical properties, but also to the geometry and the configuration of the structures.
Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system.