OBJECTIVE: Anterior-alone surgery has gained wider reception for subaxial cervical spine facets dislocation. Questions remain on its efficacy and safety as a stand-alone entity within the contexts of concurrent facet fractures, unilateral versus bilateral dislocations, anterior open reduction, and old dislocation.
METHODS: A systematic review was performed with search strategy using translatable MESH terms across MEDLINE, EMBASE, VHL Regional Portal, and CENTRAL databases on patients with subaxial cervical dislocation intervened via anterior-alone approach. Two reviewers independently screened for eligible studies. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) flow chart was adhered to. Nine retrospective studies were included. Narrative synthesis was performed to determine primary outcomes on spinal fusion and revisions and secondary outcomes on new occurrence or deterioration of neurology and infection rate.
RESULTS: Nonunion was not encountered across all contexts. A total of 0.86% of unilateral facet dislocation (1 out of 116) with inadequate reduction due to facet fragments between the facet joints removed its malpositioned plate following fusion. No new neurological deficit was observed. Cases that underwent anterior open reduction did not encounter failure that require subsequent posterior reduction surgery. One study (N = 52) on old dislocation incorporated partial corpectomy in their approach and limited anterior-alone approach to cases with persistent instability.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review supports the efficacy and success of anterior reduction, fusion, and instrumentation for cervical facet fracture dislocation. It is safe from a neurological standpoint. Revision rate due to concurrent facet fracture is low. Certain patients may require posteriorly based surgery or in specific cases combined anterior and posterior procedures.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effects of these 2 treatment modalities were searched from PubMed and other electronic databases between January 1991 and July 2018. The outcome variables analyzed included operating time, complications, recurrence of HH or wrap migration, reoperation, hospital stay and quality of life.
RESULTS: Five randomized controlled trials totaling 478 patients (suture=222, mesh=256) were analyzed. For reoperation variable, the odds ratio was significantly 3.26 times higher for the suture group. For recurrence of HH, the odds ratio for the suture group was nonsignificantly 1.65 times higher compared with the mesh group. Comparable effects were noted for all other variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Mesh repair seems to be superior to suture cruroplasty for large HH repair. Therefore, the routine use of mesh may be advantageous in selected cases.
AIM: The aim of this review is to analyze current data regarding options of treatment for men with hypogonadism and infertility.
MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: A comprehensive review of the current literature on management of infertility among hypogonadal men.
METHODS: A literature search using PubMed from 1980 to 2012 was done on articles published in the English language. The following medical subject heading terms were used: "infertility," "infertile," "hypogonadism;" "testosterone deficiency" and "men" or "male;" and "treatment" or "management."
RESULTS: The options for hypogonadal testicular failure are limited. Hormonal treatment is by and large ineffective. For secondary hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic/normogonadotropic hypogonadism), the options include gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and anti-estrogens and aromatase inhibitors. Dopamine antagonist is indicated for prolactinoma. Artificial reproductive technique is indicated for primary testicular failure and also when medical therapy fails.
CONCLUSION: The most suitable option with the current data available is hCG with or without hMG/FSH. Testosterone supplementation should be avoided, but if they are already on it, it is still possible for a return of normal sperm production within 1 year after discontinuing testosterone. Ho CCK and Tan HM. Treatment of the hypogonadal infertile male-A review. Sex Med Rev 2013;1:42-49.
AIMS: Our study aimed to develop a search strategy to answer clinical queries among physicians in a primary care setting.
METHODS: Six clinical questions of different medical conditions seen in primary care were formulated. A series of experimental searches to answer each question was conducted on 3 commonly advocated medical databases. We compared search results from a PICO (patients, intervention, comparison, outcome) framework for questions using different combinations of PICO elements. We also compared outcomes from doing searches using text words, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), or a combination of both. All searches were documented using screenshots and saved search strategies.
RESULTS: Answers to all 6 questions using the PICO framework were found. A higher number of systematic reviews were obtained using a 2 PICO element search compared to a 4 element search. A more optimal choice of search is a combination of both text words and MeSH terms. Despite searching using the Systematic Review filter, many non-systematic reviews or narrative reviews were found in PubMed. There was poor overlap between outcomes of searches using different databases. The duration of search and screening for the 6 questions ranged from 1 to 4 hours.
CONCLUSION: This strategy has been shown to be feasible and can provide evidence to doctors' clinical questions. It has the potential to be incorporated into an interventional study to determine the impact of an online evidence retrieval system.