AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.
AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study had three aims: (i) to assess the global trade in H. isora fruits; (ii) to study the H. isora trade from West Timor to Java in terms of actors and prices along the value chain and (iii) to get a better understanding of the potential of this species to improve household income in eastern Indonesia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study uses historical records, a contemporary analysis of global trade data (2014-2016) and field assessments of value chains and the biological factors influencing H. isora fruit production.
RESULTS: Globally, the major exporter of H. isora fruits is India, which exports H. isora fruits to 19 countries, far beyond the natural geographical distribution of this species. Over a 36-month period (January 2014-December 2016), India exported 392 t of H. isora fruits, with a Free-On-Board (FOB) value of Indian rupiah (INR) 18,337,000 (US$ 274,055). This represents an average annual export quantity of about 130,526 kg/year. Over this three year period, most of these exports (85.5%) were to Indonesia (346.58 t), followed by Thailand (6.85%). Indian H. isora exports are also used in many other medical systems, including Kurdish and Zulu "traditional" medicines in Iraq and South Africa. Formation of an Indian diaspora in Bahrain, Mauritius, South Africa, Tanzania and Trinidad and Tobago over the past 130 years is one of the drivers of H. isora fruit trade outside the natural geographic distribution of the species. In Indonesia, demand for H. isora fruits is supplemented by an intra-island trade in Java and an inter-island trade from East Nusa Tenggara. West Timor, for example, exports around 31-37 t of air-dried H. isora fruits per year to Java. At the farm gate, local harvesters in West Timor get 4000 IDR (c. 0.3 US$) per kg, with businesses in Java paying 25,000 IDR (c.US$2) per kg for H. isora fruits. This is similar to the price paid for H. isora fruits imported from India to Java.
CONCLUSIONS: India is the major exporter of whole dried H. isora fruits, including to countries where this species has never been in traditional use. In Indonesia, H. isora fruit extracts are used in the cosmetic industry as well as in jamu herbal medicines, including "Tolak Angin", the country's most popular commercial "jamu" preparation. Indonesia also is the major importer of H. isora fruits from India. In eastern Indonesia, improved income to local villagers from the H. isora fruit trade could come from improved H. isora fruit quality due to better drying techniques. This would also reduce health risks along the supply chain from to mycotoxins that have been recorded on poorly dried H. isora fruits. There also is an opportunity for cultivation of H. isora in small-holder teak plantations in Indonesia, with harvest of H. isora fruits as well as the medicinal bark.