Meliodosis is an infectious disease encountered mainly in tropics. It is not an uncommon problem in Malaysia especially in areas with agricultural activities. Although it can occur in all age groups, there have been few reported cases in children. Men are more commonly affected than women due to outdoor activities. Neonatal cases have been reported in Hawaii and Thailand. These infants presented with neonatal sepsis or meningitis. The mode of transmission to these infants has not been elucidated. This is the report of such a case first reported in Hospital Tengku Ampun Afzan, Kuantan.
We report a rare case of suppurative epididymo-orchitis caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei in a 56-year-old male. This is a gram negative bacillus found mainly in tropical zones. Diagnosis was reached by culture of the organisms after drainage of the scrotal abscess, and the patient was treated by a course of oral chloramphenicol 500 mg qid for 6 months.
Burkholderia pseudomallei causes a potentially fatal infection called melioidosis. We have developed a nonfluorescent, colorimetric in situ hybridization assay using a specific probe to target 16s rRNA of B. pseudomallei in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded infected tissues for diagnostic purposes and to study infectious disease pathology. A 63-base pair DNA probe was synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin by PCR. Probe specificity was confirmed by BLAST analysis and by testing on appropriate microbial controls. The in situ hybridization assay was specifically and consistently positive for B. pseudomallei, showing strongly and crisply stained, single bacillus and bacilli clusters in mainly inflamed tissues in seven human acute melioidosis cases and experimentally infected mouse tissues. Intravascular and extravascular bacilli were detected in both intracellular and extracellular locations in various human organs, including lung, spleen, kidney, liver, bone marrow, and aortic mycotic aneurysm, particularly in the inflamed areas. Intravascular, intracellular bacteria in melioidosis have not been previously reported. Although the identity of infected intravascular leukocytes has to be confirmed, extravascular, intracellular bacilli appear to be found mainly within macrophages and neutrophils. Rarely, large intravascular, extracellular bacillary clusters/emboli could be detected in both human and mouse tissues. B. cepacia and non-Burkholderia pathogens (16 microbial species) all tested negative. Nonpathogenic B. thailandensis showed some cross-hybridization but signals were less intense. This in situ hybridization assay could be usefully adapted for B. pseudomallei identification in other clinical specimens such as pus and sputum.
We present a previously-healthy 12-year old girl from a rural community and who was admitted to a district general hospital in Malaysia with coagulopathy and septic shock. Despite receiving intensive care, she succumbed to her illness. Blood cultures grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. Melioidosis is an unusual cause of paediatric Gram-negative sepsis among children in Malaysia.
There are few data on paediatric melioidosis in endemic areas outside rural north-eastern Thailand and northern Australia. This study reports 16 culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis in children aged < or = 15 years seen between 1976 and 2005 at an urban teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seven (43.8%) patients had septicaemic melioidosis (with three known deaths) and nine (56.2%) had localised disease (one death). Eleven (68.8%) patients had underlying diseases, including five with haematological malignancies. Skin, soft tissue and lymph nodes were most commonly affected. There were no cases of parotitis or pharyngocervical disease (seen in Thailand), or encephalomyelitis (seen in Australia). The differences in disease seen in this study compared with the mostly rural patients described in previous studies might be owing to a different patient population in an urban environment. Septicaemic melioidosis has a high mortality, but localised disease has a good prognosis, and selected cases may be cured without the full recommended treatment regimen.
Isolation and culture of Burkholderia pseudomallei remains the main stay in the diagnosis of melioidosis. Thus, the search for selective and differential media for B. pseudomallei has been ongoing. A number of such media have been reported with varying efficacy. Ashdown medium is the most established selective medium for the isolation of B. pseudomallei. There are no reports of differential media differentiating B. pseudomallei from Burkholderia cepacia. This report documents such a selective and differentiating medium for B. pseudomallei. Of a total of 1042 clinical specimens containing mixed flora and gram-negative isolates that were tested on this medium, 16 of the specimens yielded B. pseudomallei. The isolation rate was found to be 1.5%. This medium was found to be simple and inexpensive, can be made by small laboratories, and called as Francis medium. Based on the colony morphology and color, a preliminary report can be made within 18-24 h for the presence of B. pseudomallei. Our study showed that this medium had an overall sensitivity of 78.4% with a specificity of 92.2%. The use of this medium as an early diagnostic tool will help to reduce mortality and morbidity of melioidosis patients.
Melioidosis is a potentially deadly infection that can affect any organ system. Reports of melioidosis of the ENT/head and neck region are relatively uncommon. Four cases are presented: (i) parotid abscess evolving into necrotising fasciitis, (ii) acute sinusitis and parapharyngeal cellulitis resulting in upper airway obstruction, (iii) acute suppurative lymphadenitis (iv) and chronic suppurative otitis media causing meningoencephalitis. Three of the four cases are believed to be unique, as a literature review of melioidosis in ENT/head and neck is also presented. Some practical issues of management are also discussed. Not suspecting melioidosis does not change contemporary empirical broadspectrum antibiotic therapy. The value of suspicion or on confirmation of diagnosis lies in anticipating and planning for rapid change.
A 13-year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia on chemotherapy developed neutropenia and acute cellulitis progressing to fulminating septicemia due to Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Septicemic melioidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a febrile illness in children who are susceptible to infections.
Central nervous system melioidosis is an unusual infection in humans. This article reports a case of melioidosis presenting as an acute spinal epidural abscess. A discussion of this case and its management together with a brief review of melioidosis of the central nervous system is presented.
Following the suggestion that it was possible that cases of melioidosis amongst those who had been exposed abroad in the past, might be escaping notice, 487 Royal Marines were examined by indirect haemagglutination studies. Four hundred and eleven of these subjects had served for variable times in areas where melioidosis has been known to occur in Indonesia and Malaya, between 1960 and 1974, occupied in activities in the jungle and paddy fields during which exposure to the disease was to be expected. No evidence of residual subclinical melioidosis was found and it seems unlikely that recrudescent disease will prove to be a problem in the future for English servicemen who have been in South East Asia.
Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are prevalent in Southeast Asia and northern Australia and often misdiagnosed. Diagnostics are often neither sensitive nor rapid, contributing up to 50% mortality rate. In this 2018 pilot study, we enrolled 100 patients aged 6 months-79 years from Kapit Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, with symptoms of B. pseudomallei infection. We used three different methods for the detection of B. pseudomallei: a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, a rapid lateral flow immunoassay, and the standard-of-care bacterial culture-the gold standard. Among the 100 participants, 24 (24%) were positive for B. pseudomallei by one or more of the detection methods. Comparing the two individual diagnostic methods against the gold standard-bacterial culture-of any positive test, there was low sensitivity for each test (25-44%) but high specificity (93-98%). It seems clear that more sensitive diagnostics or a sensitive screening diagnostic followed by specific confirmatory diagnostic is needed for this disease.
Melioidosis is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative bacillus, primarily found in soils in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. A recent case of melioidosis in non-endemic Arizona was determined to be the result of locally acquired infection, as the patient had no travel history to endemic regions and no previous history of disease. Diagnosis of the case was confirmed through multiple microbiologic and molecular techniques. To enhance the epidemiological analysis, we conducted several molecular genotyping procedures, including multi-locus sequence typing, SNP-profiling, and whole genome sequence typing. Each technique has different molecular epidemiologic advantages, all of which provided evidence that the infecting strain was most similar to those found in Southeast Asia, possibly originating in, or around, Malaysia. Advancements in new typing technologies provide genotyping resolution not previously available to public health investigators, allowing for more accurate source identification.
An immunofluorescent assay (IFAT) using whole cell antigen derived from Burkholderia thailandensis used for detection of total antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei, was found to compare favorably with a previous published report on a B. pseudomallei IFAT assay. At a 1:20 cut-off titer, the assay had high sensitivity (98.9%) and satisfactory specificity (92.3%), when tested against sera from 94 patients suspected of melioidosis. Sera from 12 patients with culture proven melioidosis gave absolute concordance with the 2 test antigens. No sera from 50 blood donors had a titer of > or =20. Cross-reactivity with patients' sera positive for Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Legionella and typhoid was not observed, except for 3 sera from typhus patients and one from a patient with leptospirosis. The major advantage of this assay is that the cultivation and preparation of B. thailandensis as antigen can be carried out in any laboratory with basic microbiological set-up. The serodiagnosis of melioidosis can be made safe for medical laboratory personnel, particularly in B. pseudomallei endemic regions.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Clinical manifestations of the disease are diverse, ranging from chronic localized infection to acute septicaemia, with death occurring within 24-48 h after the onset of symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of melioidosis involves bacterial culture and identification, with results obtained within 3-4 days. This delayed diagnosis is a major contributing factor to high mortality rates. Rapid diagnosis is vital for successful management of the disease. This study describes the purification and evaluation of three recombinant antigenic proteins, BPSL0972, BipD and OmpA from B. pseudomallei 08, for their potential in the serodiagnosis of melioidosis using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The recombinant proteins were evaluated using 74 serum samples from culture-confirmed melioidosis patients from Malaysia, Thailand and Australia. In addition, 62 nonmelioidosis controls consisting of serum samples from clinically suspected melioidosis patients (n=20) and from healthy blood donors from an endemic region (n=18) and a nonendemic region (n=24) were included. The indirect ELISAs using BipD and BPSL0972 as antigens demonstrated poor to moderate sensitivities (42% and 51%, respectively) but good specificity (both 100%). In contrast, the indirect ELISA using OmpA as an antigen achieved 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity. These results highlight the potential for OmpA to be used in the serodiagnosis of melioidosis in an endemic area.
Infection is a relatively rare but devastating complication of intracardiac device implantation. Burkholderia pseudomallei is the organism which causes melioidosis, an endemic and lethal infection in the tropics. We describe a case of pacemaker infection secondary to Burkholderia pseudomallei, which was treated by explantation of the device and appropriate antimicrobial therapy.
Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.
This is a report of the first recognized case of melioidosis in Nepal. Illness began 1 month after returning from Malaysia after a 1 y stay. The case highlights the importance of ascertaining the travel history in any patient with a suspected infectious disease in this age of global travel.
Melioidosis was diagnosed in two cats at necropsy. The first cat presented with jaundice and anaemia but died of overwhelming sepsis soon after admission, despite blood transfusion and other supportive measures. The second cat died several days after developing neurological signs; an infected digital wound may have been the primary focus of infection in this patient. The cats had presumably acquired the infection in Malaysia and northern Australia, respectively, and in both cases disease may have represented reactivation of a latent infection brought on by the stress of relocation. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis are discussed from a feline perspective.