METHODS: Using the keyword 'melioidosis' in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases.
RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries.
CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis.
METHODS: A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.
FINDINGS: Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster.
CONCLUSIONS: Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia.
METHODS: We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome.
RESULTS: Overall, 67 cases were reported with 29 (43%) deaths; the median age was 44 years, and a male preponderance (84%) was noted. Forty-one cases (61%) were bacteremic, and fatal septic shock occurred in 13 (19%) within 24-48 hours of admission; nine of the 13 cases were not specifically treated for melioidosis as confirmatory evidence was available only after death. Diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 54%) was the most common risk factor. Twenty-six cases (39%) had a history of exposure to contaminated soil/water or employment in high-risk occupations. Pneumonia (n = 24, 36%) was the most common primary clinical presentation followed by soft tissue abscess (n = 22, 33%). Other types of clinical presentations were less common-genitourinary (n = 5), neurological (n = 5), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (n = 4) and skin (n = 2); five cases had no evidence of a focus of infection. With regard to internal foci of infection, abscesses of the subcutaneous tissue (n = 14, 21%) was the most common followed by liver (18%); abscesses of the spleen and lung were the third most common (12% each). Seven of 56 males were reported to have prostatic abscesses. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm occurred in five cases. Only one case of parotid abscess was reported in an adult. Of the 67 cases, 13 were children (≤ 18 years of age) with seven deaths; five of the 13 were neonates presenting primarily with bronchopneumonia, four of whom died. Older children had a similar presentation as adults; no case of parotid abscess was reported among children.
CONCLUSIONS: The clinical patterns of cases reported from Malaysia are consistent for the most part from previous case reports from South and Southeast Asia with regard to common primary presentations of pneumonia and soft tissue abscesses, and diabetes as a major risk factor. Bacteremic melioidosis carried a poor prognosis and septic shock was strong predictor of mortality. Differences included the occurrence of: primary neurological infection was higher in Malaysia compared to reports outside Malaysia; internal foci of infection such as abscesses of the liver, spleen, prostate, and mycotic pseudoaneurysms were higher than previously reported in the region. No parotid abscess was reported among children. Early recognition of the disease is the cornerstone of management. In clinical situations of community-acquired sepsis and/or pneumonia, where laboratory bacteriological confirmation is not possible, empirical treatment with antimicrobials for B. pseudomallei is recommended.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all children who had liver and/or spleen abscesses on abdominal ultrasonography admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2014 until December 2018.
RESULTS: Fifty-three children had liver and/or spleen abscesses. Spleen abscesses were present in 48 (91%) cases; liver abscesses in 15 (28%). Melioidosis was confirmed by culture in 9 (17%) children; small occult splenic abscesses were present in all cases. In 78% of these cases, the lesions were detected before any positive culture (or serology) results were available. Four (8%) children had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Two (4%) had Staphylococcus aureus infection. Of the remaining 38 (72%) culture-negative cases, 36 (95%) had clinical and imaging characteristics similar to that of children with culture-confirmed melioidosis and improved with empirical melioidosis antibiotic therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: A large number of children in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, were found to have spleen abscesses. Melioidosis was the most common etiology identified in these children. Abdominal ultrasonography is extremely useful in facilitating the diagnosis of pediatric melioidosis.