Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. Jayaram M
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):531-4.
    PMID: 16515101
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  2. Sam IC, Puthucheary SD
    J Infect, 2007 May;54(5):519-20.
    PMID: 16965821
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  3. Strauss JM, Ellison DW, Gan E, Jason S, Marcarelli JL, Rapmund G
    Med J Malaya, 1969 Dec;24(2):94-100.
    PMID: 4244150
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  4. How SH, Ng TH, Jamalludin AR, Tee HP, Kuan YC, Alex F, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):27-30.
    PMID: 19852316 MyJurnal
    Melioidosis has a high annual incidence and mortality rate in Pahang, Malaysia. We initiated the first melioidosis registry in the country on 1st July 2005 to improve the management of melioidosis in the state. Continuous medical education on melioidosis was carried out in all hospitals in the state to highlight the magnitude of the disease and to educate the doctors on the treatment of the disease. All culture confirmed cases were registered and analysed. During the one-year study period from 1st July 2005 till 30th June 2006, a total of 63 patients had positive culture for Burkholderia pseudomallei. The calculated annual incidence of melioidosis in Pahang state was 4.3 per 100,000 population per year (Adult, 6.0 per 100, 000 population per year and paediatric, 1.6 per 100,000 population per year). There were 55 Malays (87.3%), three Chinese (4.8%), four aborigines (6.3%) and one Indonesian. Nine (14.3%) were less than 18 years old. The median age was 49 years (range: 1-68 years). Only one patient (1.6%) had a previous history of confirmed melioidosis. With this programme, we had observed a decline in adult mortality from 54% to 44%, although this was not statistically significant. However, culture-confirmed relapses had dropped from 19% to nil. Several measures need to be taken to decrease mortality from melioidosis in endemic countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  5. Pagalavan L
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):599-605.
    PMID: 16515111
    A 5 year retrospective review of cases of melioidosis was carried out in Sultanah Aminah Hospital, Johor Bahru. There were 44 new cases of melioidosis which was proven by either blood or pus culture growing Burkholderia pseudomallei from the period between January 1999 and December 2003. Of these, 38 (86.4%) were males compared to only 6 (13.6%) females. Thirty-one (70.5%) were Malays, 7 (15.9%) were Chinese, 5 (11.4%) were Indians and 1 (2.2%) was a Sarawakian. The peak age group was between 50 and 59 years (31.8%). Out of these 44 new cases, only 32 medical records could be retrieved and analysed. Twenty-four out of 32 patients (75%) analysed had diabetes mellitus, 4 had chronic or end stage renal failure (CRF/ESRF) and only 1 had Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). One case of "near drowning" was also recorded. Twenty-one out of 44 patients or 47.7% died, of which 8 (38.1%) died within 24 hours of admission. Pulmonary involvement was recorded in 62.6% of the patients but many had signs and symptoms of multiorgan involvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  6. Dance DA
    Acta Trop, 2000 Feb 05;74(2-3):115-9.
    PMID: 10674638
    There is remarkably little known about the incidence of melioidosis outside a few countries (Thailand, Australia, Singapore and Malaysia). Presumably it is widespread in tropical south east Asia. Elsewhere there are tantalising glimpses of the tip of what may be a large iceberg. Since a specific diagnosis of melioidosis requires awareness on the part of clinicians, and the existence of a laboratory capable of isolating and identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei, a luxury not available in most rural tropical areas, the size of this iceberg is likely to remain unknown for the foreseeable future. There is mounting evidence that the disease is endemic in the Indian sub-continent and the Caribbean, and there have been unsubstantiated reports of recent cases in South Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear whether melioidosis has really spread to such areas relatively recently, or has been there but unrecognised for a long time. Almost all cases diagnosed in temperate climates have been imported from the tropics, with the exception of a unique outbreak which occurred in France in the mid-1970s. With increasing world wide travel of both humans and other animals, the potential exists for melioidosis to spread to new and fertile pastures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  7. Steinmetz I, Stosiek P, Hergenröther D, Bär W
    Lancet, 1996 Jun 01;347(9014):1564-5.
    PMID: 8684143
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  8. Strauss JM, Alexander AD, Rapmund G, Gan E, Dorsey AE
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1969 Sep;18(5):703-7.
    PMID: 5817889
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  9. Choi JY, Hii KC, Bailey ES, Chuang JY, Tang WY, Yuen Wong EK, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2020 02;102(2):388-391.
    PMID: 31769397 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0625
    Burkholderia pseudomallei infections are prevalent in Southeast Asia and northern Australia and often misdiagnosed. Diagnostics are often neither sensitive nor rapid, contributing up to 50% mortality rate. In this 2018 pilot study, we enrolled 100 patients aged 6 months-79 years from Kapit Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, with symptoms of B. pseudomallei infection. We used three different methods for the detection of B. pseudomallei: a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, a rapid lateral flow immunoassay, and the standard-of-care bacterial culture-the gold standard. Among the 100 participants, 24 (24%) were positive for B. pseudomallei by one or more of the detection methods. Comparing the two individual diagnostic methods against the gold standard-bacterial culture-of any positive test, there was low sensitivity for each test (25-44%) but high specificity (93-98%). It seems clear that more sensitive diagnostics or a sensitive screening diagnostic followed by specific confirmatory diagnostic is needed for this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  10. Hassan MR, Vijayalakshmi N, Pani SP, Peng NP, Mehenderkar R, Voralu K, et al.
    PMID: 24974653
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly among diabetics. We evaluated 228 isolates of B. pseudomallei for antimicrobial sensitivity during 2005-2010 using the disc diffusion technique, of which 144 were obtained from blood culture. More than 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and imipenem. Eighty-two percent of the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and amoxicillin/clavulanate. The susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin was 78% and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxezole was 47%. The susceptibilities to aminoglycoside antibiotics were low (21% to gentamicin and 6% to amikacin). The susceptibilities were similar between isolates from females and males, bacteremic and abacteremic cases, diabetics and non-diabetics, pneumonia and non-pneumonia cases and between those who died and those who survived. Our findings show antibiotic susceptibility patterns are not a major factor in determining outcomes of B. pseudomallei infection. Monitoring the drug susceptibilities among B. pseudomallei isolates needs to be conducted regularly to guide empiric therapy for melioidosis, as it causes high mortality, especially among diabetic cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  11. Mohamed MS, Khair MT, How SH, Rajalingam R, Sahhir K, Norazah A, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Jun;67(3):293-7.
    PMID: 23082420 MyJurnal
    We analyzed the epidemiological data of all people who were involved in the search and rescue operation in Lubuk Yu, a natural recreational forest with waterfall and stream. The hospital admission records of the cases who fulfilled the case definition and the environmental samples result taken at Lubuk Yu recreational area were studied. 153 people were exposed to this outbreak, 85 (55.5%) were professional rescuers from various government agencies and 68 (44.5%) were villagers. 21 fulfilled the case definition. Ten cases were confirmed melioidosis, six melioidosis alone and four coinfected with leptospirosis. There were eight deaths in this outbreak, seven were villagers and one professional rescuer. Overall case fatality was 70%. All confirmed melioidosis cases and seven who died had diabetes mellitus. The morbidity rate were higher among the villagers, 23.5% compared to professional rescuers, 5.9%. The case fatality rate were also higher in this group which was 100% compared to 33.3% in professional rescuers. The soil and water samples in Lubuk Yu recreational area were positive for leptospira and Burkholderia pseudomallei. The presence of co-infection and co-morbidities especially diabetes mellitus among the exposed led to the high mortality in this outbreak hence a high index of suspicion is important among the healthcare professionals in the management of melioidosis cases. To avoid similar incident in future, search and rescue operation should be only conducted by professional rescuers with appropriate personal protective equipment. A register of rescuers should be maintained for surveillance and follow up if necessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  12. Roesnita B, Tay ST, Puthucheary SD, Sam IC
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2012 Feb;106(2):131-3.
    PMID: 22112687 DOI: 10.1016/j.trstmh.2011.10.007
    Routine use of selective media improves diagnosis of Burkholderia pseudomallei, but resources may be limited in endemic developing countries. To maximise yield in the relatively low-prevalence setting of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, B. pseudomallei selective agar and broth were compared with routine media for 154 respiratory specimens from patients with community-acquired disease. Selective media detected three additional culture-positive specimens and one additional melioidosis patient, at a consumables cost of US$75. Burkholderia pseudomallei was not isolated from 74 diabetic foot ulcer samples. Following careful local evaluation, focused use of selective media may be cost-effective.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  13. How SH, Ng KH, Jamalludin AR, Shah A, Rathor Y
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Dec;60(5):606-13.
    PMID: 16515112
    We conducted a retrospective review of 135 patients with melioidosis in Pahang from January 2000 to June 2003. Patients were mostly male (78.5%) and Malay (83%) with a median age of 51 years. Seventy four percent of patients were diabetic. Common presentations were pneumonia (40.7%), septicaemic without obvious source of infection (19.3%) and multiple organ involvement (15.6%). Only 32.7% were given appropriate antibiotics empirically. The overall mortality was 54% with most deaths (65%) occurring within 48 hours of admission. Patients with pneumonia, multiple organ involvement and septicaemic of unknown source had higher mortality as compared to patients with subcutaneous, musculoskeletal or single internal organ involvement without pneumonia (p < 0.001). The relapse rate was 19.2%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  14. Raja NS, Ahmed MZ, Singh NN
    J Postgrad Med, 2005 Apr-Jun;51(2):140-5.
    PMID: 16006713
    Infectious diseases account for a third of all the deaths in the developing world. Achievements in understanding the basic microbiology, pathogenesis, host defenses and expanded epidemiology of infectious diseases have resulted in better management and reduced mortality. However, an emerging infectious disease, melioidosis, is becoming endemic in the tropical regions of the world and is spreading to non-endemic areas. This article highlights the current understanding of melioidosis including advances in diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Better understanding of melioidosis is essential, as it is life-threatening and if untreated, patients can succumb to it. Our sources include a literature review, information from international consensus meetings on melioidosis and ongoing discussions within the medical and scientific community.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  15. Nasner-Posso KM, Cruz-Calderón S, Montúfar-Andrade FE, Dance DA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ
    Int J Infect Dis, 2015 Jun;35:103-6.
    PMID: 25975651 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.05.009
    OBJECTIVE: There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis.

    METHODS: Using the keyword 'melioidosis' in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases.

    RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  16. Embi N, Suhaimi A, Mohamed R, Ismail G
    Microbiol. Immunol., 1992;36(8):899-904.
    PMID: 1474938
    Sera from 420 military personnel serving in Sabah and Sarawk, Malaysia, were tested for antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei exotoxin and whole cell antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure (ELISA). Data showed that 54.4% of serum samples were positive for antibodies to P. pseudomallei exotoxin and 65.7% were positive for antibodies to the whole cell antigens. Samples gave much lower titers for anti-exotoxin antibodies compared to titers against crude whole cell antigens. The incidence of antibody to exotoxin was highest in the age groups ranging from 26 to 32 years, where the positive rates were higher than 40% and 30% for military personnel serving in Sarawak and Sabah, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  17. Puthucheary SD, Parasakthi N, Lee MK
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1992 11 1;86(6):683-5.
    PMID: 1287945
    Fifty cases of septicaemic melioidosis were reviewed. There was a preponderance of disease among males (male:female ratio 3.2:1) and those aged over 30 years. The presenting clinical features were very varied and not pathognomonic, ranging from fever, cough and septicaemia to fulminant septicaemia and shock. Pulmonary involvement was recorded in 58% of the patients. Skin and soft tissue sepsis was seen in 24%, but many had signs and symptoms of multiorgan involvement. Associated underlying illness was identified in 76% of patients, diabetes mellitus being the commonest (38%), while 34% had more than one predisposing factor. The mortality of 65% in our series is a reflection of the less than satisfactory status of the diagnosis and therapy of septicaemic melioidosis. Only 24% of our patients received appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy. A high index of suspicion of melioidosis in endemic areas and the use of appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy would be a step towards reducing the high mortality rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
  18. Mohan A, Podin Y, Tai N, Chieng CH, Rigas V, Machunter B, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 Jun;11(6):e0005650.
    PMID: 28599008 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005650
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a serious, and potentially fatal community-acquired infection endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia, including Sarawak, Malaysia. The disease, caused by the usually intrinsically aminoglycoside-resistant Burkholderia pseudomallei, most commonly affects adults with predisposing risk factors. There are limited data on pediatric melioidosis in Sarawak.

    METHODS: A part prospective, part retrospective study of children aged <15 years with culture-confirmed melioidosis was conducted in the 3 major public hospitals in Central Sarawak between 2009 and 2014. We examined epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics.

    FINDINGS: Forty-two patients were recruited during the 6-year study period. The overall annual incidence was estimated to be 4.1 per 100,000 children <15 years, with marked variation between districts. No children had pre-existing medical conditions. Twenty-three (55%) had disseminated disease, 10 (43%) of whom died. The commonest site of infection was the lungs, which occurred in 21 (50%) children. Other important sites of infection included lymph nodes, spleen, joints and lacrimal glands. Seven (17%) children had bacteremia with no overt focus of infection. Delays in diagnosis and in melioidosis-appropriate antibiotic treatment were observed in nearly 90% of children. Of the clinical isolates tested, 35/36 (97%) were susceptible to gentamicin. Of these, all 11 isolates that were genotyped were of a single multi-locus sequence type, ST881, and possessed the putative B. pseudomallei virulence determinants bimABp, fhaB3, and the YLF gene cluster.

    CONCLUSIONS: Central Sarawak has a very high incidence of pediatric melioidosis, caused predominantly by gentamicin-susceptible B. pseudomallei strains. Children frequently presented with disseminated disease and had an alarmingly high death rate, despite the absence of any apparent predisposing risk factor.

    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  19. Kingsley PV, Leader M, Nagodawithana NS, Tipre M, Sathiakumar N
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 12;10(12):e0005182.
    PMID: 28005910 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005182
    BACKGROUND: Melioidosis is a tropical infectious disease associated with significant mortality due to early onset of sepsis.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to review case reports of melioidosis from Malaysia.

    METHODS: We conducted a computerized search of literature resources including PubMed, OVID, Scopus, MEDLINE and the COCHRANE database to identify published case reports from 1975 to 2015. We abstracted information on clinical characteristics, exposure history, comorbid conditions, management and outcome.

    RESULTS: Overall, 67 cases were reported with 29 (43%) deaths; the median age was 44 years, and a male preponderance (84%) was noted. Forty-one cases (61%) were bacteremic, and fatal septic shock occurred in 13 (19%) within 24-48 hours of admission; nine of the 13 cases were not specifically treated for melioidosis as confirmatory evidence was available only after death. Diabetes mellitus (n = 36, 54%) was the most common risk factor. Twenty-six cases (39%) had a history of exposure to contaminated soil/water or employment in high-risk occupations. Pneumonia (n = 24, 36%) was the most common primary clinical presentation followed by soft tissue abscess (n = 22, 33%). Other types of clinical presentations were less common-genitourinary (n = 5), neurological (n = 5), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (n = 4) and skin (n = 2); five cases had no evidence of a focus of infection. With regard to internal foci of infection, abscesses of the subcutaneous tissue (n = 14, 21%) was the most common followed by liver (18%); abscesses of the spleen and lung were the third most common (12% each). Seven of 56 males were reported to have prostatic abscesses. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm occurred in five cases. Only one case of parotid abscess was reported in an adult. Of the 67 cases, 13 were children (≤ 18 years of age) with seven deaths; five of the 13 were neonates presenting primarily with bronchopneumonia, four of whom died. Older children had a similar presentation as adults; no case of parotid abscess was reported among children.

    CONCLUSIONS: The clinical patterns of cases reported from Malaysia are consistent for the most part from previous case reports from South and Southeast Asia with regard to common primary presentations of pneumonia and soft tissue abscesses, and diabetes as a major risk factor. Bacteremic melioidosis carried a poor prognosis and septic shock was strong predictor of mortality. Differences included the occurrence of: primary neurological infection was higher in Malaysia compared to reports outside Malaysia; internal foci of infection such as abscesses of the liver, spleen, prostate, and mycotic pseudoaneurysms were higher than previously reported in the region. No parotid abscess was reported among children. Early recognition of the disease is the cornerstone of management. In clinical situations of community-acquired sepsis and/or pneumonia, where laboratory bacteriological confirmation is not possible, empirical treatment with antimicrobials for B. pseudomallei is recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology*
  20. Mohan A, Manan K, Tan LS, Tan YC, Chin ST, Ahmad R, et al.
    Int J Infect Dis, 2020 Sep;98:59-66.
    PMID: 32535300 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.025
    OBJECTIVES: Melioidosis is associated with extremely high case fatality ratios. The aim of this study was to determine whether detection of abdominal visceral abscesses can facilitate diagnosis of melioidosis in children.

    METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all children who had liver and/or spleen abscesses on abdominal ultrasonography admitted to Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, from January 2014 until December 2018.

    RESULTS: Fifty-three children had liver and/or spleen abscesses. Spleen abscesses were present in 48 (91%) cases; liver abscesses in 15 (28%). Melioidosis was confirmed by culture in 9 (17%) children; small occult splenic abscesses were present in all cases. In 78% of these cases, the lesions were detected before any positive culture (or serology) results were available. Four (8%) children had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. Two (4%) had Staphylococcus aureus infection. Of the remaining 38 (72%) culture-negative cases, 36 (95%) had clinical and imaging characteristics similar to that of children with culture-confirmed melioidosis and improved with empirical melioidosis antibiotic therapy.

    CONCLUSIONS: A large number of children in Bintulu Hospital in Sarawak, Malaysia, were found to have spleen abscesses. Melioidosis was the most common etiology identified in these children. Abdominal ultrasonography is extremely useful in facilitating the diagnosis of pediatric melioidosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/epidemiology
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