Displaying all 6 publications

  1. Su YC, Wan KL, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    Vaccine, 2010 Jul 12;28(31):5005-11.
    PMID: 20546831 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.022
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, leading to relapse and recrudescence of melioidosis after cessation of antibiotic therapy. More effective immunotherapies are needed for better management of melioidosis. We evaluated the prophylactic potential of the immunogenic outer membrane protein Omp85 as a vaccine against murine melioidosis. Immunization of BALB/c mice with recombinant Omp85 (rOmp85) triggered a Th2-type immune response. Up to 70% of the immunized animals were protected against infectious challenge of B. pseudomallei with reduced bacterial load in extrapulmonary organs. Mouse anti-rOmp85 promoted complement-mediated killing and opsonophagocytosis of B. pseudomallei by human polymorphonuclear cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated that B. pseudomallei Omp85 is potentially able to induce protective immunity against melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control*
  2. Hara Y, Mohamed R, Nathan S
    PLoS One, 2009 Aug 05;4(8):e6496.
    PMID: 19654871 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006496
    BACKGROUND: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease of significant morbidity and mortality in both human and animals in endemic areas. There is no vaccine towards the bacterium available in the market, and the efficacy of many of the bacterium's surface and secreted proteins are currently being evaluated as vaccine candidates.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the availability of the B. pseudomallei whole genome sequence, we undertook to identify genes encoding the known immunogenic outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Twelve OmpA domains were identified and ORFs containing these domains were fully annotated. Of the 12 ORFs, two of these OmpAs, Omp3 and Omp7, were successfully cloned, expressed as soluble protein and purified. Both proteins were recognised by antibodies in melioidosis patients' sera by Western blot analysis. Purified soluble fractions of Omp3 and Omp7 were assessed for their ability to protect BALB/c mice against B. pseudomallei infection. Mice were immunised with either Omp3 or Omp7, subsequently challenged with 1x10(6) colony forming units (cfu) of B. pseudomallei via the intraperitoneal route, and examined daily for 21 days post-challenge. This pilot study has demonstrated that whilst all control unimmunised mice died by day 9 post-challenge, two mice (out of 4) from both immunised groups survived beyond 21 days post-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated that B. pseudomallei OmpA proteins are immunogenic in mice as well as melioidosis patients and should be further assessed as potential vaccine candidates against B. pseudomallei infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control
  3. Norazah A, Rohani MY, Chang PT, Kamel AG
    PMID: 9279987
    Interpretation of the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for melioidosis in endemic areas is difficult because of the presence of antibodies in apparently healthy individuals. Fifty-three out of 200 healthy blood donors in Malaysia showed positive antibody titers (> or = 1 : 40) against Burkholderia pseudomallei. Seven percent had an IHA titer of 1 : 40, 11% had an IHA titer of 1 : 80 while 8.5% had a titer > or = 1 : 160. Out of 258 sera sent for melioidosis serology, 7% of the patients had an IHA titer of 1 : 40, 9% had an IHA titer of 1 : 80 while 20% had an IHA titer of > or = 1 : 160. If a titer of > or = 1 : 80 is taken as cut off point for positivity, 29% of the patients had positive melioidosis serology. Increasing the positivity threshold may jeopardize the sensitivity of the test. A more specific and sensitive test is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control
  4. Chin CY, Tan SC, Nathan S
    PMID: 22919676 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2012.00085
    Burkholderia pseudomallei is resistant to a diverse group of antimicrobials including third generation cephalosporins whilst quinolones and aminoglycosides have no reliable effect. As therapeutic options are limited, development of more effective forms of immunotherapy is vital to avoid a fatal outcome. In an earlier study, we reported on the B. pseudomallei serine MprA protease, which is relatively stable over a wide pH and temperature range and digests physiological proteins. The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the MprA as a potential vaccine candidate. In BALB/c mice immunized with recombinant MprA protease (smBpF4), a significantly high IgG titer was detectable. Isotyping studies revealed that the smBpF4-specific antibodies produced were predominantly IgG(1), proposing that immunization with smBpF4 triggered a Th2 immune response. Mice were immunized with smBpF4 and subsequently challenged with B. pseudomallei via the intraperitoneal route. Whilst control mice succumbed to the infection by day 9, smBpF4-immunized mice were protected against the lethal challenge and survived beyond 25 days post-infection. In conclusion, MprA is immunogenic in melioidosis patients whilst also eliciting a strong immune response upon bacterial challenge in mice and presents itself as a potential vaccine candidate for the treatment of melioidosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control*
  5. Choh LC, Ong GH, Vellasamy KM, Kalaiselvam K, Kang WT, Al-Maleki AR, et al.
    PMID: 23386999 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2013.00005
    The genus Burkholderia consists of diverse species which includes both "friends" and "foes." Some of the "friendly" Burkholderia spp. are extensively used in the biotechnological and agricultural industry for bioremediation and biocontrol. However, several members of the genus including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia, are known to cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are the causative agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, while B. cepacia infection is lethal to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Due to the high rate of infectivity and intrinsic resistance to many commonly used antibiotics, together with high mortality rate, B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are considered to be potential biological warfare agents. Treatments of the infections caused by these bacteria are often unsuccessful with frequent relapse of the infection. Thus, we are at a crucial stage of the need for Burkholderia vaccines. Although the search for a prophylactic therapy candidate continues, to date development of vaccines has not advanced beyond research to human clinical trials. In this article, we review the current research on development of safe vaccines with high efficacy against B. pseudomallei, B. mallei, and B. cepacia. It can be concluded that further research will enable elucidation of the potential benefits and risks of Burkholderia vaccines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control
  6. Perumal Samy R, Stiles BG, Sethi G, Lim LHK
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2017 May;11(5):e0004738.
    PMID: 28493905 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004738
    This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium) is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective. Despite therapy, the overall case fatality rate of septicemia in melioidosis remains significantly high. Intracellular survival of the bacteria within macrophages may progress to chronic infections, and about 10% of patients suffer relapses. In the coming decades, melioidosis will increasingly afflict travelers throughout many global regions. Clinicians managing travelers returning from the subtropics or tropics with severe pneumonia or septicemia should consider acute melioidosis as a differential diagnosis. Patients with open skin wounds, diabetes, or chronic renal disease are at higher risk for melioidosis and should avoid direct contact with soil and standing water in endemic regions. Furthermore, there are fears that B. pseudomallei may be used as a biological weapon. Technological advancements in molecular diagnostics and antibiotic therapy are improving the disease outcomes in endemic areas throughout Asia. Research and development efforts on vaccine candidates against melioidosis are ongoing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Melioidosis/prevention & control
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