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  1. Boo K, Cheng S
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Jun;14(1):45-8.
    PMID: 1469918
    Monoclonal plasma cell proliferative diseases such as multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma can involve extramedullary sites at the time of first presentation, or subsequently in the course of the disease. Under such circumstances, they can mimic primary or metastatic carcinomas, neuroendocrine or neuroectodermal tumours and lymphomas, and the pathologist often has to resort to immunohistochemistry as an aid to diagnosis. We studied the morphology and immunohistochemical properties of 10 cases of previously confirmed monoclonal plasma cell proliferative lesions retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya. Serial 4u thick paraffin sections were stained with H&E, the Unna-Pappenheim technique for nucleic acid and a panel of antibodies using a standard immunoperoxidase technique. Light chain restriction was demonstrable in most of the cases. Seven (70%) showed kappa and 2 (20%) lambda light chain restriction. The remaining case was not stainable with most of the antibodies in the panel. The majority (80%) of cases showed accompanying IgG heavy chain in the cytoplasm, while 1 case had IgA. Seven (70%) showed membrane positivity with antibody to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and 7 (70%) cytoplasmic positivity with antibody to vimentin. This study enhances our awareness that neoplastic plasma cells can be positive for EMA and vimentin, and cautions us from misinterpreting these lesions as carcinomas or sarcomas. Notwithstanding that, immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains can be helpful in differentiating monoclonal plasma cell proliferations from polyclonal ones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis
  2. Kechik KA, Siar CH
    Ann Diagn Pathol, 2018 Feb;32:17-22.
    PMID: 29414392 DOI: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2017.08.002
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) remains the most challenging jaw cyst to treat because of its locally-aggressive behaviour and high recurrence potential. Emerging evidence suggests that osteopontin, its receptors CD44v6 and integrin αv, and podoplanin, have a role in the local invasiveness of this cyst. However the spatial distribution characteristics of these pro-invasive markers in the lining epithelium of OKC, and their association with the clinicopathologic parameters of OKC are largely unexplored. This study sought to address these issues in comparison with dentigerous cysts (DCs) and radicular cysts (RCs) and to evaluate their biological relevance.

    METHODS: A sample consisting of 20 OKC cases, 10 DCs and 10 RCs was subjected to immunohistochemical staining for osteopontin, CD44v6 and integrin αv, and podoplanin, and semiquantitative analysis was performed.

    RESULTS: All factors (except integrin αv) were detected heterogeneously in the constitutive layers of the lining epithelium in all three cyst types. Key observations were significant upregulation of CD44v6 and podoplanin in OKC compared to DCs and RCs, suggesting that these protein molecules may play crucial roles in promoting local invasiveness in OKC (P<0.05). Osteopontin underexpression and distribution patterns were indistinctive among all three cysts indicating its limited role as pro-invasive factor. Clinical parameters showed no significant correlations with all protein factors investigated.

    CONCLUSIONS: Present findings suggest that an osteopontinlow CD44v6high and podoplaninhigh immunoprofile most probably represent epithelial signatures of OKC and are markers of local invasiveness in this cyst.

    Matched MeSH terms: Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis
  3. Looi LM, Cheah PL, Lin HP
    Pathology, 1992 Jan;24(1):34-6.
    PMID: 1374551
    Clear cell sarcoma of kidney (CCSK) is a rare but distinct tumor of childhood frequently confused with Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma). It has a characteristic histology, a marked predilection for metastasis to bone, and an aggressive clinical course with a high relapse rate in spite of surgical excision, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report the first histologically proven CCSK in a Malaysian patient. This was an 8-mth-old Malay boy who was clinically diagnosed to have stage I Wilms' tumor. Despite treatment, he developed multiple metastases 10 mths after initial presentation and died soon after. Emphasis is placed on recognizing this entity in view of (1) its naturally aggressive behaviour and (2) the prospect of improving prognosis with currently recommended intensified chemotherapeutic regimes. Its immunohistochemical profile of vimentin-positivity and negativity for epithelial membrane antigen, cytokeratin and Factor-8 related antigen is more in favour of a mesenchymal or glomerular origin than a tubular or vascular origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis
  4. Yamayoshi S, Yamashita Y, Li J, Hanagata N, Minowa T, Takemura T, et al.
    Nat. Med., 2009 Jul;15(7):798-801.
    PMID: 19543282 DOI: 10.1038/nm.1992
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) belongs to human enterovirus species A of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. EV71, together with coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), are most frequently associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Although HFMD is considered a mild exanthematous infection, infections involving EV71, but not CVA16, can progress to severe neurological disease, including fatal encephalitis, aseptic meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis. In recent years, epidemic and sporadic outbreaks of neurovirulent EV71 infections have been reported in Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan and China. Here, we show that human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2, also known as lysosomal integral membrane protein II or CD36b like-2) is a receptor for EV71. EV71 binds soluble SCARB2 or cells expressing SCARB2, and the binding is inhibited by an antibody to SCARB2. Expression of human SCARB2 enables normally unsusceptible cell lines to support EV71 propagation and develop cytopathic effects. EV71 infection is hampered by the antibody to SCARB2 and soluble SCARB2. SCARB2 also supports the infection of the milder pathogen CVA16. The identification of SCARB2 as an EV71 and CVA16 receptor contributes to a better understanding of the pathogenicity of these viruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Lysosome-Associated Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis
  5. Kumcu E, Unverdi H, Kaymaz E, Oral O, Turkbey D, Hucmenoglu S
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Aug;40(2):137-142.
    PMID: 30173230
    INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is still a serious health problem in 21st century and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this malignant disease are subject to many research. While cancer research has been focused on tumour cells primarily, recent studies showed that tumour stroma contribute to carcinogenesis as well as tumour cells. Especially fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells are not ordinary fibroblasts and play the critical role. Studies showed that these cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have different genetic profile and protein expression. One of the differently expressed molecules recently found is podoplanin. Podoplanin, utilised as a lymphatic endothelial marker, is found to be expressed in CAFs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the stromal expression of podoplanin in invasive breast carcinoma and clinicopathological parameters.

    MATERIALS & METHODS: Podoplanin expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in 153 breast cancers. Tumours with ≥ 10% distinct cytoplasmic podoplanin staining in CAFs were considered as positive.

    RESULTS: In 65.3% of analysed tumours, podoplanin expression was found positive in CAFs. According to our results, podoplanin positive CAFs correlated significantly with tumour size (p= 0.012), tumour grade (p= 0.032) and cerbB2 score (p= 0.032).

    DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that podoplanin expression by CAFs could predict poor patient outcome in breast carcinoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis
  6. Siar CH, Ishak I, Ng KH
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2015 Jan;44(1):51-8.
    PMID: 25059841 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12203
    Ameloblastoma is a benign but locally infiltrative odontogenic epithelial neoplasm with a high risk for recurrence. Podoplanin, a lymphatic endothelium marker, putatively promotes collective cell migration and invasiveness in this neoplasm. However, its role in the recurrent ameloblastoma (RA) remains unclear. As morphological, signaling, and genetic differences may exist between primary and recurrent tumors, clarification of their distribution patterns is of relevance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Membrane Glycoproteins/analysis*
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