This work discusses the preparation and characterizations of glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using zeolite-5A as a starting material. Zeolite was formed into a hollow fiber configuration using the phase inversion technique. It was later sintered at high temperatures to burn off organic materials and change the zeolite into glass membrane. A preliminary study, that used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), confirmed that zeolite used in this study changed to glass at temperatures above 1000 °C. The glass hollow fiber membranes prepared using the phase inversion technique has three different microstructures, namely (i) sandwich-like structure that originates from inner layer, (ii) sandwich-like that originates from outer layer, and (iii) symmetric sponge like. These variations were influenced by zeolite weight loading and the flow rate of water used to form the lumen. The separation performances of the glass hollow fiber membrane were studied using the pure water permeability and the rejection test of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The glass hollow fiber membrane prepared from using 48 wt% zeolite loading and bore fluid with 9 mL min(-1) flow rate has the highest BSA rejection of 85% with the water permeability of 0.7 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1). The results showed that the separation performance of glass hollow fiber membranes was in the ultrafiltration range, enabled the retention of solutes with molecular sizes larger than 67 kDa such as milk proteins, endotoxin pyrogen, virus, and colloidal silica.
The asymmetric polyethersulfone (PES-15 wt.%) mixed-matrix membranes were prepared by incorporation of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) with varying concentrations (1, 3, and 5 wt.%). Physicochemical characterization of synthesized membranes was carried out using field emission scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, contact angle, thermogravimetric analysis, zeta potential analyzer, porosity, and mean pore sizes. Performance analysis of synthesized mixed-matrix membranes was carried out by varying the operating parameters such as pressure (2-10 bar), feed concentration (100-1,000 mg/L), and cations type (Na+ , Ca2+ , Mg2+ , and Sn2+ ). Effect of operating parameters and CMS concentration was investigated on pure water flux (PWF), permeate flux, and rejection of membranes. It was found that mixed-matrix membrane containing 15 wt.% PES with 1 wt.% CMS displayed the superior physicochemical characteristics in terms of hydrophilicity (37.9°), surface charge (-13.8 mV), mean pore diameter (6.04 nm), and thermal properties (Tg = 218.5°C), and overall performance. E5C1 membrane showed 1.5 times higher PWF (75.5 L m-2 hr-1 ) and incremented in rejection for all salts than the nascent membrane. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Carbon molecular sieve-embedded mixed-matrix membranes were synthesized by phase inversion method. The resultant membranes experienced improved hydrophilicity, roughness, surface charge, porosity, and mean pore diameter with 1 wt.% CMS loading. The pure water flux was improved from 55.77 to 75.05 L m-2 hr-1 when 1 wt.% CMS was added in pure PES. The observed rejection of a mixed-matrix membrane with 1 wt.% CMS was the maximum for all salts.
Electrically active constructs can have a beneficial effect on electroresponsive tissues, such as the brain, heart, and nervous system. Conducting polymers (CPs) are being considered as components of these constructs because of their intrinsic electroactive and flexible nature. However, their clinical application has been largely hampered by their short operational time due to a decrease in their electronic properties. We show that, by immobilizing the dopant in the conductive scaffold, we can prevent its electric deterioration. We grew polyaniline (PANI) doped with phytic acid on the surface of a chitosan film. The strong chelation between phytic acid and chitosan led to a conductive patch with retained electroactivity, low surface resistivity (35.85 ± 9.40 kilohms per square), and oxidized form after 2 weeks of incubation in physiological medium. Ex vivo experiments revealed that the conductive nature of the patch has an immediate effect on the electrophysiology of the heart. Preliminary in vivo experiments showed that the conductive patch does not induce proarrhythmogenic activities in the heart. Our findings set the foundation for the design of electronically stable CP-based scaffolds. This provides a robust conductive system that could be used at the interface with electroresponsive tissue to better understand the interaction and effect of these materials on the electrophysiology of these tissues.
Biohydrogen as one of the most appealing energy vector for the future represents attractive avenue in alternative energy research. Recently, variety of biohydrogen production pathways has been suggested to improve the key features of the process. Nevertheless, researches are still needed to overcome remaining barriers to practical applications such as low yields and production rates. Considering practicality aspects, this review emphasized on anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for biological hydrogen production. Recent advances and emerging issues associated with biohydrogen generation in AnMBR technology are critically discussed. Several techniques are highlighted that are aimed at overcoming these barriers. Moreover, environmental and economical potentials along with future research perspectives are addressed to drive biohydrogen technology towards practicality and economical-feasibility.
A membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR) treating hypersaline oily wastewater was modeled by artificial neural network (ANN). The MSBR operated at different total dissolved solids (TDSs) (35,000; 50,000; 100,000; 150,000; 200,000; 250,000mg/L), various organic loading rates (OLRs) (0.281, 0.563, 1.124, 2.248, and 3.372kg COD/(m(3)day)) and cyclic time (12, 24, and 48h). A feed-forward neural network trained by batch back propagation algorithm was employed to model the MSBR. A set of 193 operational data from the wastewater treatment with the MSBR was used to train the network. The training, validating and testing procedures for the effluent COD, total organic carbon (TOC) and oil and grease (O&G) concentrations were successful and a good correlation was observed between the measured and predicted values. The results showed that at OLR of 2.44kg COD/(m(3)day), TDS of 78,000mg/L and reaction time (RT) of 40h, the average removal rate of COD was 98%. In these conditions, the average effluent COD concentration was less than 100mg/L and met the discharge limits.
Visible light driven C-doped mesoporous TiO2 (C-MTiO2) nanorods have been successfully synthesized through green, low cost, and facile approach by sol-gel bio-templating method using regenerated cellulose membrane (RCM) as nanoreactor. In this study, RCM was also responsible to provide in-situ carbon sources for resultant C-MTiO2 nanorods in acidified sol at low temperatures. The composition, crystallinity, surface area, morphological structure, and optical properties of C-MTiO2 nanorods, respectively, had been characterized using FTIR, XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, TEM, UV-vis-NIR, and XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that the growth of C-MTiO2 nanorods was promoted by the strong interaction between the hydroxyl groups of RCMs and titanium ion. Optical and XPS analysis confirmed that carbon presence in TiO2 nanorods were responsible for band-gap narrowing, which improved the visible light absorption capability. Photocatalytic activity measurements exhibited the capability of C-MTiO2 nanorods in degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution, with 96.6% degradation percentage under visible light irradiation.
Novel alginate-fenugreek gum (FG) gel membrane coated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) based matrix tablets were developed for intragastric quetiapine fumarate (QF) delivery by combining floating and swelling mechanisms. The effects of polymer blend ratios [HPMC K4M:HPMC E15] and citric acid contents on time taken for 50% drug release (t50%, min) and drug release at 8h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core tablets by 3(2) factorial design. The optimized tablets (F-O) exhibited t50% of 247.67±3.51min and Q8h of 71.11±0.32% with minimum errors in prediction. The optimized tablets were coated with Ca(+2) ions crosslinked alginate-FG gel membrane by diffusion-controlled interfacial complexation technique. The biopolymeric-coated optimized matrices exhibited superior buoyancy, preferred swelling characteristics and slower drug release rate. The drug release profiles of the QF-loaded uncoated and coated optimized matrices were best fitted in Korsmeyer-Peppas model with anomalous diffusion driven mechanism. The uncoated and coated tablets containing QF were also characterized for drug-excipients compatibility, thermal behaviour and surface morphology by FTIR, DSC and SEM analyses, respectively. Thus, the newly developed alginate-FG gel membrane coated HPMC matrices are appropriate for intragastric delivery of QF over a prolonged period of time with greater therapeutic benefits.
Currently, an extractive green palm oil-based emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) has been used for simultaneous extraction and enrichment of Reactive Red 3BS from simulated synthetic dye wastewater. The ELM consists of two main phases, which are organic liquid membrane (LM) and stripping solution. During the extraction process, the ELM was dispersed into the simulated synthetic dye wastewater containing the Reactive Red 3BS complexes. The organic LM contains tridodecylamine (TDA), Sorbitan Monooleate (Span 80) and palm oil as a carrier, surfactant and diluent, respectively. The sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was used as stripping solution for the enrichment process. Several important parameters that affected the simultaneous extraction and enrichment of Reactive Red 3BS, such as carrier and stripping agent concentrations, extraction time and treat ratio, were investigated. The results showed that almost 90% of Reactive Red 3BS ions were successfully extracted with 10 times enrichment in the stripping phase at the optimum conditions of 0.2 M TDA, 0.1 M NaHCO3, 5 min of extraction time and 1:5 of treat ratio. Hence, it can be concluded that palm oil possesses a high potential as green diluent in future technology, especially in ELM process for the removal and recovery of Reactive Red 3BS from synthetic dye wastewater.
The effects of different hydraulic retention time (HRT) on (RS)-MCPP utilisation was investigated by decreasing the feed flow rate in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR). Results showed an average COD removal efficiency of 91.4%, 96.9% and 94.4% when the reactor was operated at HRT 3, 7 and 17 d, respectively. However, when the HRT was reduced to 1d, the COD removal efficiency declined to just only 60%, confirming the AnMBR is stable to a large transient hydraulic shock loads. The (RS)-MCPP removal efficiency fluctuated from 6% to 39% at HRT 3 d, however when it was increased to 7 and 17 d, the removal efficiency increased to an average of 60% and 74.5%. In addition, (RS)-MCPP specific utilisation rates (SUR) were dependent on the HRT and gradually improved from 18 to 43 μg mg VSS(-1) d(-1) as flow rate increased.
There has been tremendous progress in membrane technology for gas separation, in particular oxygen separation from air in the last 20 years. It provides an alternative route to the existing conventional separation processes such as cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption as well as cheaper production of oxygen with high purity. This review presents the recent advances of ceramic membranes for the separation of oxygen from air at high temperature. It covers the issues and problems with respect to the selectivity and separation performance. The paper also presents different approaches applied to overcome these challenges. The future directions of ceramic-based membranes for oxygen separation from air are also presented.
The amount of lipase from Mucor miehei adsorption on ultrafiltration polysulfone hollow fiber membrane chips has been determined using different lipase concentrations at three different temperatures, namely 30, 35, and 40 degrees C. It was experimentally shown that adsorption of lipase increases with temperature. The results were used to evaluate the constants found in the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model coupled with the Van't Hoff's relationship. A temperature dependence correlation for the amount of adsorbed lipase activity, alip,ads, and that present in the supernatant solution, alip,free was determined. The effect of varying the concentration on a cross-linking agent, namely, glutaraldehyde, to the membrane chips was also tested. It was found that, under the same operating conditions, the amount of lipase adsorbed on polysulfone membranes was increased dramatically after pre-treating the membrane with 1% Glutaraldehyde. However, increasing the concentration of the cross-linking agent has a low effect on the amount of lipase adsorbed.
κ-Carrageenan films derived from Euchema cottoni containing different types and concentrations of emulsifier were developed. Film formation without the addition of emulsifier was used as a control. The physical, mechanical, optical and microstructural properties of these films were determined. Different types of emulsifiers (Tween 20, Tween 40 and Tween 80) exerted significant effects (P≤0.05) on the thickness, moisture content and opacity of the films. Additionally, Tween 20 and Tween 40 with concentrations from 0.1 to 0.5% (v/v) significantly (P≤0.05) improved the tensile strength of the films, ranging from 7.35 to 13.83MPa. The water vapor permeability of the carrageenan films was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by both factors. Increasing the emulsifier concentration also caused an increment in the number of lipid droplets contributing to a smooth surface. Therefore, this study suggests that different types and concentrations of emulsifiers play essential roles in determining the physical properties of carrageenan films.
In order to clarify the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of superheated steam (SHS) treated poly((R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) for biomaterial applications, SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoester samples: P(HB-co-6%-HHx) and P(HB-co-11%-HHx) with low and high percentages of unsaturated chain ends were evaluated for their cytotoxicity effects toward the growth of mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3. From the results obtained after 24 and 48 h of the growth test, the SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters were found to be nontoxic to the growth of mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cell line with cell viability percentages of more than 95%. In order to serve as a potential resorbable medical suture, PHBHHx oligoesters were blended with poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with a weight ratio of PHBHHx oligoester/PLLA = 20:80 (wt/wt) to improve mechanical properties of PHBHHx oligoesters. The PHBHHx oligoesters/PLLA blend films were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, and surface wetting properties. Thermal properties of the blend films suggested a good compatibility between PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA components. Mechanical properties of the blend films were determined to be close enough to a desirable strength range of medical sutures. Moreover, contact angle range of 65 < θ < 70° for the blend samples could provide desirable cell adhesion when used as biomaterials. Therefore, the blend of SHS-treated PHBHHx oligoesters and PLLA would be an ideal choice to be used as biomedical materials.
This research involves the rare utilisation of the kapok fibre (Ceiba pentandra) as a raw material for the fabrication of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) and self-assembled CNC membranes. The isolation of CNC from Ceiba pentandra began with the extraction of cellulose via the chemical alkali extraction by using 5wt% NaOH, followed by the typical acidified bleaching method and, finally, the CNC production through acid hydrolysis with 60wt% H2SO4 at the optimum time of 60min. The prepared CNC was then employed for the preparation of self-assembled membrane through the water suspension casting evaporation technique. The obtained CNC membrane was characterised in terms of its composition, crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as, structural and morphological features with the use of several techniques including FTIR, XRD, AFM, TEM, FESEM, and TGA. The FESEM and AFM analyses had illustrated the achievement of a self-assembled CNC membrane with a smooth surface and a well-distributed nano-porous structure, with the porosity of 52.82±7.79%. In addition, the findings proved that the self-assembled CNC membrane displayed good adsorption capability indicated by the recorded efficiency of 79% and 85% for 10mg/L and 5mg/L of methylene blue in an aqueous solution, respectively.
Microalgae harvesting using membrane technology is challenging because of its high fouling propensity. As an established fouling mitigation technique, efficacy of air bubbles can be improved by maximizing the impact of shear-rates in scouring foulant. In this study, it is achieved by tilting the membrane panel. We investigate the effect of tilting angle, switching period as well as aeration rate during microalgal broth filtration. Results show that higher tilting angles (up to 20°) improve permeability of up to 2.7 times of the vertical panel. In addition, operating a one-sided panel is better than a two-sided panel, in which the later involved switching mode. One-sided membrane panel only require a half of area, yet its performance is comparable with of a large-scale module. This tilted panel can lead to significant membrane cost reductions and eventually improves the competitiveness of membrane technology for microalgae harvesting application.
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is regarded as the state-of-the-art technology in separation processes. Surface modification techniques play a critical role in improving the conventional membrane system which is mostly hydrophobic in nature. The hydrophobic nature of membranes is known to cause fouling, resulting in high maintenance costs and shorter lifespan of MBR. Thus, surface grafting aims to improve the hydrophilicity of bio-based membrane systems. This review describes the major surface grafting techniques currently used in membranes, including photo induced grafting, plasma treatment and plasma induced grafting, radiation induced grafting, thermal induced grafting and ozone induced grafting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method is discussed along with their parametric studies. The potential applications of MBR are very promising, but some integral membrane properties could be a major challenge that hinders its wider reach. The fouling issue could be resolved with the surface grafting techniques to achieve better performance of MBRs.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance and antifouling properties of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane incorporated with dual nanofiller, zinc oxide (ZnO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT). The synergistic effect of the these nanofillers in PES membrane is studied by blending different ratio of ZnO/MWCNT nanofiller into the PES membrane. The fabricated membranes were characterized in terms of cross-section and surface morphology, surface hydrophilicity, pore size and porosity. The filtration performance of the membranes was tested using 50 mg/L humic acid (HA) solution as model solution. SEM image and gravimetric evaluation reported that the incorporation of both MWCNT and ZnO into the PES membrane improved porosity significantly up to 46.02%. Lower water contact angle of PES membrane incorporated with equal ratio of MWCNT and ZnO (PES 3) revealed that it has neat PES membrane properties and more hydrophilic membrane surface than single filler. PES 3 outperform other membranes with excellent HA permeate flux of 40.00 L/m2.h and rejection of 88.51%. Due to hydrophilic membrane surface, PES 3 membrane demonstrate efficient antifouling properties with lower relative flux reduction (RFR) and higher flux recovery ratio (FRR). PES 3 also showed notable antibacterial properties with less bacterial attached to the membrane compared to neat PES membrane (PES 0).
This paper aims to develop novel hydrophilic ionic liquid membranes using pervaporation for the recovery of biobutanol. Multiple polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes based on three commercial ionic liquids with different loading were prepared for various experimental trials. The ionic liquids selected for the study include tributyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium chloride ([TBTDP][Cl]), tetrabutyl phosphonium bromide ([TBP][Br]) and tributyl methyl phosphonium methylsulphate ([TBMP][MS]). The synthesized membranes were characterized and tested in a custom-built pervaporation set-up. All ionic liquid membranes showed better results with total flux of 1.58 kg/m2h, 1.43 kg/m2h, 1.38 kg/m2h at 30% loading of [TBP][Br], [TBMP][MS] and [TBTDP][Cl] respectively. The comparison of ionic liquid membranes revealed that by incorporating [TBMP]MS to PVA matrix resulted in a maximum separation factor of 147 at 30 wt% loading combined with a relatively higher total flux of 1.43 kg/m2h. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were also carried out to evaluate the experimental observations along with theoretical studies. The improved permeation properties make these phosphonium based ionic liquid a promising additive in PVA matrix for butanol-water separation under varying temperature conditions.
Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated by the hydrothermal synthesis of ordered mesoporous KIT-6 type silica and incorporating in polyimide (P84). KIT-6 and MMMs were characterized to evaluate morphology, thermal stability, surface area, pore volume, and other characteristics. SEM images of synthesized MMMs and permeation data of CO2 suggested homogenous dispersion of mesoporous fillers and their adherence to the polymer matrix. The addition of KIT-6 to polymer matrix improved the permeability of CO2 due to the increase in diffusivity through porous particles. The permeability was 3.2 times higher at 30% loading of filler. However, selectivity showed a slight decrease with the increase in filler loadings. The comparison of gas permeation results of KIT-6 with the well-known MCM-41 revealed that KIT-6 based MMMs showed 14% higher permeability than that of MMMs composed of mesoporous MCM-41. The practical commercial viability of synthesized membranes was examined under different operating temperatures and mixed gas feeds. Mesoporous KIT-6 silica is an attractive additive for gas permeability enhancement without compromising the selectivity of MMMs. Graphical abstract.
Membrane technology, especially nanofiltration (NF) has great attention to provide an imperative solution for water issues. The membrane is considered to be the heart in the separation plant. Understanding the membrane characteristics could allow predicting and optimizing the membrane performance namely flux, rejection and reduced fouling. The membrane development using biomaterials and nanomaterials provides a remarkable opportunity in the water application. This review focuses on the membrane characteristics of biomaterials and nanomaterials based nanofiltration. In this review, recent researches based on biomaterials and nanomaterials loaded membrane for salt rejection have been analyzed. Membrane fouling depends on the membrane characteristics and this review defined fouling as a ubiquitous bottleneck challenge that hampers the NF blooming applications. Fouling mitigation strategies via membrane modification using biomaterial (chitosan, curcumin and vanillin) and various other nanomaterials are critically reviewed. This review also highlights the membrane cleaning and focuses on concentrates disposal methods with zero liquid discharge system for resource recovery. Finally, the conclusion and future prospects of membrane technology are discussed. From this current review, it is apparent that the biomaterial and various other nanomaterials acquire exclusive properties that facilitate membrane advancement with improved capability for water treatment. Regardless of membrane material developments, still exist considerable difficulties in membrane commercialization. Thus, additional studies related to this field are needed to produce membranes with better performance for large‒scale applications.