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  1. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Pain Ther, 2015 Dec;4(2):179-96.
    PMID: 26581429 DOI: 10.1007/s40122-015-0041-y
    We recently reported that a majority of opioid-dependent Malay males on methadone therapy are cold pain sensitive. It is postulated that common OPRM1 polymorphisms may be responsible. This study investigated the association between 118A>G (dbSNP rs1799971) and IVS2+691G>C (dbSNP rs2075572) variants on cold pain responses among opioid-dependent Malay males on methadone maintenance therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  2. Taheri F, Yaraghi A, Sabzghabaee AM, Moudi M, Eizadi-Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, et al.
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2013 Jul;2(3):130-4.
    PMID: 24991620 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.122387
    OBJECTIVE: Methadone poisoning can occur accidentally or intentionally for suicide or homicide purposes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical manifestations of Methadone poisoning.
    METHODS: A descriptive analytical study was performed from 2010 to 2012 in the poisoning emergency and clinical toxicology departments of Noor hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (Isfahan, Iran). All patients with Methadone poisoning within this period of time were investigated. Different variables were recorded in a checklist.
    FINDINGS: A total of 385 patients were studied. About 85.7% had ingested only Methadone and 14.3% had ingested other medications with Methadone. Mean ± standard deviation of the age was 32.1 ± 15 years (range: 1-90). Most of the patients were male (76.4%). Nearly 40% of the patients were narcotic addicts, 25.5% were addicts under surveillance of Methadone maintenance therapy centers and 34.5% were non-addicts. Intentional poisoning was observed in most of the patients (57.7%). Most of the patients had a low level of consciousness on admission (58.2%). Respiratory depression and hypotension was observed in 35.6% and 12.7% of the cases as the most common symptoms. Regarding vital signs, there was a significant difference in respiratory rate on admission among different evaluated groups (P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was 18.79 ± 0.72 h (range: 4-240 h, median: 15 h). About 57 patients (25.8%) from the intentionally poisoned patients and 19 patients (12.3%) from the unintentionally poisoned patients had a history of psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001). Most of the patients survived without complications.
    CONCLUSION: Addiction, age, gender, attempt to suicide and a history of psychiatric disorder were of the most important factors effective in Methadone poisoning, which should be considered in the public training and prevention of poisoning.
    KEYWORDS: Methadone; overdose; poisoning; toxicity
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/poisoning*
  3. Adnan LH, Bakar NH, Mohamad N
    Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2014 Dec;17(12):926-8.
    PMID: 25859295
    Methadone is widely being used for opioid substitution therapy. However, the administration of methadone to opioid dependent individual is frequently accompanied by withdrawal syndrome and chemical dependency develops. Other than that, it is also difficult to retain patients in the treatment programme making their retention rates are decreasing over time. This article is written to higlights the potential use of prophetic medicines, Nigella sativa, as a supplement for opioid dependent receiving methadone. It focuses on the potential role of N. sativa and its major active compound, Thymoquinone (TQ) as a calcium channel blocking agent to reduce withdrawal syndrome and opioid dependency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  4. Mohamad N, Abdul Jalal MI, Hassan A, Abdulkarim Ibrahim M, Salehuddin R, Abu Bakar NH
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 Sep;29(5):1132-6.
    PMID: 24353706
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the QTc interval between low and high dose methadone groups and evaluate the pattern of QTc variation.
    METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from December 2010 till August 2011 at Malaysian University of Science's Hospital. Forty six subjects, grouped in high dose (>80mg) and low dose (<80mg) oral methadone, were followed-up at 4-weekly for QTc measurements. Relevant demographic and biochemical profiles were taken at intervals with concurrent QTc measurements.
    RESULTS: No significant QTc differences between methadone dosage groups were found at Week 0 (434ms vs 444ms, p = 0.166) and week 8 (446.5ms vs 459ms, p = 0.076), but not at week 4(435ms vs 450ms, p = 0.029). However, there were significant associations between the groups with QTc prolongation at week 0 and 4 (OR 4.29(95% CI 1.01, 18.72) p=0.044 and OR 5.18 (95% CI 1.34, 20.06) p =0.013, respectively) but not at week 8 (OR 2.44 (95% CI 0.74, 8.01) p=0.139). On multivariate analysis, dose group was the sole significant factor for QTc prolongation for week 0 and 4 (p values 0.047 and 0.017, respectively), but not at week 8.
    CONCLUSION: High-dose methadone group is more likely to develop prolonged QTc than low-dose group. However, such effects were inconsistent and occurred even during chronic methadone therapy, mandating judicious QTc and serum methadone monitoring.
    KEYWORDS: High Dose; Low Dose; Methadone; QTc
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  5. Ramli M, Nora M, Zafri A, Junid M, Umeed A, Hajee M
    Malays Fam Physician, 2009;4(2-3):77-82.
    PMID: 25606168 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: High prevalence of high-risk behaviours and concurrent medical illnesses among opioid drug users would influence the outcome of Methadone Maintenance Programme. It would also require a special medical attention to contain these issues.
    OBJECTIVES: This study explored patients' characteristics and their high-risk behaviours in order to understand more about opioid dependent users in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A total of 172 patient case notes at Methadone Clinic Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) were retrieved for relevant data.
    RESULTS: Many of the patients were engaged in high-risk behaviours such as needle sharing, unsafe sex and criminal activities. A large number of the subjects had contracted blood-borne diseases such as HIV and hepatitis infections.
    CONCLUSIONS: Education on the issue of medical and psychosocial complications related to high risk behaviours is essential. Medical professionals dealing with this group have to pay attention and update their knowledge on the medical issue.
    KEYWORDS: Methadone therapy; high-risk behaviours; opioid dependence
    Study site: Methadone clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  6. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 2016 09;42(5):587-596.
    PMID: 27284701 DOI: 10.3109/00952990.2016.1172078
    BACKGROUND: Methadone is a substrate of the permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter, which is encoded by the ABCB1 (MDR1) gene. Large interindividual variability in serum methadone levels for therapeutic response has been reported. Genetic variations in ABCB1 gene may be responsible for the variability in observed methadone concentrations.
    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the associations of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval in opioid-dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT).
    METHODS: One hundred and forty-eight male opioid-dependent patients receiving MMT were recruited. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from whole blood and genotyped for ABCB1 polymorphisms [i.e. 1236C>T (dbSNP rs1128503), 2677G>T/A (dbSNP rs2032582), and 3435C>T (dbSNP rs1045642)] using the allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the dose. Serum methadone concentrations were measured using the Methadone ELISA Kit.
    RESULTS: Our results revealed an association of CGC/TTT diplotype (1236C>T, 2677G>T/A, and 3435C>T) with dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval. Patients with CGC/TTT diplotype had 32.9% higher dose-adjusted serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval when compared with those without the diplotype [mean (SD) = 8.12 (0.84) and 6.11 (0.41) ng ml-1mg-1, respectively; p = 0.033].
    CONCLUSION: There was an association between the CGC/TTT diplotype of ABCB1 polymorphisms and serum methadone concentration over the 24-hour dosing interval among patients on MMT. Genotyping of ABCB1 among opioid-dependent patients on MMT may help individualize and optimize methadone substitution treatment.
    Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), and other MMT clinics in Kelantan,
    Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/blood*; Methadone/pharmacokinetics; Methadone/therapeutic use*
  7. Mohamad N, Bakar NH, Musa N, Talib N, Ismail R
    Harm Reduct J, 2010;7:30.
    PMID: 21167035 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7517-7-30
    BACKGROUND: Methadone is a synthetic opiate mu receptor agonist that is widely used to substitute for illicit opiates in the management of opiate dependence. It helps prevent opiate users from injecting and sharing needles which are vehicles for the spread of HIV and other blood borne viruses. This study has the objective of determining the utility of daily methadone dose to predict retention rates and re-injecting behaviour among opiate dependents.
    METHODS: Subjects comprised opiate dependent individuals who met study criteria. They took methadone based on the Malaysian guidelines and were monitored according to the study protocols. At six months, data was collected for analyses. The sensitivity and specificity daily methadone doses to predict retention rates and re-injecting behaviour were evaluated.
    RESULTS: Sixty-four patients volunteered to participate but only 35 (54.69%) remained active and 29 (45.31%) were inactive at 6 months of treatment. Higher doses were significantly correlated with retention rate (p < 0.0001) and re-injecting behaviour (p < 0.001). Of those retained, 80.0% were on 80 mg or more methadone per day doses with 20.0% on receiving 40 mg -79 mg.
    CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that a daily dose of at least 40 mg was required to retain patients in treatment and to prevent re-injecting behaviour. A dose of at least 80 mg per day was associated with best results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone
  8. Ramli M, Zafri AB, Junid MR, Hatta S
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):560-4.
    PMID: 23770945 MyJurnal
    The escalating problem of opiate dependence in Malaysia and the limitations of regimental approach of forced admission to rehabilitation centres had triggered the government to expand the methadone maintenance therapy to become a national programme. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term outcomes of the Methadone Maintenance Therapy programme in one of the busiest hospital in east coast Malaysia. We also explored the prevalence on non-compliance and factors associated to it. A total of 172 patient case notes at Methadone Clinic Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) were retrieved for relevant data. A short survey was also conducted to determine the subjects' current employment and marital status. The programme's retention rate was 62% and factors associated with poor compliance were unemployment, low quality of life scores and low dose of methadone. A special attention on the patients with these three risk factors may improve their compliance to MMT. The short-term evaluation of MMT at HTAA revealed favourable findings.
    Study site: Psychiatric clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  9. Robson N, Rashid R, Nazar M, Habil H
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Mar;7(1):121-5.
    PMID: 23857876 DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-5872.2012.00194.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  10. Manan MM, Ali SM, Khan MA, Jafarian S
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2015 Sep;28(5):1705-11.
    PMID: 26408891
    Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments may burden Methadone Maintenance Clinic patients. Since treatment is fully subsidized by the government, financial constraint might lead to patients being made to pay or be given incentive for inconvenience of therapy. This study thus evaluates the characteristic and commitment of methadone therapy patient's in terms of OOP cost, Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) and Willingness-To-Accept (WTA) concept. This survey utilizes the questionnaire by Boris ova & Goodman (2003) on the OOP, WTP and WTA. The forty adult patient's selected medical records from year 2009-2011 were from an urban government methadone clinic. Subject's selection was by convenient sampling based on the predetermined criteria. Most were male (95%) and Malay (60%) was the predominant group. Patients were group into three income groups; ≤ RM1000, ≥ RM1000 -≤ RM2000 and ≥ RM3000. The average OOP cost per month was RM391.30 (s.d RM337.50), which is about 35% of employed patient's monthly income. The wide variation could be attributed by high inter-individual and significant differences between patients in terms of transport, times taken to clinic, cost per trip and weekly household income (p=<0.05). Patients with income of less than RM1000 showed the highest tendency to pay for treatment, asked for the least money for inconvenience and many are unwilling to accept any payments. These findings showed that WTP and WTA is less of a concern for patients in the low-income group. To conclude, OOP payment is not a treatment barrier for most of the urban MMT patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  11. Zahari Z, Siong LC, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Choon TS, Mohamad N, et al.
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2016 Jan;29(1):239-46.
    PMID: 26826835
    Poor sleep quality was frequently reported by opioid dependence patients during methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). The study investigated a sample of patients on MMT to investigate the severity and prevalence of sleep problems in MMT patients. We evaluated sleep quality and disturbances of 119 Malay male patients from MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia between March and July 2013 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)-Malay version. Patients' demographic, clinical data, past drug history and methadone treatment variables were recorded. Patients averaged 37.5 years of age (SD 6.79) and their mean age of first time illicit drug use was 19.3 years (SD 4.48). Their mean age of entering MMT was 34.7 years (SD 6.92) and the mean duration in MMT was 2.8 years (SD 2.13). The mean current daily dosage of methadone was 77.8 mg (SD 39.47) and ranged from 20 to 360 mg. The mean global PSQI score was 5.6 (SD 2.79) and 43.7% patients were identified as 'poor sleepers' (global PSQI scores >5). This study confirms the poor overall sleep quality among patients on MMT. The prevalence and severity of sleep problems in MMT patients should not be underestimated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/therapeutic use*
  12. Teoh JB, Yee A, Danaee M, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    J Addict Med, 2017 Jan-Feb 6;11(1):40-46.
    PMID: 27753719 DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000267
    OBJECTIVES: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a problem commonly encountered by patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of ED among this group of patients along with its risk factors and association with quality of life (QOL).
    METHODS: Male patients on MMT in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia were included in the study. A total of 134 patients with sexual partners were assessed for ED using the International Index of Erectile Function. Patients were assessed for substance use using Opiate Treatment Index (OTI) and depression using the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM). QOL was evaluated using World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of ED among patients on MMT was 67%, with 26.1% having mild ED, 30.4% having mild-to-moderate ED, 7.0% having moderate ED, and 17.2% having severe ED. Patients with depression were 4 times more likely to have ED compared with patients without depression, whereas increasing age significantly correlated with the severity of ED. Having ED predicted a poorer QOL in the social relationships domain.
    CONCLUSION: Depression is highly associated with ED, which negatively influences the social aspect of QOL among patients on methadone maintenance therapy.
    Study site: outpatient addiction psychiatric clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone*
  13. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Tan SC, Mohamad N, Lee YY, Ismail R
    PeerJ, 2015;3:e839.
    PMID: 25870765 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.839
    Aim. Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test (CPT) and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population.
    Methods. A total of 168 male participants were included into the study. Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS) questionnaires were administered to evaluate the quality of sleep and withdrawal symptoms, respectively.
    Results. The mean age of study participants was 37.22 (SD 6.20) years old. Mean daily methadone dose was 76.64 (SD 37.63) mg/day, mean global PSQI score was 5.47 (SD 2.74) and mean averaged SOWS score was 5.43 (SD 6.91). The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to 300 s with a mean time of 32.16 (SE 2.72) s, slightly below the cut-off score of 37.53 s. More specifically, 78.6% (n = 132) of participants were identified as pain-sensitive (averaged pain-tolerance time ≤37.53 s), and 36 (21.4%) participants were pain-tolerant (averaged pain-tolerance time >37.53 s). The pain-sensitive group reported poorer sleep quality with mean (SD) PSQI of 5.78 (2.80) compared with the pain-tolerant group with mean (SD) PSQI of 4.31 (2.18) (p = 0.005). With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores (adjusted mean 5.76, 95% CI 5.29; 6.22) than pain-tolerant participants (adjusted mean 4.42, 95% CI 3.52; 5.32) (p = 0.010).
    Conclusions. Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.
    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and other MMT clinics (Kota Bharu, Pasir Mas, Pasir Puteh and Bachok), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone
  14. Gill, Jesjeet Singh, Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Mohd Hussain Habil
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2007;8(2):64-70.
    MyJurnal
    Objectives: To determine the best possible programme that suits our local setting, to determine the average dose required, and to determine possible problems that can arise from implementing such a programme locally and how best to address them. Methods: The inclusion criteria were those above 18, a positive urine test, the presence of a supportive carer and willing to engage in the programme. Methadone was initiated and observations relating to dose, adverse events, relationship with carers, work performance, crime and high risk behaviours were monitored for 18 weeks. Results: Two thirds of the 45 subjects completed the trial over the 18 week period. No significant adverse events occurred and improvement in relationship with carers and work performance were noted with reduction in crime and high risk behaviours. Conclusion: Methadone is a safe and effective drug that can be used in the local Malaysian setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone
  15. Nik Jaafar NR, Mislan N, Abdul Aziz S, Baharudin A, Ibrahim N, Midin M, et al.
    J Sex Med, 2013 Aug;10(8):2069-76.
    PMID: 23445463 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12105
    INTRODUCTION: While methadone effectively treats opiate dependence, the side effect of erectile dysfunction (ED) may interfere with treatment adherence and benefits.
    AIM:To determine the rate of ED and the associated factors which predict ED in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in a Malaysian population.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measures were the International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).
    METHODS: A total of 108 participants diagnosed with heroin dependence were assessed. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis-I Disorders (SCID-I) on subjects who received MMT, and they were assessed using the IIEF-15, the BDI, and measures of other clinical and sociodemographic variables.
    RESULTS: The rate of ED among men on MMT was 68.5% (mild ED, 36.1%; mild to moderate ED, 22.2%; severe ED, 3.7%). The mean age of the participants was 43.45 years. Older age (P = 0.002), concurrent illicit heroin use (P = 0.024), and having an older partner (P = 0.039) were significantly associated with ED. Following multivariate analysis, it was found that older age was the only significant predictor of ED, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.07 (95% CI = 1.02-1.16). Methadone dose and duration of methadone treatment were not significantly associated with ED.
    CONCLUSION: ED was highly prevalent among male patients on MMT. This suggests that there is a need for routine assessment of sexual function in patients on methadone. Among the risk factors, age was the only factor that was significantly associated with ED. The current use of MMT in Malaysia in terms of dosage and duration did not pose a significant risk for ED.
    KEYWORDS: Erectile Dysfunction; Methadone Therapy; Opiate Dependence
    Study site: outpatient clinic for opiate substitution therapy, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/administration & dosage; Methadone/therapeutic use*
  16. Zahari Z, Lee CS, Ibrahim MA, Musa N, Mohd Yasin MA, Lee YY, et al.
    J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2016;19(1):127-36.
    PMID: 27096697 DOI: 10.18433/J3NS49
    PURPOSE: This study compared pain sensitivity among opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and opioid naive subjects.

    METHODS: The three hundred participants comprised 152 opioid naive subjects and 148 opioid dependent patients. Opioid naive subjects had not taken any opioids including morphine and methadone to their best knowledge and were presumed so after two consecutive negative urine screenings for drugs. All opioid dependent patients were stabilized in treatment, defined as having been enrolled in the program for more than one month with no change of methadone dosage over the past one month. Excluded from the study were individuals with chronic or ongoing acute pain and individuals with a history of analgesics ingestion within 3 d before the cold pressor test (CPT). Pain tolerance to CPT was evaluated at 0 h, and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-methadone dose.

    RESULTS: Patients exhibited a significantly shorter mean pain tolerance time of 34.17 s (95% CI 24.86, 43.49) versus 61.36 (52.23, 70.48) [p < 0.001] compared with opioid naive subjects. Time-dependent mean pain tolerance was also significantly different when naive subjects were compared to patients (p = 0.016).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed hyperalgesia amongst patients on MMT, as manifested by their quicker hand withdrawal. The complaints of pain in this population should not be underestimated and the pain should be evaluated seriously and managed aggressively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/pharmacology*; Methadone/therapeutic use*
  17. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    Int. J. Impot. Res., 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):161-6.
    PMID: 24990199 DOI: 10.1038/ijir.2014.18
    Methadone maintenance treatment is proven to be effective treatment for opioid dependence. Of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects. However, there may be other clinical factors that are associated with sexual dysfunction among methadone users. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments, of which eligible studies were selected using prior defined criteria. A total of 2619 participants from 16 eligible studies, published from inception till December 2012, were identified from the PubMed, OVID and EMBASE databases. The included studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (odds ratio=4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P=0.0049). Our study shows that eight clinical factors are associated with sexual dysfunction among men receiving opioid substitution treatment, namely age, hormone assays, duration of treatment, methadone dose, medical status, psychiatric illness, other current substance use and familial status, and methadone versus buprenorphine treatment. Despite the methodological limitations, the findings of this meta-analysis study may offer better insights to clinicians in dealing with both sexual dysfunction and its related problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/adverse effects*; Methadone/therapeutic use
  18. Bachireddy C, Weisberg DF, Altice FL
    Addiction, 2015 Dec;110(12):1869-71.
    PMID: 26464200 DOI: 10.1111/add.13055
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/supply & distribution; Methadone/therapeutic use
  19. Yee A, Danaee M, Loh HS, Sulaiman AH, Ng CG
    PLoS One, 2016;11(1):e0147852.
    PMID: 26820154 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147852
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone has long been regarded as an effective treatment for opioid dependence. However, many patients discontinue maintenance therapy because of its side effects, with one of the most common being sexual dysfunction. Buprenorphine is a proven alternative to methadone. This study aimed to investigate sexual dysfunction in opioid-dependent men on buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The secondary aim was to investigate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and the quality of life in these patients.

    METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight men participated in this cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires were used, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Opiate Treatment Index, Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function 15 (Mal-IIEF-15), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between MMT and BMT and the Mal-IIEF 15 scores while controlling for all the possible confounders.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 171 patients (71.8%) on MMT and 67 (28.2%) on BMT. Patients in the MMT group who had a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the sexual desire domain (p < 0.012) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.043) domain compared with their counterparts in the BMT group. Similarly, patients in the MMT group without a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the orgasmic function domain (p = 0.008) compared with those in the BMT group without a partner. Intercourse satisfaction (p = 0.026) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.039) were significantly associated with the social relationships domain after adjusting for significantly correlated sociodemographic variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sexual functioning is critical for improving the quality of life in patients in an opioid rehabilitation program. Our study showed that buprenorphine causes less sexual dysfunction than methadone. Thus, clinicians may consider the former when treating heroin dependents who have concerns about sexual function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/adverse effects*; Methadone/therapeutic use
  20. George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, et al.
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2018 Jan;37(1):147-151.
    PMID: 27859761 DOI: 10.1111/dar.12456
    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Opioid dependence remains the main type of illicit substance used in Malaysia, which has an estimated 187 771 opiate users. There are currently 333 active methadone maintenance treatment centres nationwide. Although methadone has proven to be an effective maintenance therapy, it has clinical concerns which can have an impact on its effectiveness and safety.

    DESIGN, METHODS AND RESULTS: A case series of seven patients from Malaysian private and public hospital settings who had an adverse reaction with methadone is discussed.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Despite methadone being an effective therapy for opioid dependence, there is a need for other alternative effective therapies, such as naltrexone, buprenorphine and the co-formulation of buprenorphine-naloxone, to be made available to physicians in both public and private sectors. There is need for individual treatment consideration to avoid adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, overdosing and in the presence of co-morbidities. An emphasis on safe storage of takeaway methadone is also needed. [George P, Vicknasingam B, Thurairajasingam S, Ramasamy P, Mohd Yusof H, Yasin MABM, Shah ZUBS. Methadone complications amongst opioid-dependent patients in Malaysia: A case series. Drug Alcohol Rev 2018;37:147-151].

    Matched MeSH terms: Methadone/adverse effects*; Methadone/therapeutic use
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