Displaying all 10 publications

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  1. Sabet NS, Subramaniam G, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2007 May;29(5):582-5.
    PMID: 17314034
    A triplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for the simultaneous detection of mecA (methicillin resistance), ermA (erythromycin resistance) and femA (Staphylococcus aureus identification) genes in a single assay. Among 93 clinical S. aureus hospital isolates, there were 48 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 45 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. Screening the isolates using the triplex real-time PCR assay, the mecA, ermA and femA genes were detected in all MRSA isolates. The triplex real-time PCR assay was completed within 3h and is a useful genotypic method for detecting the resistance determinants as well as for the identification of S. aureus isolates. These findings will assist the clinical laboratory in identifying these resistance genes and S. aureus rapidly, thus benefiting patient therapy. This study represents a valuable source of information for researchers to study the local antibiotic resistance pattern, which can increase our knowledge of the antibiotic resistance profile, using real-time PCR technology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics*
  2. Liaw Y, Liu Y, Teo C, Cápal P, Wada N, Fukui K, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 May 21;22(11).
    PMID: 34063996 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22115426
    Methylation systems have been conserved during the divergence of plants and animals, although they are regulated by different pathways and enzymes. However, studies on the interactions of the epigenomes among evolutionarily distant organisms are lacking. To address this, we studied the epigenetic modification and gene expression of plant chromosome fragments (~30 Mb) in a human-Arabidopsis hybrid cell line. The whole-genome bisulfite sequencing results demonstrated that recombinant Arabidopsis DNA could retain its plant CG methylation levels even without functional plant methyltransferases, indicating that plant DNA methylation states can be maintained even in a different genomic background. The differential methylation analysis showed that the Arabidopsis DNA was undermethylated in the centromeric region and repetitive elements. Several Arabidopsis genes were still expressed, whereas the expression patterns were not related to the gene function. We concluded that the plant DNA did not maintain the original plant epigenomic landscapes and was under the control of the human genome. This study showed how two diverging genomes can coexist and provided insights into epigenetic modifications and their impact on the regulation of gene expressions between plant and animal genomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics
  3. Shaipulah NF, Muhlemann JK, Woodworth BD, Van Moerkercke A, Verdonk JC, Ramirez AA, et al.
    Plant Physiol., 2016 Feb;170(2):717-31.
    PMID: 26620524 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01646
    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia 'Mitchell'. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics
  4. Pang SL, Ong SS, Lee HH, Zamri Z, Kandasamy KI, Choong CY, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(3):7217-38.
    PMID: 25222227 DOI: 10.4238/2014.September.5.7
    This study was directed at the understanding of the function of CCoAOMT isolated from Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium. Full length cDNA of the Acacia hybrid CCoAOMT (AhCCoAOMT) was 1024-bp long, containing 750-bp coding regions, with one major open reading frame of 249 amino acids. On the other hand, full length genomic sequence of the CCoAOMT (AhgflCCoAOMT) was 2548 bp long, containing three introns and four exons with a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 391 bp in length. The 5'UTR of the characterized CCoAOMT gene contains various regulatory elements. Southern analysis revealed that the Acacia hybrid has more than three copies of the CCoAOMT gene. Real-time PCR showed that this gene was expressed in root, inner bark, leaf, flower and seed pod of the Acacia hybrid. Downregulation of the homologous CCoAOMT gene in tobacco by antisense (AS) and intron-containing hairpin (IHP) constructs containing partial AhCCoAOMT led to reduction in lignin content. Expression of the CCoAOMT in AS line (pART-HAS78-03) and IHP line (pART-HIHP78-06) was reduced respectively by 37 and 75% compared to the control, resulting in a decrease in the estimated lignin content by 24 and 56%, respectively. AhCCoAOMT was found to have altered not only S and G units but also total lignin content, which is of economic value to the pulp industry. Subsequent polymorphism analysis of this gene across eight different genetic backgrounds each of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. auriculiformis CCoAOMT and 30 SNPs in A. mangium CCoAOMT.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics*
  5. Wan Rosalina WR, Teh LK, Mohamad N, Nasir A, Yusoff R, Baba AA, et al.
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Apr;37(2):237-41.
    PMID: 21545474 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01272.x
    Genetic polymorphisms of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and inosine triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPA 94C>A) contribute to variable responses, including fatal adverse effects, among subjects treated with 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Our objectives were to investigate the distribution of specific TPMT and ITPA genotypes in healthy subjects and patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) from the three main ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia and the association of the polymorphisms with adverse effects of 6-MP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics*
  6. Forde BM, Phan MD, Gawthorne JA, Ashcroft MM, Stanton-Cook M, Sarkar S, et al.
    mBio, 2015 Nov 17;6(6):e01602-15.
    PMID: 26578678 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01602-15
    Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a clone of uropathogenic E. coli that has emerged rapidly and disseminated globally in both clinical and community settings. Members of the ST131 lineage from across the globe have been comprehensively characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and pathogenicity, but to date nothing is known about the methylome of these important human pathogens. Here we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing to determine the methylome of E. coli EC958, the most-well-characterized completely sequenced ST131 strain. Our analysis of 52,081 methylated adenines in the genome of EC958 discovered three (m6)A methylation motifs that have not been described previously. Subsequent SMRT sequencing of isogenic knockout mutants identified the two type I methyltransferases (MTases) and one type IIG MTase responsible for (m6)A methylation of novel recognition sites. Although both type I sites were rare, the type IIG sites accounted for more than 12% of all methylated adenines in EC958. Analysis of the distribution of MTase genes across 95 ST131 genomes revealed their prevalence is highly conserved within the ST131 lineage, with most variation due to the presence or absence of mobile genetic elements on which individual MTase genes are located.

    IMPORTANCE: DNA modification plays a crucial role in bacterial regulation. Despite several examples demonstrating the role of methyltransferase (MTase) enzymes in bacterial virulence, investigation of this phenomenon on a whole-genome scale has remained elusive until now. Here we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to determine the first complete methylome of a strain from the multidrug-resistant E. coli sequence type 131 (ST131) lineage. By interrogating the methylome computationally and with further SMRT sequencing of isogenic mutants representing previously uncharacterized MTase genes, we defined the target sequences of three novel ST131-specific MTases and determined the genomic distribution of all MTase target sequences. Using a large collection of 95 previously sequenced ST131 genomes, we identified mobile genetic elements as a major factor driving diversity in DNA methylation patterns. Overall, our analysis highlights the potential for DNA methylation to dramatically influence gene regulation at the transcriptional level within a well-defined E. coli clone.

    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics
  7. Kham SK, Tan PL, Tay AH, Heng CK, Yeoh AE, Quah TC
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2002 Jun-Jul;24(5):353-9.
    PMID: 12142782
    The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) polymorphisms in a multiracial Asian population and to assess its relevance in the management of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Six hundred unrelated cord blood samples from 200 Chinese, Malay, and Indian healthy newborns were collected at the National University Hospital, Singapore; an additional 100 children with ALL were analyzed for five of the commonly reported TPMT variant alleles using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction-based assays. In the cord blood study, the TPMT*3C variant was detected in all three ethnic groups; Chinese, Malays, and Indians had allele frequencies of 3%, 2.3%, and 0.8%, respectively. The TPMT*3A variant was found only among the Indians at a low allele frequency of 0.5%. The TPMT*6 variant was found in one Malay sample. Among the children with ALL, two white and one Chinese were heterozygous for the TPMT*3A variant and showed intermediate sensitivity to 6-mercaptopurine during maintenance therapy. Three Chinese patients and one Malay patient were heterozygous for the TPMT*3C variant. Mercaptopurine sensitivity could be validated in only one out of four TPMT*3C heterozygous patients. The overall allele frequency of the TPMT variants in this multiracial population was 2.5%. The TPMT*3C was the most common variant allele; TPMT*3A and TPMT*6 were rare. These results support the feasibility of performing TPMT genotyping in all children diagnosed with acute leukemia to minimize toxicity from thiopurine chemotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics*
  8. Goh KM, Dickinson M, Supramaniam CV
    Physiol Plant, 2018 Mar;162(3):274-289.
    PMID: 28940509 DOI: 10.1111/ppl.12645
    Lignification of the plant cell wall could serve as the first line of defense against pathogen attack, but the molecular mechanisms of virulence and disease between oil palm and Ganoderma boninense are poorly understood. This study presents the biochemical, histochemical, enzymology and gene expression evidences of enhanced lignin biosynthesis in young oil palm as a response to G. boninense (GBLS strain). Comparative studies with control (T1), wounded (T2) and infected (T3) oil palm plantlets showed significant accumulation of total lignin content and monolignol derivatives (syringaldehyde and vanillin). These derivatives were deposited on the epidermal cell wall of infected plants. Moreover, substantial differences were detected in the activities of enzyme and relative expressions of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.24), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.13.11), caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.68) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195). These enzymes are key intermediates dedicated to the biosynthesis of lignin monomers, the guaicyl (G), syringyl (S) and ρ-hydroxyphenyl (H) subunits. Results confirmed an early, biphasic and transient positive induction of all gene intermediates, except for CAD enzyme activities. These differences were visualized by anatomical and metabolic changes in the profile of lignin in the oil palm plantlets such as low G lignin, indicating a potential mechanism for enhanced susceptibility toward G. boninense infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Methyltransferases/genetics
  9. Singh P, Charles S, Madhavan T, Munusamy-Ramanujam G, Saraswathi NT, Arasu MV, et al.
    Eur J Pharmacol, 2021 Jan 15;891:173697.
    PMID: 33144068 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173697
    We investigated the role of protein arginine methylation (PAM) in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells through pharmacological intervention. Tamoxifen (TAM) or adenosine dialdehyde (ADOX), independently, triggered cell cycle arrest and down-regulated PAM, as reduced protein arginine methyltransferase1 (PRMT1) mRNA and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels. Synergistic effect of these compounds elicited potent anti-cancer effect. However, reduction in ADMA was not proportionate with the compound-induced down-regulation of PRMT1 mRNA. We hypothesized that the disproportionate effect is due to the influence of the compounds on other methyltransferases, which catalyze the arginine dimethylation reaction and the diversity in the degree of drug-protein interaction among these methyltransferases. In silico analyses revealed that independently, ADOX or TAM, binds with phosphatidylethanolamine-methyltransferase (PEMT) or betaine homocysteine-methyl transferase (BHMT); and that the binding affinity of ADOX with PEMT or BHMT is prominent than TAM. These observations suggest that in breast cancer, synergistic effect of ADOX + TAM elicits impressive protective function by regulating PAM; and plausibly, restoration of normal enzyme activities of methyltransferases catalyzing arginine dimethylation could have clinical benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases/genetics
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