Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 129 in total

  1. Tan NH, Wong KY, Tan CH
    J Proteomics, 2017 03 22;157:18-32.
    PMID: 28159706 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.01.018
    The venom proteome of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) was elucidated through reverse-phase HPLC, nano-ESI-LCMS/MS and data mining. A total of 97 distinct protein forms belonging to 14 families were identified. The most abundant proteins are the three-finger toxins (3FTXs, 64.22%) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 31.24%), followed by nerve growth factors (1.82%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.33%) and several proteins of lower abundance (<1%) including a variety of venom enzymes. At subproteome, the 3FTx is dominated by cytotoxins (48.08%), while short neurotoxins (7.89%) predominate over the long neurotoxins (0.48%) among other neurotoxins of lesser toxicity (muscarinic toxin-like proteins, 5.51% and weak neurotoxins, 2.26%). The major SNTX, CTX and PLA2 toxins were isolated with intravenous median lethal doses determined as 0.13, 1.06 and 0.50μg/g in mice, respectively. SABU, the Indonesia manufactured homologous tri-specific antivenom could neutralize the CTX and PLA2 fraction with moderate potency (potency=0.14-0.16mg toxin per ml antivenom). The SNTX, however, was very poorly neutralized with a potency level of 0.034mg/ml, indicating SNTX as the main limiting factor in antivenom neutralization. The finding helps elucidate the inferior efficacy of SABU reported in neutralizing N. sputatrix venom, and supports the call for antivenom improvement.

    BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The Javan spitting cobra, Naja sputatrix is by itself a unique species and should not be confused as the equatorial and the Indochinese spitting cobras. The distinction among the spitting cobras was however unclear prior to the revision of cobra systematics in the mid-90's, and results of some earlier studies are now questionable as to which species was implicated back then. The current study successfully profiled the venom proteome of authenticated N. sputatrix, and showed that the venom is made up of approximately 64% three-finger toxins (including neurotoxins and cytotoxins) and 31% phospholipases A2 by total venom proteins. The findings verified that the paralyzing components in the venom i.e. neurotoxins are predominantly the short-chain subtype (SNTX) far exceeding the long-chain subtype (LNTX) which is more abundant in the venoms of monocled cobra and Indian common cobra. The neurotoxicity of N. sputatrix venom is hence almost exclusively SNTX-driven, and effective neutralization of the SNTX is the key to early reversal of paralysis. Unfortunately, as shown through a toxin-specific assay, the immunological neutralization of the SNTX using the Indonesian antivenom (SABU) was extremely weak, implying that SABU has limited therapeutic efficacy in treating N. sputatrix envenomation clinically. From the practical standpoint, actions need to be taken at all levels from laboratory to production and policy making to ensure that the shortcoming is overcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  2. Ahmed, QU, Radhiyah I, Siti Zaiton MS
    Leaves of Thottea dependens have been used as folk medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of
    several conditions involving pain and inflammation with accompanying pyrexia. However, there is no scientific
    evidence for its effectiveness to treat fever. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-pyretic
    activity of methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (Aq) extracts of T. dependens leaves in albino mice (ICR strain).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  3. Yap MK, Fung SY, Tan KY, Tan NH
    Acta Trop., 2014 May;133:15-25.
    PMID: 24508616 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.01.014
    The proteome of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial spitting cobra) venom was investigated by shotgun analysis and a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Shotgun analysis revealed the presence of 39 proteins in the venom while the chromatographic approach identified 37 venom proteins. The results indicated that, like other Asiatic cobra venoms, N. sumatrana contains large number of three finger toxins and phospholipases A2, which together constitute 92.1% by weight of venom protein. However, only eight of the toxins can be considered as major venom toxins. These include two phospholipases A2, three neurotoxins (two long neurotoxins and a short neurotoxin) and three cardiotoxins. The eight major toxins have relative abundance of 1.6-27.2% venom proteins and together account for 89.8% (by weight) of total venom protein. Other venom proteins identified include Zn-metalloproteinase-disintegrin, Thaicobrin, CRISP, natriuretic peptide, complement depleting factors, cobra venom factors, venom nerve growth factor and cobra serum albumin. The proteome of N. sumatrana venom is similar to proteome of other Asiatic cobra venoms but differs from that of African spitting cobra venom. Our results confirm that the main toxic action of N. sumatrana venom is neurotoxic but the large amount of cardiotoxins and phospholipases A2 are likely to contribute significantly to the overall pathophysiological action of the venom. The differences in toxin distribution between N. sumatrana venom and African spitting cobra venoms suggest possible differences in the pathophysiological actions of N. sumatrana venom and the African spitting cobra venoms, and explain why antivenom raised against Asiatic cobra venom is not effective against African spitting cobra venoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  4. Tan CH, Tan NH, Sim SM, Fung SY, Jayalakshmi P, Gnanathasan CA
    Toxicon, 2012 Dec 1;60(7):1259-62.
    PMID: 22975088 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.08.012
    Mice experimentally envenomed with Hypnale hypnale venom (1× and 1.5×LD₅₀) developed acute kidney injury (AKI) principally characterized by raised blood urea and creatinine. Prolonged blood clotting time and hemorrhage in lungs implied bleeding tendency. Pallor noted in most renal cortices was suggestive of renal ischemia secondary to consumptive coagulopathy. Intravenous infusion of Hemato polyvalent antivenom following experimental envenoming effectively prevented death and AKI in all mice, supporting its potential therapeutic use in envenoming cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  5. Omar Farouk FN, Stott D, Vlad M
    Anim. Sci. J., 2011 Jun;82(3):420-7.
    PMID: 21615835 DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-0929.2010.00869.x
    This study was conducted to examine the potential for implantation and sustainable fetal development of mouse embryos cultured from the pronuclear to blastocyst stage. Pronuclear embryos from ICR mice (Harlan Sprague-Dawley) were cultured in Sydney IVF sequential media (Cook) to the blastocyst stage in medium only or co-cultured with autologous cumulus cells. We also experimented with co-culture in 100 µL drops. Drop co-culture produced blastocyst formation rates with a mean of 47.0%, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared to embryos cultured in identical culture conditions except without cumulus cells at 27.3%. Blastocysts obtained in vitro in Cook medium only and co-cultured in Cook medium with cumulus cells were transferred to pseudopregnant females of ICR strain. The day of blastocyst transfer into surrogate females was designated as post-transfer of blastocyst day 1 (PT 1). The implantation and fetal development was compared to embryo transfer of in vivo derived blastocysts, which served as controls. There were no statistical differences for implantation and fetal development rates for blastocysts cultured in vitro in either Cook medium only or co-culture in Cook medium with cumulus cells compared to in vivo-derived blastocysts. The advantage of the co-culture system is in generating more blastocysts available for transfer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  6. Jusof WH, Khan NA, Rajikin MH, Satar NA, Mustafa MF, Jusoh N, et al.
    Int J Fertil Steril, 2015 07 27;9(2):221-9.
    PMID: 26246881
    BACKGROUND: Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  7. Loong SK, Mahfodz NH, Wali HA, Talib SA, Nasrah SN, Wong PF, et al.
    J. Vet. Med. Sci., 2016 May 3;78(4):715-7.
    PMID: 26782013 DOI: 10.1292/jvms.15-0472
    Accurate identification and separation of non-classical Bordetella species is very difficult. These species have been implicated in animal infections. B. hinzii, a non-classical Bordetella, has been isolated from mice in experimental facilities recently. We isolated and characterized one non-classical Bordetella isolate from the trachea and lung of an ICR mouse. Isolate BH370 was initially identified as B. hinzii by 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA sequencing. Additionally, isolate BH370 also displayed antimicrobial sensitivity profiles similar to B. hinzii. However, analyses of nrdA sequences determined its identity as Bordetella genogroup 16. The isolation of BH370 from a healthy mouse suggests the possibility of it being a commensal. The nrdA gene was demonstrated to possess greater phylogenetic resolution as compared with 16S ribosomal DNA and ompA for the discrimination of non-classical Bordetella species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  8. Tay ST, Rohani MY, Ho TM, Devi S
    PMID: 12693592
    The pathogenicity of Malaysian isolates of Orientia tsutsugamushi was investigated by a mouse virulence assay. The isolates could be differentiated as low (4 isolates), moderately (3 isolates) and highly virulent (2 isolates) based on the different responses in infected mice. No direct correlation between severity of human scrub typhus infections and virulence of the O. tsutsugamushi in mice was observed. Mice infected with virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi showed splenomegaly, ascitis accumulation and enlargement of kidneys and livers whereas avirulent O. tsutsugamushi strains were asymptomatic and exhibited ruffled fur for a short period after infection. There was low antibody response in mice infected with isolates of low pathogenicity as compared with those of highly virulent isolates. Upon dissection of the infected mice, enlargement of mouse organs such as spleen, kidney and liver was noted. Presence of rickettsemia in mice was confirmed by the growth of O. tsutsugamushi in the L929 cells when inoculated with blood from infected mice. O. tsutsugamushi was also cultured from the peritoneal exudates of the infected mice. However, DNA of O. tsutsugamushi was only detected in the peritoneal exudates (by PCR) and blood (by cell culture) and not from other tissue samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  9. Chin, V.K., Chong, W.C., Hassan, H., Zakaria, Z.A., Nordin, N., Basir, R., et al.
    JUMMEC, 2019;22(2):4-12.
    Background: The cytokine cascade in the immunopathogenesis of malaria infection had been widely studied.
    However, their specific association with survival and severe infection remained obscure.

    Methods: The study investigated the cytokine profiles and histopathological features of malaria in the severe
    infection and survival models by using male ICR mice and male Sprague Dawley rats respectively.

    Results: The severe model, the infected ICR mice, exhibited a high parasitemia with 100% mortality after
    peak parasitemia at day 5 post-infection. The survival model, the infected Sprague Dawley rats, showed
    mild parasitemia with full recovery by day 14 of infection. Both severe and survival models showed similar
    histopathological severity during peak parasitemia. The severe model produced highly elevated levels of proinflammatory
    cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1α, and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-4; while the
    survival model showed low levels of TNF-α and IL-1α with high levels of IL-4.

    Conclusion: There were differences in the pathogenesis of the severe and survival models of malaria infection.
    These could be a basis for immunotherapy of malaria in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  10. Suresh K, Mak JW, Yong HS
    PMID: 1818401
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR/blood; Mice, Inbred ICR/immunology*
  11. Gopalsamy B, Sambasevam Y, Zulazmi NA, Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, et al.
    Neurochem. Res., 2019 Sep;44(9):2123-2138.
    PMID: 31376053 DOI: 10.1007/s11064-019-02850-0
    Number of ligations made in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain model has raised serious concerns. We compared behavioural responses, nerve morphology and expression of pain marker, c-fos among CCI models developed with one, two, three and four ligations. The numbers of ligation(s) on sciatic nerve shows no significant difference in displaying mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia throughout 84 days. All groups underwent similar levels of nerve degeneration post-surgery. Similar c-fos level in brain cingulate cortex, parafascicular nuclei and amygdala were observed in all CCI models compared to sham-operated group. Therefore, number of ligations does not impact intensity of pain symptoms, pathogenesis and neuronal activation. A single ligation is sufficient to develop neuropathic pain, in contrast to the established model of four ligations. This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR*
  12. Fazalul Rahiman SS, Basir R, Talib H, Tie TH, Chuah YK, Jabbarzare M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Dec;30(4):663-80.
    PMID: 24522137 MyJurnal
    Interleukin-27 (IL-27) has a pleiotropic role either as a pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine in inflammatory related diseases. The role and involvement of IL-27 during malaria was investigated and the effects of modulating its release on the production of major inflammatory cytokines and the histopathological consequences in major affected organs during the infection were evaluated. Results showed that IL-27 concentration was significantly elevated throughout the infection but no positive correlation with the parasitaemia development observed. Augmentation of IL-27 significantly elevated the release of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 whereas antagonising and neutralising IL-27 produced the opposite. A significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-6) was also observed, both during augmentation and inhibition of IL-27. Thus, it is suggested that IL-27 exerts an anti-inflammatory activity in the Th1 type response by signalling the production of IL-10 during malaria. Histopathological examination showed sequestration of PRBC in the microvasculature of major organs in malarial mice. Other significant histopathological changes include hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the Kupffer cells in the liver, hyaline membrane formation in lung tissue, enlargement of the white and red pulp followed by the disappearance of germinal centre of the spleen, and tubular vacuolation of the kidney tissues. In conclusion, it is suggested that IL-27 may possibly acts as an anti-inflammatory cytokine during the infection. Modulation of its release produced a positive impact on inflammatory cytokine production during the infection, suggesting its potential in malaria immunotherapy, in which the host may benefit from its inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  13. Leong PK, Tan CH, Sim SM, Fung SY, Sumana K, Sitprija V, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2014 Apr;132:7-14.
    PMID: 24384454 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.12.015
    Snake envenomation is a serious public health threat in many rural areas of Asia and Africa. Antivenom has hitherto been the definite treatment for snake envenomation. Owing to a lack of local production of specific antivenom, most countries in these regions fully depend on foreign supplies of antivenoms. Often, the effectiveness of the imported antivenoms against local medically important species has not been validated. This study aimed to assess cross-neutralizing capacity of a recently developed polyvalent antivenom, Hemato Polyvalent Snake Antivenom (HPAV), against venoms of a common viper and some pit vipers from Southeast Asia. Neutralisation assays showed that HPAV was able to effectively neutralize lethality of the common Southeast Asian viperid venoms examined (Calloselasma, Crytelytrops, Popeia, and Daboia sp.) except for Tropidolaemus wagleri venom. HPAV also effectively neutralized the procoagulant and hemorrhagic activities of all the venoms examined, corroboratively supporting the capability of HPAV in neutralizing viperid venoms which are principally hematoxic. The study also indicated that HPAV fully prevented the occurrence of hematuria and proteinuria in mice envenomed with Thai Daboia siamensis venom but was only partially effective against venoms of Myanmar D. siamensis. Thus, HPAV appears to be useful against its homologous venoms and venoms from Southeast Asian viperids including several medically important pit vipers belonging to the Trimeresurus complex. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of HPAV as a paraspecific antivenom for treatment of viperid envenomation in Southeast Asian region requires further assessment from future clinical trials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  14. Dasiman R, Rahman NS, Othman S, Mustafa MF, Yusoff NJ, Jusoff WH, et al.
    Med Sci Monit Basic Res, 2013;19:258-66.
    PMID: 24092420 DOI: 10.12659/MSMBR.884019
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitrification and slow freezing on actin, tubulin, and nuclei of in vivo preimplantation murine embryos at various developmental stages using a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  15. Chang HC, Tsai TS, Tsai IH
    J Proteomics, 2013 Aug 26;89:141-53.
    PMID: 23796489 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.06.012
    This study deciphers the geographic variations of king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom using functional proteomics. Pooled samples of king cobra venom (abbreviated as Ohv) were obtained from Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and two provinces of China, namely Guangxi and Hainan. Using two animal models to test and compare the lethal effects, we found that the Chinese Ohvs were more fatal to mice, while the Southeast Asian Ohvs were more fatal to lizards (Eutropis multifasciata). Various phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), three-finger toxins (3FTxs) and Kunitz-type inhibitors were purified from these Ohvs and compared. Besides the two Chinese Ohv PLA2s with known sequences, eight novel PLA2s were identified from the five Ohv samples and their antiplatelet activities were compared. While two 3FTxs (namely oh-55 and oh-27) were common in all the Ohvs, different sets of 3FTx markers were present in the Chinese and Southeast Asian Ohvs. All the Ohvs contain the Kunitz inhibitor, OH-TCI, while only the Chinese Ohvs contain the inhibitor variant, Oh11-1. Relative to the Chinese Ohvs which contained more phospholipases, the Southeast Asian Ohvs had higher metalloproteinase, acetylcholine esterase, and alkaline phosphatase activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  16. Zulazmi NA, Gopalsamy B, Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Bharatham BH, Perimal EK
    Fitoterapia, 2015 Sep;105:215-21.
    PMID: 26205045 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2015.07.011
    Neuropathic pain is a chronic condition that is difficult to be treated. Current therapies available are either ineffective or non-specific thus requiring newer treatment approaches. In this study, we investigated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene from Zingiber zerumbet in chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain animal model. Our findings showed that single and repeated dose of intra-peritoneal administration of zerumbone (5, 10, 50, 100 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the CCI-induced neuropathic pain when evaluated using the electronic von Frey anesthesiometer, cold plate, Randall-Selitto analgesiometer and the Hargreaves plantar test. Zerumbone significantly alleviated tactile and cold allodynia as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia. Our findings are in comparison to the positive control drugs thatused gabapentin (20 mg/kgi.p.) and morphine (1 mg/kgi.p.). Together, these results showed that the systemic administration of zerumbone produced marked antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects in the CCI-induced neuropathic pain in mice and may serve as a potential lead compound for further analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  17. Norhazlin J, Nor-Ashikin MN, Hoh BP, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Norita S, Mohd-Fazirul M, et al.
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2015;14(3):10172-84.
    PMID: 26345954 DOI: 10.4238/2015.August.28.1
    The quality of RNA is crucial when performing microarray experiments. This is particularly important when dealing with preimplantation embryos, from which a minimum yield of RNA of good quality can be produced. We report the optimization of several RNA extraction methods applied to preimplantation embryos at different stages of development. The quality of the samples was confirmed using a microarray and reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. A total of 30 cultured two-cell stage embryos of ICR mice were pooled at the 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages. The embryos were divided into two groups comprising DNase-treated and non-DNase-treated RNA samples. Total RNA was extracted using a Pico Pure RNA Isolation Kit following the manufacturer protocol, with some modifications. Lysed samples were bound to a silica-based filter, treated with deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), and washed several times before elution. RNA concentration and integrity were evaluated using an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer and an RNA 6000 Pico Assay kit. Although concentrations of non-DNase-treated RNAs were higher than DNase-treated RNA, DNase-treated RNA gave a higher RNA integrity number compared with non-DNase-treated RNA. Inclusion of DNase treatment in the RNA extraction procedure gave the best quality RNA samples from preimplantation embryos, as validated by microarray and RT-qPCR quality control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  18. Tan CH, Tan NH, Tan KY, Kwong KO
    Toxins (Basel), 2015 Feb;7(2):572-81.
    PMID: 25690691 DOI: 10.3390/toxins7020572
    Sea snake envenomation is a serious occupational hazard in tropical waters. In Malaysia, the beaked sea snake (Hydrophis schistosus, formerly known as Enhydrina schistosa) and the spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus, formerly known as Lapemis curtus or Lapemis hardwickii) are two commonly encountered species. Australian CSL sea snake antivenom is the definitive treatment for sea snake envenomation; it is unfortunately extremely costly locally and is not widely available or adequately stocked in local hospitals. This study investigated the cross-neutralizing potential of three regionally produced anti-cobra antivenoms against the venoms of Malaysian H. schistosus and H. curtus. All three antivenoms conferred paraspecific protection from sea snake venom lethality in mice, with potency increasing in the following order: Taiwan bivalent antivenom < Thai monocled cobra monovalent antivenom < Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (NPAV). NPAV demonstrated cross-neutralizing potencies of 0.4 mg/vial for H. schistosus venom and 0.8 mg/vial for H. curtus, which translates to a dose of less than 20 vials of NPAV to neutralize an average amount of sea snake venom per bite (inferred from venom milking). The cross-neutralization activity was supported by ELISA cross-reactivity between NPAV and the venoms of H. schistosus (58.4%) and H. curtus (70.4%). These findings revealed the potential of NPAV as a second-line treatment for sea snake envenomation in the region. Further profiling of the cross-neutralization activity should address the antivenomic basis using purified toxin-based assays.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  19. Pandey M, Mohamad N, Amin MC
    Mol. Pharm., 2014 Oct 6;11(10):3596-608.
    PMID: 25157890 DOI: 10.1021/mp500337r
    The objective of this study is to synthesize and evaluate acute toxicity of the bacterial cellulose (BC)/acrylamide (Am) hydrogels as noncytotoxic and biocompatible oral drug delivery vehicles. A novel series of solubilized BC/Am hydrogels were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, porosity, drug release, and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility experiments. FTIR spectra revealed that the BC crystallinity and gel fraction decreased as the NaOH concentration increased from 2% to 10% w/v, whereas the optical transparency, pH sensitivity, and porosity were enhanced with increasing alkali concentration. Theophylline was used as a model drug for drug loading and release studies. The percentage of drug released was higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.5. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic tests indicated that the BC/Am hydrogel is noncytotoxic and hemocompatible. Results of acute oral toxicity tests on ICR mice suggested that the hydrogels are nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg when administered orally, as no toxic response or histopathological changes were observed in comparison to control mice. The results of this study demonstrated that the pH-sensitive smart hydrogel makes it a possible safe carrier for oral drug delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
  20. Sani MH, Taher M, Susanti D, Kek TL, Salleh MZ, Zakaria ZA
    Biol Res Nurs, 2015 Jan;17(1):68-77.
    PMID: 25504952 DOI: 10.1177/1099800414529648
    Elucidate the antinociceptive mechanisms of α-mangostin isolated from Garcinia malaccensis Linn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mice, Inbred ICR
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