Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Petrányi G, Mieth H, Leitner I
    PMID: 1221502
    Infective larvae of Brugia malayi subperiodic obtained by dissection of infected Aedes togoi were injected subcutaneously into the scrotal region of Mastomys natalensis. From altogether 58 infected male M. natalensis 81% showed consistently or intermittently detectable microfilaraemia, whereas in 19% of the animals no microfilaraemia could be detected at any stage. The mean prepatent period was 136 days; the microfilarial density varied from 1 to 535 per 20 c. mm blood. In those animlas with consistently detectable and in general higher microfilaraemia an average of 13.1 live adult worms were found, against an average of 6.4 adult worms in animals with intermittent detectable and in general lower microfilaraemia. An average of 1.5 worms was found in animals which at no stage showed detectable microfilaraemia. A correlation between worm burden and prepatent period could be observed in the individual groups. From the total of 520 live adult worms recovered at necropsy, 37% were found in the lungs, 29% in the parenchyma of the testes and 34% in the lymphatic system. 47% of live fertile female worms were found in the lymphatic system, whereas the majority, i.e; 52% of infertile female worms were detected in the lungs. In addition, 380 encapsulated dead worms were found, most of them (98%) in the lymphatic system. 61% of a total of 900 live and dead worms were found in the region of the lymphatic system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  2. Zahedi M
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1994 Mar;45(1):33-5.
    PMID: 7915044
    In Armigeres subalbatus, 60% and 3% of the ingested Brugia pahangi microfilariae (mf) respectively migrated into the haemocoel and the thorax within 5 minutes post ingestion (p.i.). Most of the mf had migrated from the gut into the haemocoel within the first 10 minutes p.i. There was no correlation between the number of mf ingested and the migration rate though those in mosquitoes with a low mf burden tend to migrate earlier. At 24 hours p.i., 5-30% of the mf were still in the gut; 19% of these mf were immobile. At 48 hours p.i. only 2% of the mf were mobile. B. pahangi mf isolated from blood meals at 24 hours p.i., failed to develop when inoculated into Armigeres subalbatus. 54% and 73% of the mf isolated from a 24 hour old clotted blood of a B. pahangi-infected cat and fresh peripheral cat blood respectively developed into stage-1 larva. Probably mf left in the midgut at 24 hours p.i. are the young and immature worms and are physiologically incapable of penetrating the gut.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  3. Chiang GL, Cheong WH, Eng KL, Samarawickrema WA
    J. Helminthol., 1987 Dec;61(4):349-53.
    PMID: 3437114
    This paper reports the experimental transmission of a bird parasite into jirds. Infective larvae of Cardiofilaria nilesi obtained from laboratory colonized Coquillettidia crassipes mosquitoes which had fed on an infected chicken were inoculated subcutaneously into jirds. The number of larvae per jird varied from 10 to 228. Microfilaraemia appeared 22 to 89 days after inoculation of the infective larvae. Experiments were carried out with 24 jirds through six generations extending over a period of 22 months and 17 produced patent infections. At present 8 infected jirds are being maintained in the laboratory; their patent periods ranging from 6 to 13 months. However, the longest patent period observed was about thirteen months. The percentage of adults recovered in autopsied jirds ranged from 0 to 40 with an average of 16. The chicken showed a microfilarial periodicity with the peak microfilarial density around 2200 hours. However, in jirds there was a change in sub-periodicity. This model in the jird may be very useful for the screening of filaricides and in immunological work.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  4. Mak JW, Choong MF, Suresh K, Lam PL
    Parasitol Res, 1990;76(8):689-91.
    PMID: 2251244
    Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. All 148 inoculated animals became patent, with mean prepatent periods being between 66 and 76 days. In animals injected in the thigh, the patterns of microfilaraemia were similar, there being a rapid rise in the geometric mean counts (GMCs) of microfilariae during the first 10-12 weeks of patency, which then plateaued at levels of greater than 1000/ml. Adult worm recovery, expressed as the percentage of the infective dose, was significantly higher in animals injected with 100 L3 in each thigh, being 9.4% as compared with 2.8%-4.8% in other groups. It is therefore recommended that animals should be injected with 100 L3 in each thigh and that the testing of potential filaricides in this model be carried out during the phase of rapid increase in microfilaraemia to ensure that any microfilaricidal effect can easily be detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  5. Zahedi M, White GB
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1994 Mar;45(1):27-32.
    PMID: 8066378
    The filaria vector competence of Anopheles stephensi was compared with Brugia-susceptible Aedes aegypti Liverpool strain, An. gambiae Badagry Lagos strain and An. dirus Perlis Malaysia strain. An. stephensi ingested more Brugia pahangi microfilariae, had the highest infectivity rate and yielded more infective mosquitoes than the other two anopheline species. The overall vector competence of An. stephensi was 0.13 times that of Ae. aegypti, 0.62 times that of An. gambiae and 2.17 times that of An. dirus. However, heavy mortality among infected An. stephensi in the present investigation indicates that the filaria vectorial capacity of the mosquito might be limited epidemiologically. The relationship between filaria vector competence and mosquito foregut armature is discussed. It was observed that the relative vector competence of the three anopheline species tested was in the same order as their relative degrees of armature elaboration. The converse would be expected if foregut armatures really give partial protection to the mosquitoes against filarial infection. It is suggested that high host microfilariae density favours larval survival proportional to the degree of armature development in Anopheles (Cellia) species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  6. Mak JW, Lam PL, Choong MF, Suresh K
    J. Helminthol., 1990 Jun;64(2):96-9.
    PMID: 2387979
    The known filaricides, suramin and diethylcarbamazine citrate, were tested against subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata. As expected, intravenous suramin at 10 mg/kg daily x 5 days or 17 mg/kg weekly x 5 weeks, did not show any microfilaricidal activity, but substantially reduced the recovery of live adult worms to 50.6% and 13.6% of controls respectively. Oral diethylcarbamazine citrate at 6 mg/kg daily x 6 or 10 days reduced final microfilarial counts to 30% of initial counts four weeks post-treatment and adult worm recovery was reduced to 4.5% and 0% of controls respectively. Although the antifilarial activity of these drugs against the infection in this non-human primate model appears to be similar to that seen in man, these results have to be confirmed using larger groups of animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  7. Choong MF, Mak JW
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1991 Mar;42(1):71-2.
    PMID: 1675809
    The Presbytis cristata--Brugia malayi model, now established as a reliable non-human primate model for the experimental screening of potential filaricides, was monitored at monthly intervals for changes in the liver and renal function tests and also for alkaline phosphatase levels during infection. Animals infected with 200-400 infective larvae became patient at 50-90 days post-infection and geometric mean microfilarial counts were above 1000 per ml from the fourth month onwards. There were no significant changes in the biochemical parameters monitored throughout the period of observation. This is an important observation as any changes seen in these parameters during experimental drug studies can be attributed to drug reaction or toxicity and this will be invaluable in decision making as to drug safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
  8. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microfilaria/growth & development
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