In this research an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study on self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) was performed. Surface morphology of self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As QDs changes with different growth time. Increasing growth time increased the dots size and decreased the dots density. In addiditon, self-assembled In0.5Ga0.5As QDs was grown on In0.1Ga0.9As underlying layer with different after-growth AsH3 flow time during cooling-down. The underlying layer caused lattice strain relaxation in the QDs on the surface. Increasing the period of AsH3 flow during cooling-down reduced the diameter of the dots and increased the density. The migration of groups III species in the growth of In0.5Ga0.5As/GaAs system was influenced by AsH3 flow during cooling-down period. This was due to the increase in surface population of active arsenic species. Underlying layer and the period of AsH3 flow during cooling-down are the two key factors in the fabrication of small and dense In0.5Ga0.5As QDs.
Fabrication of functional DNA nanostructures operating at a cellular level has been accomplished through molecular programming techniques such as DNA origami and single-stranded tiles (SST). During implementation, restrictive and constraint dependent designs are enforced to ensure conformity is attainable. We propose a concept of DNA polyominoes that promotes flexibility in molecular programming. The fabrication of complex structures is achieved through self-assembly of distinct heterogeneous shapes (i.e., self-organised optimisation among competing DNA basic shapes) with total flexibility during the design and assembly phases. In this study, the plausibility of the approach is validated using the formation of multiple 3×4 DNA network fabricated from five basic DNA shapes with distinct configurations (monomino, tromino and tetrominoes). Computational tools to aid the design of compatible DNA shapes and the structure assembly assessment are presented. The formations of the desired structures were validated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imagery. Five 3×4 DNA networks were successfully constructed using combinatorics of these five distinct DNA heterogeneous shapes. Our findings revealed that the construction of DNA supra-structures could be achieved using a more natural-like orchestration as compared to the rigid and restrictive conventional approaches adopted previously.
In this letter, we investigate the fabrication of Silicon nanostructure patterned on lightly doped (10(15) cm(-3)) p-type silicon-on-insulator by atomic force microscope nanolithography technique. The local anodic oxidation followed by two wet etching steps, potassium hydroxide etching for silicon removal and hydrofluoric etching for oxide removal, are implemented to reach the structures. The impact of contributing parameters in oxidation such as tip materials, applying voltage on the tip, relative humidity and exposure time are studied. The effect of the etchant concentration (10% to 30% wt) of potassium hydroxide and its mixture with isopropyl alcohol (10%vol. IPA ) at different temperatures on silicon surface are expressed. For different KOH concentrations, the effect of etching with the IPA admixture and the effect of the immersing time in the etching process on the structure are investigated. The etching processes are accurately optimized by 30%wt. KOH +10%vol. IPA in appropriate time, temperature, and humidity.
This work investigates the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) from bamboo fibre as an alternative approach to utilize the waste bamboo fibre. In this study, bamboo fibre was subjected to acid hydrolysis for efficient isolation of CNC from bamboo fibre. The extracted CNC's were morphologically, characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The energy Dispersive X-rays (EDX) provided the elemental composition of the prepared CNC's and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) exhibited their crystallinity. The physiochemical analysis was done via Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR); and their thermal analysis was revealed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As from their morphological investigations, rod like structures of CNC's were observed under SEM analysis with higher carbon content as demonstrated by EDX, while needle shaped CNC's were observed from TEM and AFM studies. Acid hydrolysis for 45 min resulted into higher degree of crystallinity and higher yield of CNC's about 86.96% and 22% respectively. Owing to higher quality of CNC's obtained as a result of efficient and modified techniques, these can find potential usage in nanocomposites for biomedical and food packaging application.
The junctionless nanowire transistor is a promising alternative for a new generation of nanotransistors. In this letter the atomic force microscopy nanolithography with two wet etching processes was implemented to fabricate simple structures as double gate and single gate junctionless silicon nanowire transistor on low doped p-type silicon-on-insulator wafer. The etching process was developed and optimized in the present work compared to our previous works. The output, transfer characteristics and drain conductance of both structures were compared. The trend for both devices found to be the same but differences in subthreshold swing, 'on/off' ratio, and threshold voltage were observed. The devices are 'on' state when performing as the pinch off devices. The positive gate voltage shows pinch off effect, while the negative gate voltage was unable to make a significant effect on drain current. The charge transmission in devices is also investigated in simple model according to a junctionless transistor principal.
The adhesion of colloidal probes of stainless steel, glass and cellulose to Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to allow comparisons between surfaces to which biofilms might adhere.
A series of polycrystalline samples (La1-xSmx)0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (X=0.00, 0.05 and 0.10) were prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The XRD analysis indicated that all the samples were fully crystalline and in a single phase with a rhombohedral structure after a sintering at 1200ºC for 24 hours in air. Meanwhile, the Atomic Force Microscopy measurements showed that a small amount of Sm doping in La sites affected the grain growth and this might affect the grain boundary layer, thus resulting in the reduction of the Curie temperature, TC. Extrinsic magnetoresistance (MR) was observed for all the samples with a large negative MR at low field (0-0.1 or 0.2T) region, followed by a slower varying MR at high field (0.1 or 0.2-1T). The highest low-field MR value of -4.6% (at 0.1T) and -6.1% (at 0.2T) were observed for sample X=0.10 and X=0.05, respectively. Hence, these indicated that the extrinsic MR was grain size dependent and was therefore enhanced with a small amount of Sm substitution in La sites.
Biodegradable polymeric films, obtained from chitosan/natural rubber latex (CS/NRL) blends with different compositions, have been prepared by wetting process. The blends were characterized by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and found that the CS/NRL blends are thermodynamically incompatible. This is evident from the presence of two glass transitions, corresponding to CS and NRL phases in the blend. The mechanical properties of the CS/NRL blends were improved with increasing the amount of chitosan and after surface treatment with sulphuric acid due to the sulfonate ionic interaction. The dielectric properties was determined using Precision LCR meter in the frequency range 75 kHz up to 30 MHz. After CS/NRL surface treatment with sulphuric acid at high content of chitosan showed the highest dielectric constant. The surface properties of the CS/NRL blend films before and after surface treatment were confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively.
Atomic force microscopes (AFM) as one of the scanning probe microscopy (spm) modes have become useful tools, not only for observing surface morphology and nanostructure topography but also for fabrication of various nanostructures itself. In this work, silicon oxide (SiOx) patterns were formed on Si(100) surface by means of AFM anodization, where a non-contact mode used to oxidize Si wafer at the nanoscale size. The oxide patterns could serve as masks for the chemical etching of Si surface in alkaline solution in order to create the Si nanodots. A special attention is paid to finding relations between the size of dots and operational parameters as tip bias voltage and tip writing speed Dot arrays with 10 nm high and less than 50 nm in diameter have been successfully fabricated. The ability to control oxidation and scanning speed can be utilized in fabrication of complex nanostructures and make scanning probe lithography (SPL) as a very promising lithographic technique in nanoelectronic devices, nanophotonics and other high-tech areas.
This article reports on the studies of structural and optical properties of nanoporous GaN prepared by Pt assisted electro chemical etching. The porous GaN samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and optical transmission (OT). SEM images liang indicated that the density of the pores increased with etching duration, however, the etching duration has no significant effect on the size and shape of the pores. AFM measurements exhibited that the surface roughness was increased with etching durations, however, for long etching duration, the increase of the surface roughness became insignificant. OT measurements revealed that the increase of pore density would lead to the reduction of light transmission. The studies showed that the porosity could influence the structural and optical properties of the GaN.
High quality indium oxide and iron doped indium oxide nanocrystalline films were prepared by the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique. The samples were characterized by an X-ray diffractometer, an atomic force microscopy and a UV-vis spectroscopy. All samples had good crystallinity with a preferred orientation in the (222) direction. The crystallite size increased from 12.1 nm for the pure sample to 16.1 nm for the sample with x=0.35 and then decreased to 12.1 nm for the sample with x=0.45. All samples contained nanometer grain sizes with a smooth surface. All films showed a high transmission of over 91% in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potentially ideal tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) due to the robust mechanical properties, nanoscale diameter and also their ability to be functionalized by chemical and biological components at the tip ends. This contribution develops the idea of using CNTs as an AFM tip in computational analysis of the biological cells. The proposed software was ABAQUS 6.13 CAE/CEL provided by Dassault Systems, which is a powerful finite element (FE) tool to perform the numerical analysis and visualize the interactions between proposed tip and membrane of the cell. Finite element analysis employed for each section and displacement of the nodes located in the contact area was monitored by using an output database (ODB). Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic model of the cell allows the simulation to obtain a new method for estimating the stiffness and spring constant of the cell. Stress and strain curve indicates the yield stress point which defines as a vertical stress and plan stress. Spring constant of the cell and the local stiffness was measured as well as the applied force of CNT-AFM tip on the contact area of the cell. This reliable integration of CNT-AFM tip process provides a new class of high performance nanoprobes for single biological cell analysis.
CdTe film was deposited using the electrophoretic deposition technique onto an ITO glass at various bath temperatures. Four batch film compositions were used by mixing 1 to 4 wt% concentration of CdTe powder with 10 mL of a solution of methanol and toluene. X-ray Diffraction analysis showed that the films exhibited polycrystalline nature of zinc-blende structure with the (111) orientation as the most prominent peak. From the Atomic Force Microscopy, the thickness and surface roughness of the CdTe film increased with the increase of CdTe concentration. The optical energy band gap of film decreased with the increase of CdTe concentration, and with the increase of isothermal bath temperature. The film thickness increased with respect to the increase of CdTe concentration and bath temperature, and following, the numerical expression for the film thickness with respect to these two variables has been established.
The visible luminescence from Ge nanoparticles and nanocrystallites has generated interest due to the feasibility of tuning band gap by controlling the sizes. Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs) with average diameter ~16 to 8 nm are synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering under different growth conditions. These QDs with narrow size distribution and high density, characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) are obtained under the optimal growth conditions of 400 °C substrate temperature, 100 W radio frequency powers and 10 Sccm Argon flow. The possibility of surface passivation and configuration of these dots are confirmed by elemental energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The room temperature strong visible photoluminescence (PL) from such QDs suggests their potential application in optoelectronics. The sample grown at 400 °C in particular, shows three PL peaks at around ~2.95 eV, 3.34 eV and 4.36 eV attributed to the interaction between Ge, GeO(x) manifesting the possibility of the formation of core-shell structures. A red shift of ~0.11 eV in the PL peak is observed with decreasing substrate temperature. We assert that our easy and economic method is suitable for the large-scale production of Ge QDs useful in optoelectronic devices.
As a cementitious material, geopolymers show a high quasi-brittle behavior and a relatively low fracture energy. To overcome such a weakness, incorporation of fibers to a brittle matrix is a well-known technique to enhance the flexural properties. This study comprehensively evaluates the short and long term impacts of different volume percentages of polypropylene fiber (PPF) reinforcement on fly ash based geopolymer composites. Different characteristics of the composite were compared at fresh state by flow measurement and hardened state by variation of shrinkage over time to assess the response of composites under flexural and compressive load conditions. The fiber-matrix interface, fiber surface and toughening mechanisms were assessed using field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that incorporation of PPF up to 3 wt % into the geopolymer paste reduces the shrinkage and enhances the energy absorption of the composites. While, it might reduce the ultimate flexural and compressive strength of the material depending on fiber content.
In this work, polylactic acid (PLA) reinforced cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) were prepared through solution casting technique. The CNW was first isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch microcrystalline cellulose (OPEFB-MCC) by using 64% H2SO4 and was designated as CNW-S. The optical microscopy revealed that the large particle of OPEFB-MCC has been broken down by the hydrolysis treatment. The atomic force microscopy confirmed that the CNW-S obtained is in nanoscale dimension and appeared in individual rod-like character. The produced CNW-S was then incorporated with PLA at 1, 3, and 5 parts per hundred (phr) resins for the PLA-CNW-S nanocomposite production. The synthesized nanocomposites were then characterized by a mean of tensile properties and thermal stability. Interestingly to note that incorporating of 3 phr/CNW-S in PLA improved the tensile strength by 61%. Also, CNW-S loading showed a positive impact on the Young's modulus of PLA. The elongation at break (Eb) of nanocomposites, however, decreased with the addition of CNW-S. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the CNW-S dispersed well in PLA at lower filler loading before it started to agglomerate at higher CNW-S loading (5phr). The DSC analysis of the nanocomposites obtained showed that Tg,Tcc and Tm values of PLA were improved with CNW-S loading. The TGA analysis however, revealed that incopreated CNW-S in PLA effect the thermal stability (T10,T50 and Tmax) of nanocomposite, where it decrease linearly with CNW-S loading.
Monoclinic bismuth oxide (α-Bi2O3) nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation method and
irradiated with a pulsed laser forming thin films. Their phase and surface morphological properties
were investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The XRD
analysis shows the phase transformation to a partially crystalline tetragonal phase β-Bi2O3 thin film.
The SEM micrograph of the nanoparticles, with an average crystal size of 72 nm, was seen to form
a thin film with a peculiar structure, coined as “cotton-like”, is attributed to the high surface energy
absorbed by the nanoparticles during ablation. The HR-TEM micrograph shows the particulate with
a clearly defined interlayer spacing.
This research work demonstrates compositional engineering of an organic-inorganic hybrid nano-composites for modifying absolute threshold of humidity sensors. Vanadyl-2,9,16,23-tetraphenoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (VOPcPhO), an organic semiconductor, doped with Titanium-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) has been employed to fabricate humidity sensors. The morphology of the VOPcPhO:TiO2nano-composite films has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The sensors have been examined over a wide range of relative humidity i.e. 20-99% RH. The sensor with TiO2(90nm) shows reduced sensitivity-threshold and improved linearity. The VOPcPhO:TiO2(90nm) nano-composite film is comprised of uniformly distributed voids which makes the surface more favorable for adsorption of moisture content from environment. The VOPcPhO:TiO2nano-composite based sensor demonstrates remarkable improvement in the sensing parameter when equated with VOPcPhO sensors.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has a wide range of applications and is rapidly growing in research and development. This powerful technique has been used to visualize surfaces both in liquid or gas media. It has been considered as an effective tool to investigate the surface structure for its ability to generate high-resolution 3D images at a subnanometer range without sample pretreatment. In this paper, the use of AFM to characterize the membrane roughness is presented for commercial and self-prepared membranes for specific applications. Surface roughness has been regarded as one of the most important surface properties, and has significant effect in membrane permeability and fouling behaviour. Several scan areas were used to compare surface roughness for different membrane samples. Characterization of the surfaces was achieved by measuring the average roughness (Ra) and root mean square roughness (Rrms) of the membrane. AFM image shows that the membrane surface was composed entirely of peaks and valleys. Surface roughness is substantially greater for commercial available hydrophobic membranes, in contrast to self-prepared membranes. This study also shows that foulants deposited on membrane surface would increase the membrane roughness.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) lithography was applied to produce nanoscale pattern for silicon nanowire transistor fabrication. This technique takes advantage of imaging facility of AFM and the ability of probe movement controlling over the sample surface to create nanopatterns. A conductive AFM tip was used to grow the silicon oxide nanopatterns on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafer. The applied tip-sample voltage and writing speed were well controlled in order to form pre-designed silicon oxide nanowire transistor structures. The effect of tetra methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching duration on the oxide covered silicon nanowire transistor structure has been investigated. A completed silicon nanowire transistor was obtained by removing the oxide layer via hydrofluoric acid etching process. The fabricated silicon nanowire transistor consists of a silicon nanowire that acts as a channel with source and drain pads. A lateral gate pad with a nanowire head was fabricated very close to the channel in the formation of transistor structures.