Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Sim KS, Ting HY, Lai MA, Tso CP
    J Microsc, 2009 Jun;234(3):243-50.
    PMID: 19493101 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03167.x
    An improvement to the previously proposed Canny optimization technique for scanning electron microscope image colorization is reported. The additional process is adaptive tuning, where colour tuning is performed adaptively, based on comparing the original luminance values with calculated luminance values. The complete adaptive Canny optimization technique gives significantly better mechanical contrast on scanning electron microscope grey-scale images than do existing methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  2. Sim KS, Thong LW, Ting HY, Tso CP
    J Microsc, 2010 Feb;237(2):111-8.
    PMID: 20096041 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03325.x
    Interpolation techniques that are used for image magnification to obtain more useful details of the surface such as morphology and mechanical contrast usually rely on the signal information distributed around edges and areas of sharp changes and these signal information can also be used to predict missing details from the sample image. However, many of these interpolation methods tend to smooth or blur out image details around the edges. In the present study, a Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator method is proposed and this method only requires a small filter order and has no noticeable estimation bias. Comparing results with the original scanning electron microscope magnification and results of various other interpolation methods, the Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator is found to be more efficient, more robust and easier to execute.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  3. Gantait S, Sinniah UR, Suranthran P, Palanyandy SR, Subramaniam S
    Protoplasma, 2015 Jan;252(1):89-101.
    PMID: 24893588 DOI: 10.1007/s00709-014-0660-x
    In the present study, polyembryoids of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were cryopreserved with successful revival of 68 % for the first time using the droplet vitrification technique. Excised polyembryoids (3-5-mm diameter) from 3-month-old in vitro cultures were pre-cultured for 12 h in liquid Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.5 M sucrose. The polyembryoids were osmoprotected in loading solution [10% (w/v) dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) plus 0.7 M sucrose] for 30 min at room temperature and then placed on aluminium strips where they were individually drenched in chilled droplets of vitrification solution (PVS2) [30% (w/v) glycerol plus 15% (w/v) ethylene glycol (EG) plus 15% (w/v) DMSO plus 0.4 M sucrose] for 10 min. The aluminium strips were enclosed in cryovials which were then plunged quickly into liquid nitrogen and kept there for 1 h. The polyembryoids were then thawed and unloaded (using 1.2 M sucrose solution) with subsequent transfer to regeneration medium and stored in zero irradiance. Following for 10 days of storage, polyembryoids were cultured under 16 h photoperiod of 50 μmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux density, at 23 ± 1 °C. Post-thaw growth recovery of 68% was recorded within 2 weeks of culture, and new shoot development was observed at 4 weeks of growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that successful regeneration of cryopreserved polyembryoids was related to maintenance of cellular integrity, presumably through PVS2 exposure for 10 min. The present study demonstrated that cryopreservation by droplet vitrification enhanced the regeneration percentages of oil palm in comparison with the conventional vitrification method previously reported.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  4. Sim KS, Tan YY, Lai MA, Tso CP, Lim WK
    J Microsc, 2010 Apr 1;238(1):44-56.
    PMID: 20384837 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.2009.03328.x
    An exponential contrast stretching (ECS) technique is developed to reduce the charging effects on scanning electron microscope images. Compared to some of the conventional histogram equalization methods, such as bi-histogram equalization and recursive mean-separate histogram equalization, the proposed ECS method yields better image compensation. Diode sample chips with insulating and conductive surfaces are used as test samples to evaluate the efficiency of the developed algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in software with a frame grabber card, forming the front-end video capture element.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  5. Sim KS, Tso CP, Law KK
    Microsc Res Tech, 2008 Apr;71(4):315-24.
    PMID: 18172898 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.20558
    The mixed Lagrange time-delay estimation autoregressive (MLTDEAR) model is proposed as a solution to estimate image noise variance. The only information available to the proposed estimator is a corrupted image and the nature of additive white noise. The image autocorrelation function is calculated and used to obtain the MLTDEAR model coefficients; the relationship between the MLTDEAR and linear prediction models is utilized to estimate the model coefficients. The forward-backward prediction is then used to obtain the predictor coefficients; the MLTDEAR model coefficients and prior samples of zero-offset autocorrelation values are next used to predict the power of the noise-free image. Furthermore, the fundamental performance limit of the signal and noise estimation, as derived from the Cramer-Rao inequality, is presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  6. Sim KS, Law KK, Tso CP
    Microsc Res Tech, 2007 Nov;70(11):919-27.
    PMID: 17661362
    A new filter is developed for the enhancement of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A mixed Lagrange time delay estimation auto-regression (MLTDEAR)-based interpolator is used to provide an estimate of noise variance to a standard Wiener filter. A variety of images are captured and the performance of the filter is shown to surpass the conventional noise filters. As all the information required for processing is extracted from a single image, this method is not constrained by image registration requirements and thus can be applied in real-time in cases where specimen drift is presented in the SEM image.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  7. Ahmad M, Zafar M, Sultana S, Ahmad M, Abbas Q, Ayoub M, et al.
    Microsc Res Tech, 2018 Sep;81(9):1004-1016.
    PMID: 30303585 DOI: 10.1002/jemt.23066
    Pollen micro-morphological features have proven to be helpful for the plant taxonomists in the identification and classification of plants. The utilization of this plantmayhelpfulin the areas of lignocellulosic conversion to biofuels and diversify application toward biomass. The current study was planned with the aim to evaluate the pollen features of complex Ranunculaceous flora of District Chitral, Northern Pakistan using both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Light Microscope (LM) for their taxonomic importance. Pollens of 18 Ranunculaceous species belonging to 6 genera were collected from different localities of the research area. SEM and LM were used to examine both qualitative and quantitative micro-morphological features. Sculptring of the sexine include; Scabrate, psilate, echinate, verrucate, perforate gemmate, and reticulate and so forth. Shape of the pollens was sub-spheroidal, spheroidal, prolate, subprolate and oblate and so forth. Type of pollen was ranged from mono to tricolpate and tricolporate. Quantitative characters include length/width of the pollen, colpus, exine thickness, and P/E ratio. Based on these micro-morphological features a taxonomic key was prepared for the fast and correct identification. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHT: Study of the pollen micro-morphological features of Ranunculaceous species by SEM and LM. Analysing both qualitative and quantitative characters of the pollens. Preparation of taxonomic key based on micro-morphological features for the correct and fast identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  8. Jusman Y, Ng SC, Abu Osman NA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:289817.
    PMID: 25610902 DOI: 10.1155/2014/289817
    This paper investigated the effects of critical-point drying (CPD) and hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) sample preparation techniques for cervical cells on field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (FE-SEM/EDX). We investigated the visualization of cervical cell image and elemental distribution on the cervical cell for two techniques of sample preparation. Using FE-SEM/EDX, the cervical cell images are captured and the cell element compositions are extracted for both sample preparation techniques. Cervical cell image quality, elemental composition, and processing time are considered for comparison of performances. Qualitatively, FE-SEM image based on HMDS preparation technique has better image quality than CPD technique in terms of degree of spread cell on the specimen and morphologic signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of plate and pellet drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Quantitatively, with mapping and line scanning EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen element compositions in HMDS technique were higher than the CPD technique in terms of weight percentages. The HMDS technique has shorter processing time than the CPD technique. The results indicate that FE-SEM imaging, elemental composition, and processing time for sample preparation with the HMDS technique were better than CPD technique for cervical cell preparation technique for developing computer-aided screening system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  9. Tharsika T, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA, Sabri MF, Hoong WY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):14586-600.
    PMID: 25116903 DOI: 10.3390/s140814586
    An inexpensive single-step carbon-assisted thermal evaporation method for the growth of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures is described, and the ethanol sensing properties are presented. The structure and phases of the grown nanostructures are investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. XRD analysis indicates that the core-shell nanostructures have good crystallinity. At a lower growth duration of 15 min, only SnO2 nanowires with a rectangular cross-section are observed, while the ZnO shell is observed when the growth time is increased to 30 min. Core-shell hierarchical nanostructures are present for a growth time exceeding 60 min. The growth mechanism for SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanowires and hierarchical nanostructures are also discussed. The sensitivity of the synthesized SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards ethanol sensing is investigated. Results show that the SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures deposited at 90 min exhibit enhanced sensitivity to ethanol. The sensitivity of SnO2-core/ZnO-shell nanostructures towards 20 ppm ethanol gas at 400 °C is about ~5-times that of SnO2 nanowires. This improvement in ethanol gas response is attributed to high active sensing sites and the synergistic effect of the encapsulation of SnO2 by ZnO nanostructures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  10. Arafat MM, Haseeb AS, Akbar SA
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(8):13613-27.
    PMID: 25072346 DOI: 10.3390/s140813613
    In this research work, the sensitivity of TiO2 nanoparticles towards C2H5OH, H2 and CH4 gases was investigated. The morphology and phase content of the particles was preserved during sensing tests by prior heat treatment of the samples at temperatures as high as 750 °C and 1000 °C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to characterize the size, morphology and phase content of the particles. For sensor fabrication, a film of TiO2 was printed on a Au interdigitated alumina substrate. The sensing temperature was varied from 450 °C to 650 °C with varying concentrations of target gases. Results show that the sensor has ultrahigh response towards ethanol (C2H5OH) compared to hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4). The optimum sensing temperature was found to be 600 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor are 3 min and 15 min, respectively, for 20 ppm C2H5OH at the optimum operating temperature of 600 °C. It is proposed that the catalytic action of TiO2 with C2H5OH is the reason for the ultrahigh response of the sensor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  11. Sim KS, Kiani MA, Nia ME, Tso CP
    J Microsc, 2014 Jan;253(1):1-11.
    PMID: 24164248 DOI: 10.1111/jmi.12089
    A new technique based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay noise reduction filtering is designed to estimate signal-to-noise ratio of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. This approach is found to present better result when compared with two existing techniques: nearest neighbourhood and first-order interpolation. When applied to evaluate the quality of SEM images, noise can be eliminated efficiently with optimal choice of scan rate from real-time SEM images, without generating corruption or increasing scanning time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  12. Ahmad MR, Nakajima M, Kojima M, Kojima S, Homma M, Fukuda T
    IEEE Trans Nanobioscience, 2012 Mar;11(1):70-8.
    PMID: 22275723 DOI: 10.1109/TNB.2011.2179809
    In this paper, single cells adhesion force was measured using a nanofork. The nanofork was used to pick up a single cell on a line array substrate inside an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The line array substrate was used to provide small gaps between the single cells and the substrate. Therefore, the nanofork could be inserted through these gaps in order to successfully pick up a single cell. Adhesion force was measured during the cell pick-up process from the deflection of the cantilever beam. The nanofork was fabricated using focused ion beam (FIB) etching process while the line array substrate was fabricated using nanoimprinting technology. As to investigate the effect of contact area on the strength of the adhesion force, two sizes of gap distance of line array substrate were used, i.e., 1 μm and 2 μm. Results showed that cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate required more force to be released as compared to the cells attached on the 1 μm gap line array substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  13. Shahrokh Abadi MH, Hamidon MN, Shaari AH, Abdullah N, Wagiran R
    Sensors (Basel), 2011;11(8):7724-35.
    PMID: 22164041 DOI: 10.3390/s110807724
    A gas sensor array was developed in a 10 × 10 mm(2) space using Screen Printing and Pulse Laser Ablation Deposition (PLAD) techniques. Heater, electrode, and an insulator interlayer were printed using the screen printing method on an alumina substrate, while tin oxide and platinum films, as sensing and catalyst layers, were deposited on the electrode at room temperature using the PLAD method, respectively. To ablate SnO(2) and Pt targets, depositions were achieved by using a 1,064 nm Nd-YAG laser, with a power of 0.7 J/s, at different deposition times of 2, 5 and 10 min, in an atmosphere containing 0.04 mbar (4 kPa) of O(2). A range of spectroscopic diffraction and real space imaging techniques, SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM were used in order to characterize the surface morphology, structure, and composition of the films. Measurement on the array shows sensitivity to some solvent and wood smoke can be achieved with short response and recovery times.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  14. Zain MM, Kofli NT, Rozaimah S, Abdullah S
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2011 May 01;14(9):526-32.
    PMID: 22032081
    Bioethanol production using yeast has become a popular topic due to worrying depleting worldwide fuel reserve. The aim of the study was to investigate the capability of Malaysia yeast strains isolated from starter culture used in traditional fermented food and alcoholic beverages in producing Bioethanol using alginate beads entrapment method. The starter yeast consists of groups of microbes, thus the yeasts were grown in Sabouraud agar to obtain single colony called ST1 (tuak) and ST3 (tapai). The growth in Yeast Potatoes Dextrose (YPD) resulted in specific growth of ST1 at micro = 0.396 h-1 and ST3 at micro = 0.38 h-1, with maximum ethanol production of 7.36 g L-1 observed using ST1 strain. The two strains were then immobilized using calcium alginate entrapment method producing average alginate beads size of 0.51 cm and were grown in different substrates; YPD medium and Local Brown Sugar (LBS) for 8 h in flask. The maximum ethanol concentration measured after 7 h were at 6.63 and 6.59 g L-1 in YPD media and 1.54 and 1.39 g L-1in LBS media for ST1 and ST3, respectively. The use of LBS as carbon source showed higher yield of product (Yp/s), 0.59 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.25 g g-1 in ST1 and (Yp/s), 0.54 g g-1 compared to YPD, 0.24 g g-1 in ST3 . This study indicated the possibility of using local strains (STI and ST3) to produce bioethanol via immobilization technique with local materials as substrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  15. Chai WL, Moharamzadeh K, Brook IM, Van Noort R
    Biotech Histochem, 2011 Aug;86(4):242-54.
    PMID: 20392135 DOI: 10.3109/10520291003707916
    The success of dental implant treatment depends on the healing of both hard and soft tissues. While osseointegration provides initial success, the biological seal of the peri-implant soft tissue is crucial for maintaining the long term success of implants. Most studies of the biological seal of peri-implant tissues are based on animal or monolayer cell culture models. To understand the mechanisms of soft tissue attachment and the factors affecting the integrity of the soft tissue around the implants, it is essential to obtain good quality histological sections for microscopic examination. The nature of the specimens, however, which consist of both metal implant and soft peri-implant tissues, poses difficulties in preparing the specimens for histomorphometric analysis of the implant-soft tissue interface. We review various methods that have been used for the implant-tissue interface investigation with particular focus on the soft tissue. The different methods are classified and the advantages and limitations of the different techniques are highlighted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
  16. Au LF, Othman F, Mustaffa R, Vidyadaran S, Rahmat A, Besar I, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:16-7.
    PMID: 19024962
    Biofilms are adherent, multi-layered colonies of bacteria that are typically more resistant to the host immune response and routine antibiotic therapy. HA biomaterial comprises of a single-phased hydroxyapatite scaffold with interconnected pore structure. The device is designed as osteoconductive space filler to be gently packed into bony voids or gaps following tooth extraction or any surgical procedure. Gentamycin-coated biomaterial (locally made hydroxyapatite) was evaluated to reduce or eradicate the biofilm on the implant materials. The results indicated that the HA coated with gentamycin was biocompatible to human osteoblast cell line and the biofilm has been reduced after being treated with different concentrations of gentamycin-coated hydroxyapatite (HA).
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  17. Jensen K, Caira JN
    Folia Parasitol., 2006 Sep;53(3):189-207.
    PMID: 17120499
    As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  18. Kirubakari B, Chen Y, Sasidharan S
    PMID: 31113347 DOI: 10.2174/1871523018666190522112902
    BACKGROUND: Polyalthia longifolia is a popular medicinal plant and has been widely used as a traditional remedy for centuries in curing of various ailments. The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the in situ antimicrobial synergistic effects between Polyalthia longifolia leaf ethyl acetate fraction (PLEAF) and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate by using modern microscopy technique.

    METHODS: Hence, the evaluation of the synergistic activity of PLEAF and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate was conducted with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

    RESULTS: The combinational effect of PLEAF fraction and ampicillin exhibited significant antibacterial activity against MRSA. Bacterial cells observations showed invagination, impaired cell division, extensive wrinkles, cell shrinkage, the appearance of a rougher cell with fibrous matrix and clustered cells which confirmed the synergistic effect of PLEAF and ampicillin against MRSA local isolate by SEM.

    CONCLUSION: Conclusively, the in situ SEM observation proved the synergistic antimicrobial activity between PLEAF fraction and ampicillin to destroy the MRSA resistance bacteria which is an important aspect of PLEAF fraction to be used in the future combinational therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  19. Mohammed NJ, Othman NK, Taib MFM, Samat MH, Yahya S
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 09;26(12).
    PMID: 34207914 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26123535
    Extracts from plant materials have great potential as alternatives to inorganic corrosion inhibitors, which typically have harmful consequences. Experimental and theoretical methodologies studied the effectiveness of agricultural waste, namely, date palm seed extract as a green anti-corrosive agent in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid. Experimental results showed that immersion time and temperature are closely related to the effectivity of date palm seed as a corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency reduced from 95% to 91% at 1400 ppm when the immersion time was increased from 72 h to 168 h. The experimental results also indicated that the inhibition efficiency decreased as the temperature increased. The presence of a protective layer of organic matter was corroborated by scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption studies indicated that date palm seed obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm on the carbon steel surface, and Gibbs free energy values were in the range of -33.45 to -38.41 kJ·mol-1. These results suggested that the date palm seed molecules interacted with the carbon steel surface through mixture adsorption. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory showed that the capability to donate and accept electrons between the alloy surface and the date palm seed inhibitor molecules is critical for adsorption effectiveness. The HOMO and LUMO result indicated that the carboxyl (COOH) group and C=C bond were the most active sites for the electron donation-acceptance type of interaction and most auxiliary to the adsorption process over the Fe surface.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods
  20. Wan Ismail WZ, Sim KS, Tso CP, Ting HY
    Scanning, 2011 Jul-Aug;33(4):233-51.
    PMID: 21611953 DOI: 10.1002/sca.20237
    To reduce undesirable charging effects in scanning electron microscope images, Rayleigh contrast stretching is developed and employed. First, re-scaling is performed on the input image histograms with Rayleigh algorithm. Then, contrast stretching or contrast adjustment is implemented to improve the images while reducing the contrast charging artifacts. This technique has been compared to some existing histogram equalization (HE) extension techniques: recursive sub-image HE, contrast stretching dynamic HE, multipeak HE and recursive mean separate HE. Other post processing methods, such as wavelet approach, spatial filtering, and exponential contrast stretching, are compared as well. Overall, the proposed method produces better image compensation in reducing charging artifacts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods*
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