Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 492 in total

  1. Li D, Faiza M, Ali S, Wang W, Tan CP, Yang B, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2018 Apr;184(4):1061-1072.
    PMID: 28948493 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-017-2594-1
    A highly efficient process for reducing the fatty acid (FA) content of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) was developed by immobilized partial glycerides-selective lipase SMG1-F278N-catalyzed esterification/transesterification using methanol as a novel acyl acceptor. Molecular docking simulation indicated that methanol was much closer to the catalytic serine (Ser-171) compared with ethanol and glycerol, which might be one of the reasons for its high efficiency in the deacidification of high-acid RBO. Additionally, the reaction parameters were optimized to minimize the FA content of high-acid RBO. Under the optimal conditions (substrate molar ratio of methanol to FAs of 1.8:1, enzyme loading of 40 U/g, and at 30 °C), FA content decreased from 25.14 to 0.03% after 6 h of reaction. Immobilized SMG1-F278N exhibited excellent methanol tolerance and retained almost 100% of its initial activity after being used for ten batches. After purification by molecular distillation, the final product contained 97.86% triacylglycerol, 2.10% diacylglycerol, and 0.04% FA. The acid value of the final product was 0.09 mg KOH/g, which reached the grade one standard of edible oil. Overall, methanol was a superior acyl acceptor for the deacidification of high-acid RBO and the high reusability of immobilized SMG1-F278N indicates an economically attractive process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  2. Rabiu Z, Hamzah MAAM, Hasham R, Zakaria ZA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Aug;28(30):40535-40543.
    PMID: 32418105 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-09209-x
    Pyroligneous acid (PA) obtained from slow pyrolysis of palm kernel shell (PKS) has high total phenolic contents and exhibits various biological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal. In this study, PA obtained using slow pyrolysis method and fractionated using column chromatography was characterized (chemical and antioxidative properties) and investigated for its cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibition activities using the in vitro and in silico approaches. The F9 PA fraction exhibited highest total phenolic content of 181.75 ± 17.0 μg/mL. Fraction F21-25 showed ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (331.80 ± 4.60 mg TE/g) and IC50 of 18.56 ± 0.01 μg/mL towards COX-2 and 5.25 ± 0.03 μg/mL towards the 5-LOX enzymes, respectively. Molecular docking analysis suggested favourable binding energy for all chemical compounds present in fraction F21-25, notably 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-2-pentanone, towards both COX-2 (- 6.9 kcal/mol) and 5-LOX (- 6.4 kcal/mol) enzymes. As a conclusion, PA from PKS has the potential to be used as an alternative antioxidant and antiinflammatory agents which is biodegradable and a more sustainable supply of raw materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  3. Musa KA, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    Biopolymers, 2020 Feb;111(2):e23337.
    PMID: 31691964 DOI: 10.1002/bip.23337
    The interaction between mefloquine (MEF), the antimalarial drug, and human serum albumin (HSA), the main carrier protein in blood circulation, was explored using fluorescence, absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. Quenching of HSA fluorescence with MEF was characterized as static quenching and thus confirmed the complex formation between MEF and HSA. Association constant values for MEF-HSA interaction were found to fall within the range of 3.79-5.73 × 104  M-1 at various temperatures (288, 298, and 308 K), which revealed moderate binding affinity. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were predicted to connect MEF and HSA together in the MEF-HSA complex, as deduced from the thermodynamic data (ΔS = +133.52 J mol-1 K-1 and ΔH = +13.09 kJ mol-1 ) of the binding reaction and molecular docking analysis. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectral analysis pointed out alterations in the microenvironment around aromatic amino acid (tryptophan and tyrosine) residues of HSA consequent to the addition of MEF. Circular dichroic spectra of HSA in the wavelength ranges of 200-250 and 250-300 nm hinted smaller changes in the protein's secondary and tertiary structures, respectively, induced by MEF binding. Noncovalent conjugation of MEF to HSA bettered protein thermostability. Site marker competitive drug displacement results suggested HSA Sudlow's site I as the MEF binding site, which was also supported by molecular docking analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  4. Bharadwaj KK, Sarkar T, Ghosh A, Baishya D, Rabha B, Panda MK, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2021 Oct;193(10):3371-3394.
    PMID: 34212286 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-021-03608-7
    COVID-19 is a disease that puts most of the world on lockdown and the search for therapeutic drugs is still ongoing. Therefore, this study used in silico screening to identify natural bioactive compounds from fruits, herbaceous plants, and marine invertebrates that are able to inhibit protease activity in SARS-CoV-2 (PDB: 6LU7). We have used extensive screening strategies such as drug likeliness, antiviral activity value prediction, molecular docking, ADME, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, and MM/GBSA. A total of 17 compounds were shortlisted using Lipinski's rule in which 5 compounds showed significant predicted antiviral activity values. Among these 5, only 2 compounds, Macrolactin A and Stachyflin, showed good binding energy of -9.22 and -8.00 kcal/mol, respectively, within the binding pocket of the Mpro catalytic residues (HIS 41 and CYS 145). These two compounds were further analyzed to determine their ADME properties. The ADME evaluation of these 2 compounds suggested that they could be effective in developing therapeutic drugs to be used in clinical trials. MD simulations showed that protein-ligand complexes of Macrolactin A and Stachyflin with the target receptor (6LU7) were stable for 100 nanoseconds. The MM/GBSA calculations of Mpro-Macrolactin A complex indicated higher binding free energy (-42.58 ± 6.35 kcal/mol). Dynamic cross-correlation matrix (DCCM) and principal component analysis (PCA) on the residual movement in the MD trajectories further confirmed the stability of Macrolactin A bound state with 6LU7. In conclusion, this study showed that marine natural compound Macrolactin A could be an effective therapeutic inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 protease (6LU7). Additional in vitro and in vivo validations are strongly needed to determine the efficacy and therapeutic dose of Macrolactin A in biological systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  5. Panicker CY, Varghese HT, Nayak PS, Narayana B, Sarojini BK, Fun HK, et al.
    PMID: 25863456 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.03.065
    FT-IR spectrum of (2E)-3-(3-nitrophenyl)-1-[4-piperidin-1-yl]prop-2-en-1-one was recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wavenumbers were computed using HF and DFT quantum chemical calculations. The data obtained from wavenumber calculations are used to assign IR bands. Potential energy distribution was done using GAR2PED software. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the XRD results. NBO analysis, HOMO-LUMO, first and second hyperpolarizability and molecular electrostatic potential results are also reported. The possible electrophile attacking sites of the title molecule is identified using MEP surface plot study. Molecular docking results predicted the anti-leishmanic activity for the compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  6. Dostani M, Kianfar AH, Mahmood WA, Dinari M, Farrokhpour H, Sabzalian MR, et al.
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2017 Jun 05;180:144-153.
    PMID: 28284160 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.02.047
    In this investigation, the structure of bidentate N,N-Schiff base ligand of vanillin, (E)-4-(((2-amino-5-nitrophenyl)imino)methyl)-2-methoxyphenol (HL) was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The interaction of new [CuL2], [NiL2] and [VOL2] complexes with DNA and BSA was explored through UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The electronic spectra changes displayed an isosbestic point for the complexes upon titration with DNA. The Kb values for the complexes [CuL2], [NiL2] and [VOL2] were 2.4×105, 1.9×105 and 4.2×104, respectively. [CuL2] complex was bound more toughly than [NiL2] and [VOL2] complexes. These complexes had a significant interaction with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and the results demonstrated that the quenching mechanism was a static procedure. Also, the complexes interacted with BSA by more than one binding site (n>1). Finally, the theoretical studies were performed using the docking method to calculate the binding constants and recognize the binding site of the DNA and BSA with the complexes. The ligand and complexes including Ni2+, Cu2+ and VO2+ ions were colonized by fungal growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  7. Anuar NFSK, Wahab RA, Huyop F, Amran SI, Hamid AAA, Halim KBA, et al.
    J Biomol Struct Dyn, 2021 Apr;39(6):2079-2091.
    PMID: 32174260 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1743364
    We previously reported on a mutant lipase KV1 (Mut-LipKV1) from Acinetobacter haemolyticus which optimal pH was raised from 8.0 to 11.0 after triple substitutions of surface aspartic acid (Asp) with lysine (Lys). Herein, this study further examined the Mut-LipKV1 by molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations to explore the structural requirements that participated in the effective binding of tributyrin and its catalytic triad (Ser165, Asp259 and His289) and identify detailed changes that occurred post mutation. Mut-LipKV1 bound favorably with tributyrin (-4.1 kcal/mol) and formed a single hydrogen bond with His289, at pH 9.0. Despite the incongruent docking analysis data, results of MD simulations showed configurations of both the tributyrin-Mut-LipKV1 (RMSD 0.3 nm; RMSF 0.05 - 0.3 nm) and the tributyrin-wildtype lipase KV1 (tributyrin-LipKV1) complexes (RMSD 0.35 nm; RMSF 0.05 - 0.4 nm) being comparably stable at pH 8.0. MM-PBSA analysis indicated that van der Waals interactions made the most contribution during the molecular binding process, with the Mut-LipKV1-tributyrin complex (-44.04 kcal/mol) showing relatively lower binding energy than LipKV1-tributyrin (-43.83 kcal/mol), at pH 12.0. All tributyrin-Mut-LipKV1 complexes displayed improved binding free energies over a broader pH range from 8.0 - 12.0, as compared to LipKV1-tributyrin. Future empirical works are thus, important to validate the improved alkaline-stability of Mut-LipKV1. In a nutshell, our research offered a considerable insight for further improving the alkaline tolerance of lipases.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  8. Nordin N, Khimani K, Abd Ghani MF
    Curr Drug Discov Technol, 2021;18(6):e010921191171.
    PMID: 33563198 DOI: 10.2174/1570163818666210204202426
    BACKGROUND: Anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and cancer chemotherapy resistance, resulting in a good target for cancer treatment. Understanding the function of BCL-XL has driven the progression of a new class of cancer drugs that can mimic its natural inhibitors, BH3-only proteins, to trigger apoptosis. This mimicking is initiated through acetogenins due to their excellent biological properties. Acetogenins, which can be isolated from Annonaceae plants, have a unique structure along with several oxygenated functionalities.

    OBJECTIVE: Based on their biological capability, various acetogenins were studied in the present study and compared alongside ABT-737 on molecular docking.

    METHODS: The docking simulation of acetogenins was performed using AutoDock Vina software.

    RESULTS: Our findings have shown eleven acetogenins-BCL-XL protein complex, namely, muricin B (2), muricin F (4), muricin H (6), muricin I (7), xylomaticin (9), annomontacin (12), annonacin (14), squamocin (15), squamostatin A (16), bullatacin (20) and annoreticulin (21) exhibited strong binding affinities lower than - 10.4 kcalmol-1 as compared to ABT-373-BCL-XL complex. Six hydrogen bonds along with hydrophobic interaction were detected on the complex of BCL-XL with muricin B (2), muricin G (5), corossolone (11), and isoannonacin-10-one A (18).

    CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that some acetogenins could represent a new potential BCLXL inhibitor that could mimic the BH3-only protein for the induction of apoptosis in cancer chemotherapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  9. Abid O, Imran S, Taha M, Ismail NH, Jamil W, Kashif SM, et al.
    Mol Divers, 2021 May;25(2):995-1009.
    PMID: 32301032 DOI: 10.1007/s11030-020-10084-4
    The β-glucuronidase, a lysosomal enzyme, catalyzes the cleavage of glucuronosyl-O-bonds. Its inhibitors play a significant role in different medicinal therapies as they cause a decrease in carcinogen-induced colonic tumors by reducing the level of toxic substances present in the intestine. Among those inhibitors, bisindole derivatives had displayed promising β-glucuronidase inhibition activity. In the current study, hydrazone derivatives of bisindolymethane (1-30) were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity. Twenty-eight analogs demonstrated better activity (IC50 = 0.50-46.5 µM) than standard D-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50 = 48.4 ± 1.25 µM). Compounds with hydroxyl group like 6 (0.60 ± 0.01 µM), 20 (1.50 ± 0.10 µM) and 25 (0.50 ± 0.01 µM) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, followed by analogs with fluorine 21 (3.50 ± 0.10 µM) and chlorine 23 (8.20 ± 0.20 µM) substituents. The presence of hydroxyl group at the aromatic side chain was observed as the main contributing factor in the inhibitory potential. From the docking studies, it was predicted that the active compounds can fit properly in the binding groove of the β-glucuronidase and displayed significant binding interactions with essential residues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  10. Shy TW, Gaurav A
    Cent Nerv Syst Agents Med Chem, 2021;21(3):195-204.
    PMID: 34970959 DOI: 10.2174/1871524922666211231115638
    AIM: The aim of the present study was to apply pharmacophore based virtual screening to a natural product database to identify potential PDE1B inhibitor lead compounds for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders.

    BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are a major health burden globally. The existing therapies do not provide optimal relief and are associated with substantial adverse effects. This has resulted in a huge unmet medical need for newer and more effective therapies for these disorders. Phosphodiesterase (PDEs) enzymes have been identified as potential targets of drugs for neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, and one of the subtypes, i.e., PDE1B, accounts for more than 90 % of total brain PDE activity associated with learning and memory process, making it an interesting drug target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

    OBJECTIVES: The present study has been conducted to identify potential PDE1B inhibitor lead compounds from the natural product database.

    METHODS: Ligand-based pharmacophore models were generated and validated; they were then employed for virtual screening of Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) followed by docking with PDE1B to identify the best hit compound.

    RESULTS: Virtual screening led to the identification of 85 compounds which were then docked into the active site of PDE1B. Out of the 85 compounds, six showed a higher affinity for PDE1B than the standard PDE1B inhibitors. The top scoring compound was identified as Cedreprenone.

    CONCLUSION: Virtual screening of UNPD using Ligand based pharmacophore led to the identification of Cedreprenone, a potential new natural PDE1B inhibitor lead compound.

    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  11. Bukhari SA, Shamshari WA, Ur-Rahman M, Zia-Ul-Haq M, Jaafar HZ
    Molecules, 2014 Jul 11;19(7):10129-36.
    PMID: 25019556 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190710129
    Diabetes mellitus is a life threatening disease and scientists are doing their best to find a cost effective and permanent treatment of this malady. The recent trend is to control the disease by target base inhibiting of enzymes or proteins. Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is found to cause five times more risk of diabetes when expressed above average levels. This study was therefore designed to analyze the SFRP4 and to find its potential inhibitors. SFRP4 was analyzed by bio-informatics tools of sequence tool and structure tool. A total of three potential inhibitors of SFRP4 were found, namely cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril. These inhibitors showed significant interactions with SFRP4 as compared to other inhibitors as well as control (acetohexamide). The findings suggest the possible treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 by inhibiting the SFRP4 using the inhibitors cyclothiazide, clopamide and perindopril.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  12. Barakat A, Ghabbour HA, Al-Majid AM, Soliman SM, Ali M, Mabkhot YN, et al.
    Molecules, 2015;20(7):13240-63.
    PMID: 26197312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200713240
    The synthesis of 2,6-bis(hydroxy(phenyl)methyl)cyclohexanone 1 is described. The molecular structure of the title compound 1 was confirmed by NMR, FT-IR, MS, CHN microanalysis, and X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure was also investigated by a set of computational studies and found to be in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from the various spectrophotometric techniques. The antimicrobial activity and molecular docking of the synthesized compound was investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  13. Ali EZ, Zakaria Y, Mohd Radzi MA, Ngu LH, Jusoh SA
    Biomed Res Int, 2018;2018:4320831.
    PMID: 30175132 DOI: 10.1155/2018/4320831
    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), an X-linked disorder that results from mutations in the OTC gene, causes hyperammonemia and leads to various clinical manifestations. Mutations occurring close to the catalytic site of OTCase can cause severe OTCD phenotypes compared with those caused by mutations occurring on the surface of this protein. In this study, we report two novel OTC missense mutations, Q171H and N199H, found in Malaysian patients. Q171H and N199H caused neonatal onset OTCD in a male and late OTCD in a female, respectively. In silico predictions and molecular docking were performed to examine the effect of these novel mutations, and the results were compared with other 30 known OTC mutations. In silico servers predicted that Q171H and N199H, as well as 30 known missense mutations, led to the development of OTCD. Docking analysis indicated that N-(phosphonoacetyl)-L-ornithine (PALO) was bound to the catalytic site of OTCase mutant structure with minimal conformational changes. However, the mutations disrupted interatomic interactions in the catalytic site. Therefore, depending on the severity of disruption occurring at the catalytic site, the mutation may affect the efficiency of mechanism and functions of OTCase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  14. Taha M, Imran S, Alomari M, Rahim F, Wadood A, Mosaddik A, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2019 07 15;27(14):3145-3155.
    PMID: 31196753 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.05.049
    A new series of oxadiazole with thiadiazole moiety (6-27) were synthesized, characterized by different spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for β-glucuronidase inhibitory potential. Sixteen analogs such as 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26 and 27 showed IC50 values in the range of 0.96 ± 0.01 to 46.46 ± 1.10 μM, and hence were found to have excellent inhibitory potential in comparison to standard d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50 = 48.4 ± 1.25 μM). Two analogs such as 16 and 19 showed moderate inhibitory potential while analogs 11, 15, 21 and 22 were found inactive. Our study identifies new series of potent β-glucuronidase inhibitors for further investigation. Structure activity relationships were established for all compounds which showed that the activity is varied due to different substituents on benzene ring. The interaction of the compounds with enzyme active site were confirmed with the help of docking studies, which reveals that the electron withdrawing group and hydroxy group make the molecules more favorable for enzyme inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation/methods*
  15. Taha M, Sultan S, Imran S, Rahim F, Zaman K, Wadood A, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2019 09 15;27(18):4081-4088.
    PMID: 31378594 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.07.035
    In searchof the potenttherapeutic agent as an α-glucosidase inhibitor, we have synthesized twenty-five analogs (1-25) of quinoline-based Schiff bases as an inhibitoragainst α-glucosidase enzyme under positive control acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). From the activity profile it was foundthat analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 11, 12 and 20with IC50values 12.40 ± 0.40, 9.40 ± 0.30, 14.10 ± 0.40, 6.20 ± 0.30, 14.40 ± 0.40, 7.40 ± 0.20 and 13.20 ± 0.40 µMrespectively showed most potent inhibition among the series even than standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). Here in the present study analog 4 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.30 µM) was found with many folds better α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the reference drug. Eight analogs like 5, 7, 8, 16, 17, 22, 24 and 25 among the whole series displayed less than 50% inhibition. The substituents effects on phenyl ring thereby superficially established through SAR study. Binding interactions of analogs and the active site of ligands proteins were confirmed through molecular docking study. Spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR, 13C NMR and ESIMS were used for characterization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation/methods*
  16. Rafique R, Khan KM, Arshia, Chigurupati S, Wadood A, Rehman AU, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2020 01;94:103410.
    PMID: 31732193 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.103410
    Over-expression of α-amylase enzyme causes hyperglycemia which lead to many physiological complications including oxidative stress, one of the most commonly associated problem with diabetes mellitus. Marketed α-amylase inhibitors such as acarbose, voglibose, and miglitol used to treat type-II diabetes mellitus, but also linked to several harmful effects. Therefore, it is essential to explore new and nontoxic antidiabetic agents with additional antioxidant properties. In this connection, a series of new N-sulfonohydrazide substituted indazoles 1-19 were synthesized by multistep reaction scheme and assessed for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory and radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging properties. All compounds were fully characterized by different spectroscopic techniques including 1H, 13C NMR, EI-MS, HREI-MS, ESI-MS, and HRESI-MS. Compounds showed promising α-amylase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 1.23 ± 0.06-4.5 ± 0.03 µM) as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 1.20 ± 0.09 µM). In addition to that all derivatives were found good to moderate scavengers of DPPH (IC50 2.01 ± 0.13-5.3 ± 0.11) and ABTS (IC50 = 2.34 ± 0.07-5.5 ± 0.07 µM) radicals, in comparison with standard ascorbic acid having scavenging activities with IC50 = 1.99 ± 0.09 µM, and IC50 2.03 ± 0.11 µM for DPPH and ABTS radicals. In silico molecular docking study was conducted to rationalize the binding interaction of α-amylase enzyme with ligands. Compounds were observed as mixed type inhibitors in enzyme kinetic characterization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation/methods*
  17. James SA, Yam WK
    Comput Biol Chem, 2021 Jun;92:107499.
    PMID: 33932782 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107499
    Rhinoviruses (RV), especially Human rhinovirus (HRVs) have been accepted as the most common cause for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Pleconaril, a broad spectrum anti-rhinoviral compound, has been used as a drug of choice for URTIs for over a decade. Unfortunately, for various complications associated with this drug, it was rejected, and a replacement is highly desirable. In silico screening and prediction methods such as sub-structure search and molecular docking have been widely used to identify alternative compounds. In our study, we have utilised sub-structure search to narrow down our quest in finding relevant chemical compounds. Molecular docking studies were then used to study their binding interaction at the molecular level. Interestingly, we have identified 3 residues that is worth further investigation in upcoming molecular dynamics simulation systems of their contribution in stable interaction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  18. Ha ZY, Ong HC, Oo CW, Yeong KY
    Curr Alzheimer Res, 2020;17(13):1177-1185.
    PMID: 33602088 DOI: 10.2174/1567205018666210218151228
    BACKGROUND: Benzimidazole is an interesting pharmacophore which has been extensively studied in medicinal chemistry due to its high affinity towards various enzymes and receptors. Its derivatives have been previously shown to possess a wide range of biological activities including anthelmintic, antihypertensive, antiulcer, as well as anticholinesterase activity.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to search for more potent benzimidazole-based cholinesterase inhibitors, through the modification of the 1- and 2-positions of the benzimidazole core.

    METHODS: Synthesis of compounds were carried out via a 4-step reaction scheme following a previously reported protocol. Structure-activity relationship of the compounds are established through in vitro cholinesterase assays and in silico docking studies. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability of the compounds were also investigated.

    RESULTS: Among the synthesised compounds, three of them (5IIa, 5IIb, and 5IIc) exhibited potent selective butyrylcholinesterase inhibition at low micromolar level. The compounds did not show any significant cytotoxicity when tested against a panel of human cell lines. Moreover, the most active compound, 5IIc, was highly permeable across the blood brain barrier.

    CONCLUSION: In total 10 benzimidazole derivatives were synthesized and screened for their AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities. Lead compound 5Iic, represents a valuable compound for further development as potential AD therapeutics.

    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation*
  19. Yoon YK, Choon TS
    Arch Pharm (Weinheim), 2016 Jan;349(1):1-8.
    PMID: 26616218 DOI: 10.1002/ardp.201500337
    Benzimidazole derivatives have been shown to possess sirtuin-inhibitory activity. In the continuous search for potent sirtuin inhibitors, systematic changes on the terminal benzene ring were performed on previously identified benzimidazole-based sirtuin inhibitors, to further investigate their structure-activity relationships. It was demonstrated that the sirtuin activities of these novel compounds followed the trend where meta-substituted compounds possessed markedly weaker potency than ortho- and para-substituted compounds, with the exception of halogenated substituents. Molecular docking studies were carried out to rationalize these observations. Apart from this, the methods used to synthesize the interesting compounds are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
  20. Qazi SU, Rahman SU, Awan AN, Al-Rashida M, Alharthy RD, Asari A, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2018 09;79:19-26.
    PMID: 29709568 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2018.03.029
    A series of hydrazinecarboxamide derivatives were synthesized and examined against urease for their inhibitory activity. Among the series, the 1-(3-fluorobenzylidene)semicarbazide (4a) (IC50 = 0.52 ± 0.45 µM), 4u (IC50 = 1.23 ± 0.32 µM) and 4h (IC50 = 2.22 ± 0.32 µM) were found most potent. Furthermore, the molecular docking study was also performed to demonstrate the binding mode of the active hydrazinecarboxamide with the enzyme, urease. In order to estimate drug likeness of compounds, in silico ADME evaluation was carried out. All compounds exhibited favorable ADME profiles with good predicted oral bioavailability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Molecular Docking Simulation
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