In multiple biological processes, molecular recognition performs an integral role in detecting bio analytes. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailored sensing materials that can biomimic the biologic ligands and can detect specific target molecules selectively and sensitively. The formulation of molecularly imprinted polymers is followed by the formulation of a control termed as non-imprinted polymer (NIP), which, in the absence of a template, is commonly formulated to evaluate whether distinctive imprints have been produced for the template. Given the difficulties confronting bioanalytical researchers, it is inevitable that this strategy would come out as a central route of multidisciplinary studies to create extremely promising stable artificial receptors as a replacement or accelerate biological matrices. The ease of synthesis, low cost, capability to 'tailor' recognition element for analyte molecules, and stability under harsh environments make MIPs promising candidates as a recognition tool for biosensing. Compared to biological systems, molecular imprinting techniques have several advantages, including high recognition ability, long-term durability, low cost, and robustness, allowing molecularly imprinted polymers to be employed in drug delivery, biosensor technology, and nanotechnology. Molecular imprinted polymer-based sensors still have certain shortcomings in determining biomacromolecules (nucleic acid, protein, lipids, and carbohydrates), considering the vast volume of the latest literature on biomicromolecules. These potential materials are still required to address a few weaknesses until gaining their position in recognition of biomacromolecules. This review aims to highlight the current progress in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)-based sensors for the determination of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or nucleobases.
In this work, the novel imprinted zeolite (IZ) was synthesized, and its properties and performance in terms of adsorption of p-Cresol, which represent the protein-bounded uremic toxins in aqueous phase under phosphate buffer saline, were studied and compared with the synthesized zeolite-Y (ZeoY-S) and commercial CBV 100 zeolite-Y (ZeoY-C). The ZeoY-S was synthesized from sodium aluminate, NaOH, H2O and SiO2 under aging for 24 h at room temperature and hydrothermal condition for 24 h at 100 °C, with an initial composition of 10SiO2:Al2O3:4Na2O:180H2O. The ZeoY-S has been modified by using the imprinting technology to produce the IZ via the use of p-Cresol as a template. The p-Cresol successfully imprinted on the zeolite-Y was proved through the multipoint Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and the performance of IZ that was compared to ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C. Based on the BET results, it proves that the pore size of IZ is in accordance with the target compound, which is p-Cresol at 0.79 nm. This modification was able to adsorb p-Cresol 2.5 and 3.5 times higher than ZeoY-S and ZeoY-C can, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models, together with the pseudo-first and -second order and intra-particle diffusion kinetics models, were used to investigate the adsorption behavior of p-Cresol on the zeolites. The IZ has 4.30 times greater competitive molecules than ZeoY-S and the properties of IZ were not influenced by the content of other phenolic group uremic toxins as competitive molecules. It can be concluded that the micropores of zeolite as adsorbent can be modified using the imprinting technology in order to increase its sensitivity and selectivity towards p-Cresol.
A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with the ability to bind Pb(II) ion, was prepared using the non-covalent molecular imprinting methods and evaluated as a sorbent for the Pb(II) ion uptake. 4-vinylbenzoic acid was chosen as the complexing monomer. The imprinted polymer was synthesized by radical polymerization. The template (Pb(II) ions) was removed using 0.1 M HCl. As a result, the efficient adsorption was found to occur at pH 7. The result also showed the applicability of the Langmuir model for the sorption, with the maximum sorption capacity of 204.08 μg/mg.
Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique to create imprinted polymers that can be applied in affinity-based separation, in particular, biomimetic sensors. In this study, the matrix of siloxane bonds prepared from the polycondensation of hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was employed as the inorganic monomer for the formation of a creatinine (Cre)-based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). Doped aluminium ion (Al(3+)) was used as the functional cross-linker that generated Lewis acid sites in the confined silica matrix to interact with Cre via sharing of lone pair electrons. Surface morphologies and pore characteristics of the synthesized MIP were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analyses, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was then evaluated through the adsorption of Cre with regard to molar ratios of Al(3+). A Cre adsorption capacity of up to 17.40 mg Cre g(-1) MIP was obtained and adsorption selectivity of Cre to its analogues creatine (Cr) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (N-hyd) were found to be 3.90 ± 0.61 and 4.17 ± 3.09, respectively. Of all the studied MIP systems, chemisorption was predicted as the rate-limiting step in the binding of Cre. The pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetic provides the best correlation of the experimental data. Furthermore, the equilibrium adsorption capacity of MIP fit well with a Freundlich isotherm (R (2) = 0.98) in which the heterogeneous surface was defined.
The present study has synthesized poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) by the condensation of oxalyl chloride with 4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol, where its efficacy was tested for the solid-phase extraction of DNA. The synthesized polymer in the form of a white powder was characterized by FTIR, TGA-DTG, SEM, and BET analysis. The study utilized solid-phase application of the resulting polymer to extract DNA. The analysis of results provided the information that the extraction efficiency is a strong dependent of polymer amount and binding buffer type. Among the three types of buffers tested, the GuHCl buffer produced the most satisfactory results in terms of yield and efficiency of extraction. Moreover, the absorbance ratio of A260/A280 in all of the samples varied from 1.682 to 1.491, thereby confirming the capability of poly(4,4'-cyclohexylidene bisphenol oxalate) to elute pure DNA. The results demonstrated an increased DNA binding capacity with respect to increased percentage of the polymer. The study has concluded that poly(bisphenol Z oxalate) can be applied as one of the potential candidates for the high efficiency extraction of DNA by means of a simple, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly approach compared to the other traditional solid-phase methods.
Despite the increasing number of usage of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in optical sensor application, the correlation between the analytical signals and the binding isotherms has yet to be fully understood. This work investigates the relationship between the signals generated from MIPs sensors to its respective binding affinity variables generated using binding isotherm models. Two different systems based on the imprinting of metal ion and organic compound have been selected for the study, which employed reflectance and fluorescence sensing schemes, respectively. Batch binding analysis using the standard binding isotherm models was employed to evaluate the affinity of the binding sites. Evaluation using the discrete bi-Langmuir isotherm model found both the MIPs studied have generally two classes of binding sites that was of low and high affinities, while the continuous Freundlich isotherm model has successfully generated a distribution of affinities within the investigated analytical window. When the MIPs were incorporated as sensing receptors, the changes in the analytical signal due to different analyte concentrations were found to have direct correlation with the binding isotherm variables. Further data analyses based on this observation have generated robust models representing the analytical performance of the optical sensors. The best constructed model describing the sensing trend for each of the sensor has been tested and demonstrated to give accurate prediction of concentration for a series of spiked analytes.
Since the introduction of the molecularly imprinting technology (MIT) in 1970s, it becomes an emerging technology with the potential for wide-ranging applications in food manufacturing, processing, analysis and quality control. It has been successfully applied in food microbiology, removal of undesirable components
from food matrices, detection of hazardous residues or pollutants and sensors. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) is the most common application so far. The review describes the methods of making the molecularly imprinted polymer systems, the application of the technology in food safety issues and the remaining challenges.
In this paper, the synthesis and characterisation of caffeine-imprinted polymers are described. The polymers were prepared in monolithic form via both reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerisation and conventional free radical polymerisation, using methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. The potential benefits in applying RAFT polymerisation techniques towards the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are explored and elucidated. The pore structures of the polymers produced were characterised by nitrogen sorption porosimetry and the molecular recognition properties of representative products were evaluated in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mode. Molecular imprinting effects were confirmed by analysing the relative retentions of analytes on imprinted and non-imprinted HPLC
stationary phases. It was found that a caffeine-imprinted polymer synthesised by RAFT polymerisation was superior to a polymer prepared using a conventional synthetic approach; the imprinting factor and column efficiency were found to be higher for the former material.
The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-β-CD) monomer was synthesized for the purpose of selective recognition of benzylparaben (BzP). The MAA-β-CD monomer was produced by bridging a methacrylic acid (MAA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) by reacting the -OH group of MAA and one of the primary -OH groups of β-CD. This monomer comprised of triple interactions that included an inclusion complex, π-π interaction, and hydrogen bonding. To demonstrate β-CD performance in MIPs, two MIPs were prepared; molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin, MIP(MAA-β-CD), and molecularly imprinted polymer-methacrylic acid, MIP(MAA); both prepared by a reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) in the bulk polymerization process. Both MIPs were characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The presence of β-CD not only influenced the morphological structure, it also affected the specific surface area, average pore diameter, and total pore volume of the MIP. The rebinding of the imprinting effect was evaluated in binding experiments, which proved that the β-CD contributed significantly to the enhancement of the recognition affinity and selective adsorption of the MIP.
This paper discusses the process technology to fabricate multilayer-Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device for bio-particles concentration detection in Lab-on-chip system. The micro chamber and the fluidic channel were fabricated using standard photolithography and soft lithography process. Conventional method by pouring PDMS on a silicon wafer and peeling after curing in soft lithography produces unspecific layer thickness. In this work, a multilayer-PDMS method is proposed to produce a layer with specific and fixed thickness micron size after bonding that act as an optimum light path length for optimum light detection. This multilayer with precise thickness is required since the microfluidic is integrated with optical transducer. Another significant advantage of this method is to provide excellent bonding between multilayer-PDMS layer and biocompatible microfluidic channel. The detail fabrication process were illustrated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and discussed in this work. The optical signal responses obtained from the multilayer-PDMS microfluidic channel with integrated optical transducer were compared with those obtained with the microfluidic channel from a conventional method. As a result, both optical signal responses did not show significant differences in terms of dispersion of light propagation for both media.
This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD), the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions.
This work reports the synthesis and characterization of a hybrid molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) membrane for removal of methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous environment. MB-MIP powders were hybridized into a polymer membrane (cellulose acetate (CA) and polysulfone (PSf)) after it was ground and sieved (using 90 µm sieve). MB-MIP membranes were prepared using a phase inversion process. The MB-MIP membranes were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Parameters investigated for the removal of MB by using membrane MB-MIP include pH, effect of time, concentration of MB, and selectivity studies. Maximum sorption of MB by PSf-MB-MIP membranes and CA-MB-MIP membranes occurred at pH 10 and pH 12, respectively. The kinetic study showed that the sorption of MB by MB-MIP membranes (PSf-MB-MIP and CA-MB-MIP) followed a pseudo-second-order-model and the MB sorption isotherm can be described by a Freundlich isotherm model.
In the present work, the microstructure, corrosion, and bioactivity of graphene oxide (GO) coating on the laser-modified and -unmodified surfaces of TiNb shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated. The surface morphology and chemical composition was examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface modification was carried out via a femtosecond laser with the aim to increase the surface roughness, and thus increase the adhesion property. FE-SEM analysis of the laser-treated Ti-30at.% Nb revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the Ti-30at.% Nb surface after being surface modified via a femtosecond laser. Furthermore, the thickness of GO was increased from 35μm to 45μm after the surface was modified. Potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that both the GO and laser/GO-coated samples exhibited higher corrosion resistance than that of the uncoated TiNb SMA sample. However, the laser/GO-coated sample presented the highest corrosion resistance in SBF at 37°C. In addition, during soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF), both the GO and laser/GO coating improved the formation of apatite layer. Based on the bioactivity results, the GO coating exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria compared with the uncoated. In conclusion, the present results indicate that Ti-30at.% Nb SMAs may be promising alternatives to NiTi for certain biomedical applications.
In the present study, ion imprinted polymer monoliths (IIPMs) were developed to overcome the limitations of ion imprinted polymer particles (IIPPs) used for the removal of Hg(II) ions from waste water samples. The adsorbents preparation, characterization and Hg(II) removal were very well reported. The IIPMs on porogen optimization was prepared using the molding technique with Hg(II) as a template ion, [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium cysteine (MAETC) as ligand, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylamide (EGDMA) as cross-linker, benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and methanol and acetonitrile as porogen in the polypropylene tube (drinking straw) as mold. The IIPMs prepared with higher volumes of porogen were indicated to have a good adsorption rate for the Hg(II) removal along with good water permeability and larger porosity as compared to a lower volume of porogen. The IIPMs prepared using the binary porogen were able to improve the porosity and surface area of the monolithic polymers as compared to the single porogen added IIPMs. Finally, we indicate from our analysis that the IIPM having the efficient capacity for the Hg(II) ions is easy to prepare, and has higher water permeability along with high porosity and high adsorption capacity and all these factors making it one of the suitable adsorbent for the successful removal of Hg(II) ions.
A molecularly imprinted silica gel sorbent for selective removal of 2-Hydroxybenzoic acid (2-HA) was prepared by a surface imprinting technique with a sol-gel process. The 2-HA molecularly imprinted silica gel (2-HA-MISG) sorbent was evaluated by various parameters, including the influence of pH, static, kinetic adsorption and selectivity experiments. The optimum adsorption capacity to the 2-HA appeared to be around pH 2 by the polymer. Morevoer, the imprinted sorbent displayed fast uptake kinetics, obtained within 20 min. The adsorption capacity of the 2-HA-MISG (76.2 mg g-1) was higher than that of the non-imprinted silica gel (NISG) (42.58 mg g-1). This indicates that the 2-HA-MISG offers a higher affinity for 2-HA than the NISG. The polymer displays good selectivity and exhibits good reusability. Experimental results show the potential of molecularly imprinted silica sorbent for selective removal of 2-HA.
The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.
Food recalls due to undeclared allergens or contamination are costly to the food manufacturing industry worldwide. As the industry strives for better manufacturing efficiencies over a diverse range of food products, there is a need for the development of new analytical techniques to improve monitoring of the presence of unintended food allergens during the food manufacturing process. In particular, the monitoring of wash samples from cleaning in place systems (CIP), used in the cleaning of food processing equipment, would allow for the effective removal of allergen containing ingredients in between food batches. Casein proteins constitute the biggest group of proteins in milk and hence are the most common milk protein allergen in food ingredients. As such, these proteins could present an ideal analyte for cleaning validation. In this work, molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) with high affinity toward bovine α-casein were synthesized using a solid-phase imprinting method. The nanoMIPs were then characterized and incorporated into label free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based sensor. The nanoMIPs demonstrated good binding affinity and selectivity toward α-casein (KD ∼ 10 × 10-9 M). This simple affinity sensor demonstrated the quantitative detection of α-casein achieving a detection limit of 127 ± 97.6 ng mL-1 (0.127 ppm) which is far superior to existing commercially available ELISA kits. Recoveries from spiked CIP wastewater samples were within the acceptable range (87-120%). The reported sensor could allow food manufacturers to adequately monitor and manage food allergen risk in food processing environments while ensuring that the food produced is safe for the consumer.
Molecularly imprinted silica gel (MISG) was incorporated through dispersion in agarose polymer matrix to form a mixed matrix membrane (MMM) and was applied for the determination of three sulfonamide antibiotic compounds (i.e. sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), and sulfadiazine (SDZ)) from environmental water samples. Several important microextraction conditions, such as type of desorption solvent, extraction time, amount of sorbent, sample volume, pH, and effect of desorption time, were comprehensively optimized. A preconcentration factors of ≥ 20 was achieved by the extraction of 12.5 mL of water samples using the developed method. This microextraction-HPLC method demonstrated good linearity (1-500 μg L-1) with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9959-0.9999, low limits of detection (0.06-0.17 μg L-1) and limits of quantification (0.20-0.56 μg L-1), good analyte recoveries (80-96%), and acceptable relative standard deviations (< 10%) under the optimized conditions. The method is systematically compared to those reported in the literature.
In this work, new selective and sensitive dual-template molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) were synthesized and characterized. Sorbent MIPs were investigated for simultaneous extraction and clean-up of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid from light and dark honey samples. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry triple-quadrupole (UHPLC-MS/MS) (QQQ) was used to detect and quantify the pesticides. The kinetic model with adsorption kinetics of sorbent was investigated. The optimal adsorption conditions were 80 mg of polymer MIPs, a 30-min extraction time, and a pH of 7. The detection limit (LOD) and the quantification limit (LOQ) varied from 0.045 to 0.070 µg kg-1 and from 0.07 to 0.10 µg kg-1, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD, %) ranged from 1.3 to 2.0% and from 8.2 to 12.0%, respectively. The recovery of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid ranged from 96.8 to 106.5% and 95.3 to 104.4%, respectively, in light and dark honey samples.
A simple, environmental friendly and selective sample preparation technique employing porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) loaded with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) is described. After the extraction, the analyte was desorbed using ultrasonication and was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee, grape juice and urine were 0.06 ng g(-1), 0.02 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively while the quantification limits were 0.19 ng g(-1), 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA from coffee spiked at 1, 25 and 50 ng g(-1), grape juice and urine samples at 1, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.6 to 101.5%. The proposed method was applied to thirty-eight samples of coffee, grape juice and urine and the presence of OTA was found in eighteen samples. The levels found, however, were all below the legal limits.