Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a herbal plant, belonging to the family Apiceae, is valued for its culinary and medicinal uses. All parts of this herb are in use as flavoring agent and/or as traditional remedies for the treatment of different disorders in the folk medicine systems of different civilizations. The plant is a potential source of lipids (rich in petroselinic acid) and an essential oil (high in linalool) isolated from the seeds and the aerial parts. Due to the presence of a multitude of bioactives, a wide array of pharmacological activities have been ascribed to different parts of this herb, which include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, anti-epileptic, anti-depressant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hypertensive, neuro-protective and diuretic. Interestingly, coriander also possessed lead-detoxifying potential. This review focuses on the medicinal uses, detailed phytochemistry, and the biological activities of this valuable herb to explore its potential uses as a functional food for the nutraceutical industry.
Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza strains have highlighted the need to develop new anti-influenza drugs. Here, we report an in silico study of carvone derivatives to analyze their binding modes with neuraminidase (NA) active sites. Two proposed carvone analogues, CV(A) and CV(B), with 36 designed ligands were predicted to inhibit NA (PDB ID: 3TI6) using molecular docking. The design is based on structural resemblance with the commercial inhibitor, oseltamivir (OTV), ligand polarity, and amino acid residues in the NA active sites. Docking simulations revealed that ligand A18 has the lowest energy binding (∆Gbind) value of -8.30 kcal mol-1, comparable to OTV with ∆Gbind of -8.72 kcal mol-1. A18 formed seven hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) at residues Arg292, Arg371, Asp151, Trp178, Glu227, and Tyr406, while eight H-bonds were formed by OTV with amino acids Arg118, Arg292, Arg371, Glu119, Asp151, and Arg152. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was conducted to compare the stability between ligand A18 and OTV with NA. Our simulation study showed that the A18-NA complex is as stable as the OTV-NA complex during the MD simulation of 50 ns through the analysis of RMSD, RMSF, total energy, hydrogen bonding, and MM/PBSA free energy calculations.
Immobilized Candida rugosa lipase was used for the synthesis of citronellyl laurate from citronellol and lauric acid. Screening of different types of support (Amberlite MB-1 and Celite) for immobilization of lipase and solvent (n-hexane, n-heptane, and iso-octane) and optimization of reaction conditions, such as catalyst loading, effect of substrates molar ratio and temperature, have been studied. The maximum enzyme activity was obtained at 310 K. The immobilized C. rugosa lipase onto Amberlite MB-1 support was found to be the best support with a conversion of 89% of citronellyl laurate ester in iso-octane compared to Celite 545. Deactivation of C. rugosa lipase at 313, 318 and 323 K were observed. Ordered bi bi mechanism with dead end complex of lauric acid was found to fit the initial rate data and the kinetic parameters were obtained by non-linear regression analysis.
The leaves of a tropical plant, Mitragyna speciosa KORTH (Rubiaceae), have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium. Phytochemical studies of the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand and Malaysia have led to the isolation of several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, including new natural products. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and/or synthetic methods. The potent opioid agonistic activities of mitragynine, the major constituent of this plant, and its analogues were found in in vitro and in vivo experiments and the mechanisms underlying the analgesic activity were clarified. The essential structural features of mitragynines, which differ from those of morphine and are responsible for the analgesic activity, were elucidated by pharmacological evaluation of the natural and synthetic derivatives. Among the mitragynine derivatives, 7-hydroxymitragynine, a minor constituent of M. speciosa, was found to exhibit potent antinociceptive activity in mice.
Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold) to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate specificity towards farnesal. Thus, it was suggested that this novel enzyme may be functioning specifically to oxidize farnesal in the later steps of JH III pathway. This report provides a basic understanding for recombinant production of this particular enzyme. Other strategies such as adding His-tag to the protein makes easy the purification of the protein which is completely different to the native protein. Complete sequence, structure and functional analysis of the enzyme will be important for developing insect-resistant crop plants by deployment of transgenic plant.
NADP(+)-dependent geraniol dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of geraniol to geranial. Stable, highly active cell-free extract was obtained from Polygonum minus leaves using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, Amberlite XAD-4, glycerol, 2-mercaptoethanol, thiourea, and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride in tricine-NaOH buffer (pH 7.5). The enzyme preparation was separated into two activity peaks, geraniol-DH I and II, by DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatography at pH 7.5. Both isoenzymes were purified to homogeneity in three chromatographic steps. The geraniol-DH isoenzymes were similar in molecular mass, optimal temperature, and pH, but the isoelectric point, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters were different. The K(m) values for geraniol of geraniol-DH I and II appeared to be 0.4 mM and 0.185 mM respectively. P. minus geraniol-DHs are unusual among geraniol-DHs in view of their thermal stability and optimal temperatures, and also their high specificity for allylic alcohols and NADP(+).
We report measurements of atmospheric composition over a tropical rainforest and over a nearby oil palm plantation in Sabah, Borneo. The primary vegetation in each of the two landscapes emits very different amounts and kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), resulting in distinctive VOC fingerprints in the atmospheric boundary layer for both landscapes. VOCs over the Borneo rainforest are dominated by isoprene and its oxidation products, with a significant additional contribution from monoterpenes. Rather than consuming the main atmospheric oxidant, OH, these high concentrations of VOCs appear to maintain OH, as has been observed previously over Amazonia. The boundary-layer characteristics and mixing ratios of VOCs observed over the Borneo rainforest are different to those measured previously over Amazonia. Compared with the Bornean rainforest, air over the oil palm plantation contains much more isoprene, monoterpenes are relatively less important, and the flower scent, estragole, is prominent. Concentrations of nitrogen oxides are greater above the agro-industrial oil palm landscape than over the rainforest, and this leads to changes in some secondary pollutant mixing ratios (but not, currently, differences in ozone). Secondary organic aerosol over both landscapes shows a significant contribution from isoprene. Primary biological aerosol dominates the super-micrometre aerosol over the rainforest and is likely to be sensitive to land-use change, since the fungal source of the bioaerosol is closely linked to above-ground biodiversity.
The essential oils from the leaves and rhizomes of Alpinia pahangensis Ridl., collected from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, were obtained by hydrodistillation, and their chemical compositions were determined by GC and GC/MS analyses. The major components of the rhizome oil were γ-selinene (11.60%), β-pinene (10.87%), (E,E)-farnesyl acetate (8.65%), and α-terpineol (6.38%), while those of the leaf oil were β-pinene (39.61%), α-pinene (7.55%), and limonene (4.89%). The investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils using the broth microdilution technique revealed that the rhizome oil of A. pahangensis inhibited five Staphylococcus aureus strains with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 0.08 and 0.31 μg/μl, and four selected fungi with MIC values between 1.25 and 2.50 μg/μl.
Two poorly studied, morphologically allied Alpinia species endemic to Borneo, viz., A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii, were investigated here for their rhizome essential oil. The oil compositions and antimicrobial activities were compared with those of A. galanga, a better known plant. A fair number of compounds were identified in the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, with large differences in the oil composition between the three species. The rhizome oil of A. galanga was rich in 1,8-cineole (29.8%), while those of A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii were both found to be extremely rich in (E)-methyl cinnamate (36.4 and 67.8%, resp.). The three oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungal species. The efficiency of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus var. aureus was found to decline in the order of A. nieuwenhuizii>A. ligulata ∼ A. galanga, while that of Escherichia coli decreased in the order of A. galanga>A. nieuwenhuzii ∼ A. ligulata. Only the A. galanga oil inhibited the other bacteria and the fungi tested.
'Mato Peiyu' pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck 'Mato Peiyu') leaves from pruning are currently an agricultural waste. The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from these leaves through steam distillation (SD) and solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) and to evaluate their applicability to skin care by analyzing their antimicrobial, antioxidant (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay, β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and nitric oxide scavenging assay), anti-inflammatory (5-lipoxygenase inhibition assay), and antityrosinase activities. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results indicated that the main components of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oils were citronellal and citronellol, with a total percentage of 50.71% and 59.82% for SD and SFME, respectively. The highest bioactivity among all assays was obtained for 5-lipoxygenase inhibition, with an IC50 value of 0.034% (v/v). The MIC90 of the antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ranged from 0.086% to 0.121% (v/v). Citronellal and citronellol were the main contributors, accounting for at least 54.58% of the essential oil's bioactivity. This paper is the first to report the compositions and bioactivities of 'Mato Peiyu' leaf essential oil, and the results imply that the pomelo leaf essential oil may be applied in skin care.