Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 72 in total

  1. Mat Jais AM, Dambisya YM, Lee TL
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1997 Jul;57(2):125-30.
    PMID: 9254114
    Haruan, Channa striatus, is a snakehead fish consumed in many parts of the southeast Asian region. It is believed to promote wound healing, as well as reduce post-operative pain. In an attempt to establish the scientific basis for the alleged pain-relieving benefits of this fish, we studied the antinociceptive effects of whole fillet and mucus extracts from haruan in the mouse using the abdominal constriction and tail flick tests. In the abdominal constriction test, the 30 min fillet extract exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of the writhing response in the 10-50% concentration range, with 20% as the IC50 value. This activity was not dependent on the duration of extraction, with no significant differences among the extracts obtained at durations of 10, 20, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min (range between 45-54% inhibition at 20% concentration). The mucus extract also showed concentration-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constriction response-at the highest concentration used the average inhibition was 68.9%, while IC50 value was 25%. Neither the fillet extract (30 min, 20%) nor the mucus extract (25%) had any demonstrable effect on the tail flick latency on their own, but significantly enhanced the antinociceptive activity of morphine in this assay. Similarly, low concentrations of the mucus and fillet extract enhanced the effects of morphine in the abdominal constriction test. Collectively, these results suggest a scientific basis for the folklore practice of eating haruan fish in the post-operative period for pain relief: Haruan extracts have antinociceptive activity and enhance the activity of other antinociceptive agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/pharmacology
  2. Chan KW, Tan GH, Wong RC
    Sci. Justice, 2012 Mar;52(1):9-16.
    PMID: 22325905 DOI: 10.1016/j.scijus.2011.07.005
    Apart from routine analysis of total morphine content required by the criminal justice system, quantification of other major components in illicit heroin has not been considered by the Malaysian enforcement laboratory. In order to quantify various other cutting agents in addition to alkaloids, a gas chromatographic (GC) method was developed to facilitate simultaneous quantification of eight target analytes commonly found in illicit heroin seized in Malaysia within a 12 min run time. The validation results demonstrated high selectivity with the use of an HP Ultra 2 capillary column. Different solvents were studied and methanol:chloroform (1:9) proved best for sample dissolution. The method was repeatable and reproducible. The study ranges covering 50-150% of the preferred concentrations of the eight analytes obtained r(2)>0.9997. Limits of detection up to 6μg/mL were also obtained and the method achieved 99-102% recovery. The capability of the method in heroin profiling was verified using samples from ten case samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/analysis; Morphine/chemistry; Morphine Derivatives/analysis; Morphine Derivatives/chemistry
  3. Baharuddin KA, Rahman NH, Wahab SF, Halim NA, Ahmad R
    Int J Emerg Med, 2014;7(1):2.
    PMID: 24386899 DOI: 10.1186/1865-1380-7-2
    BACKGROUND: Parecoxib sodium is the first parenteral COX-2 inhibitor used for pain management licensed for postoperative pain. However, no study has assessed the usage of parecoxib for acute traumatic pain in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to investigate a potential alternative analgesic agent in the ED by determining the mean reduction of pain score between acute traumatic pain patients who were administered with intravenous (IV) parecoxib sodium versus IV morphine sulfate. The onset of perceptible analgesic effect and side effects were also evaluated.
    METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded study comparing IV parecoxib 40 mg versus IV morphine at 0.10 mg/kg was conducted in adult patients presented with acute traumatic pain with numeric rating scale (NRS) of 6 or more within 6 hours of injury. Patients were randomized using a computer-generated randomization plan. Drug preparation and dispensing were performed by a pharmacist. Periodic assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and NRS were taken at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minute intervals after the administration of the study drug. The primary outcome was the reduction of NRS. Side effect and drug evaluation was conducted within 30 minutes of drug administration.
    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of mean NRS between patients in the IV parecoxib group or IV morphine group (P = 0.095). The mean NRS for patients treated with IV morphine were 7.1 at 0 minutes, 4.5 at 5 minutes, 3.1 at 15 minutes, and 2.0 at 30 minutes. Whereas mean NRS for patients who received IV parecoxib were 7.8 at 0 minutes, 5.7 at 5 minutes, 4.7 at 15 minutes, and 3.9 at 30 minutes. The onset of perceptible analgesic effects could be seen as early as 5 minutes. Dizziness was experienced in 42.9% of patients who received IV morphine compared to none in the parecoxib group.
    CONCLUSIONS: There was non-significant trend toward superiority of IV morphine over IV parecoxib. Looking at its effectiveness and the lack of opioid-related side-effects, the usage of IV parecoxib sodium may be extended further to a variety of cases in the ED.
    Study site: Emergency department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine*
  4. Chen CK, Tan PC, Phui VE, Teo SC
    Korean J Anesthesiol, 2013 Jun;64(6):511-6.
    PMID: 23814651 DOI: 10.4097/kjae.2013.64.6.511
    The ultrasound-guided oblique subcostal transversus abdominis plane (OSTAP) block provides a wider area of sensory block to the anterior abdominal wall than the classical posterior approach. We compared the intra-operative analgesic efficacy of OSTAP block with conventional intravenous (IV) morphine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine
  5. Deva MP
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Mar;31(3):183-7.
    PMID: 904509
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine Dependence/epidemiology
  6. Gan EK, Sam TW
    Med J Malaysia, 1976 Sep;31(1):33-5.
    PMID: 1023010
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/analysis*
  7. Hassan R, Pike See C, Sreenivasan S, Mansor SM, Müller CP, Hassan Z
    Front Psychiatry, 2020;11:411.
    PMID: 32457670 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00411
    Background: Opiate addiction is a major health problem in many countries. A crucial component of the medical treatment is the management of highly aversive opiate withdrawal signs, which may otherwise lead to resumption of drug taking. In a medication-assisted treatment (MAT), methadone and buprenorphine have been implemented as substitution drugs. Despite MAT effectiveness, there are still limitations and side effects of using methadone and buprenorphine. Thus, other alternative therapies with less side effects, overdosing, and co-morbidities are desired. One of the potential pharmacotherapies may involve kratom's major indole alkaloid, mitragynine, since kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) preparations have been reported to alleviate opiate withdrawal signs in self-treatment in Malaysian opiate addicts.

    Methods: Based on the morphine withdrawal model, rats were morphine treated with increasing doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg twice daily over a period of 6 days. The treatment was discontinued on day 7 in order to induce a spontaneous morphine abstinence. The withdrawal signs were measured daily after 24 h of the last morphine administration over a period of 28 abstinence days. In rats that developed withdrawal signs, a drug replacement treatment was given using mitragynine, methadone, or buprenorphine and the global withdrawal score was evaluated.

    Results: The morphine withdrawal model induced profound withdrawal signs for 16 days. Mitragynine (5-30 mg/kg; i.p.) was able to attenuate acute withdrawal signs in morphine dependent rats. On the other hand, smaller doses of methadone (0.5-2 mg/kg; i.p.) and buprenorphine (0.4-1.6 mg/kg; i.p.) were necessary to mitigate these effects.

    Conclusions: These data suggest that mitragynine may be a potential drug candidate for opiate withdrawal treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine; Morphine Dependence
  8. Khoo SB
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2003;2(3):143-147.
    The concept of palliative care is still quite new in Malaysia. Through the experience of delivering palliative care in both the hospital and community settings, the author has realized that there are many false beliefs among the medical and nursing professionals, as well as patients and their caregivers. By exploring and providing factual explanations to these beliefs, the present article highlights the differences in approach between acute and palliative management and the importance of good communication skills, as well as correcting the myths of patients and their caregivers, with the aim of improving the understanding of palliative care., (C) 2003 Blackwell Science Ltd
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine
  9. Wan Mat WR, Yahya N, Izaham A, Abdul Rahman R, Abdul Manap N, Md Zain J
    Int J Risk Saf Med, 2014;26(2):57-60.
    PMID: 24902502 DOI: 10.3233/JRS-140611
    Acute pain service (APS) ensures provision of effective and safe postoperative pain relief. The following cases describe a potentially fatal error in managing patients who receive epidural analgesia postoperatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/administration & dosage*; Morphine/adverse effects*
  10. Sawi W, Choy YC
    Middle East J Anaesthesiol, 2013 Feb;22(1):21-6.
    PMID: 23833846
    BACKGROUND: This was a double-blinded, prospective randomized controlled trial to compare the postoperative analgesia, side effects profile and overall satisfaction in patients who received intrathecal fentanyl with or without morphine for elective Caesarean.
    METHODS: Sixty ASA I and II parturients were randomized into two groups. Group I received intrathecal fentanyl with 0.1 mg morphine and Group II received intrathecal fentanyl only. Postoperatively, all patients were provided with oral analgesics. The degree of post-operative pain score was assessed by verbal pain score. The incidence of side effects was assessed every 4 hours for 24 hours, which included incidence of nausea, vomiting, pruritus, sedation and evidence of respiratory depression. Patient's overall satisfaction was also recorded.
    RESULTS: The verbal pain score was significantly lower in morphine group up to 20 hours postoperative period. The incidence of pruritus, nausea and vomiting were statistically significant up to 12 hours postoperative. There was no incidence of severe side effects in all the patients. There was significant difference between the morphine and no morphine group in terms of overall patient satisfaction.
    CONCLUSION: There was significant difference in terms of lower pain score, higher incidence of side effects with better patients' overall satisfaction in morphine group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/administration & dosage*; Morphine/adverse effects
  11. Siti Salmah G, Choy YC
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Mar;64(1):71-4.
    PMID: 19852327 MyJurnal
    This was a prospective randomised, controlled, single-blind study done to determine the effect of intrathecal morphine 0.1 mg as compared with intrathecal fentanyl 25 microg in terms of analgesia and duration for postoperative pain relief after Caesarean section. Sixty ASA I or II parturients were randomised into two groups. Group 1 (n=33) received 1.8 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with 0.1 mg morphine while Group 2 (n=27) received 1.8 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with 25 microg fentanyl for spinal anaesthesia. Postoperatively, all patients were provided with patient controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine. Pain was assessed using visual analogue score (VAS) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours. Time to first demand of PCA morphine, cumulative PCA morphine requirement and opioid side effects were documented. The VAS for pain and the cumulative PCA morphine requirement were both significantly lower in Group 1 (p < 0.05) during the 24 hours study period. The time to first demand was also significantly longer in Group 1 (p < 0.05). Overall, there were no significant difference between the two groups in side effects, except for a high incidence of nausea and vomiting requiring treatment in Group B in the first six hours. In conclusion the addition of 0.1 mg morphine for spinal anaesthesia provided superior and longer postoperative analgesia after Caesarean section.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/administration & dosage*; Morphine/adverse effects
  12. Hadi MA, Kamaruljan HS, Saedah A, Abdullah NM
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Dec;61(5):570-6.
    PMID: 17623958
    The success of major surgery depends partly on providing effective post-operative pain relief, which can be commonly achieved by morphine administration via patient- controlled analgesic (PCA) system. Alternatively, tramadol which is a weak opioid analgesic, can be used for post operative pain relief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intravenous PCA tramadol in comparison with PCA morphine in term of analgesic properties, sedation and side effects. A randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 160 ASA I and II patients who underwent major operations. Eighty of them received a loading dose of intravenous morphine 0.1 mg/kg followed by PCA morphine bolus of 1 mg (1 mg/ml) as required, while the other 80 patients received a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg of intravenous tramadol followed by PCA infusion of 10 mg (10 mg/ml) as required. Patients were monitored for pain, sedation and side effects as well as respiratory rate, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, blood pressure and pulse rate. Patients were evaluated 30 minutes, 4 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours post operation. There were no differences in the demographic data between the two groups (p > 0.05). The overall mean pain score in tramadol group was 0.70 +/- 0.60 as compared to 0.75 +/- 0.67 for morphine group. The mean pain score for tramadol and morphine groups at 30 minutes, 4 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours post operation were 1.32 +/- 0.79, 104 +/- 0.79, 0.35 +/- 0.48, 0.09 +/- 0.33 and 1.35 +/- 0.99, 1.14 +/- 0.81, 0.40 +/- 0.54, 0.10 +/- 0.34 respectively. The overall mean sedation score in tramadol and morphine group was 0.39 +/- 0.44 as compared to 0.35 +/- 0.43 for morphine group. The mean sedation score for tramadol and morphine group at 30 minutes, 4 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours post operation were 0.90 +/- 0.74, 0.56 +/- 0.59, 0.075 +/- 0.27, 0.025 +/- 0.16 and 0.84 +/- 0.70, 0.46 +/- 0.64, 0.08 +/- 0.27, 0.01 +/- 0.11 respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall mean pain and sedation score between the two groups as well as for each duration assessed (p > 0.05). There were also no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the blood pressure and heart rate. The incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus were the same in the two groups. This study indicates that PCA tramadol is as equally effective as PCA morphine control following major surgery. The incidences of sedation, nausea or pruritus were the same in the two groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/administration & dosage; Morphine/therapeutic use*
  13. Mohamad Yusof MI, Salleh MZ, Lay Kek T, Ahmat N, Nik Azmin NF, Zakaria ZA
    PMID: 24348716 DOI: 10.1155/2013/715074
    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G). These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls); morphine and aspirin (positive controls) for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2), 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone (3), and calaburone (4). At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine
  14. Anderson TR, Slotkin TA
    Biochem Pharmacol, 1975 Aug 15;24(16):1469-74.
    PMID: 7
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/pharmacology*; Morphine Dependence/metabolism
  15. Sivalingam M, Ogawa S, Parhar IS
    Sci Rep, 2020 11 11;10(1):19569.
    PMID: 33177592 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76287-9
    The habenula is an evolutionarily conserved brain structure, which has recently been implicated in fear memory. In the zebrafish, kisspeptin (Kiss1) is predominantly expressed in the habenula, which has been implicated as a modulator of fear response. Hence, in the present study, we questioned whether Kiss1 has a role in fear memory and morphine-induced fear memory impairment using an odorant cue (alarm substances, AS)-induced fear avoidance paradigm in adult zebrafish, whereby the fear-conditioned memory can be assessed by a change of basal place preference (= avoidance) of fish due to AS-induced fear experience. Subsequently, to examine the possible role of Kiss1 neurons-serotonergic pathway, kiss1 mRNA and serotonin levels were measured. AS exposure triggered fear episodes and fear-conditioned place avoidance. Morphine treatment followed by AS exposure, significantly impaired fear memory with increased time-spent in AS-paired compartment. However, fish administered with Kiss1 (10-21 mol/fish) after morphine treatment had significantly lower kiss1 mRNA levels but retained fear memory. In addition, the total brain serotonin levels were significantly increased in AS- and Kiss1-treated groups as compared to control and morphine treated group. These results suggest that habenular Kiss1 might be involved in consolidation or retrieval of fear memory through the serotonin system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine
  16. Kaka U, Hui Cheng C, Meng GY, Fakurazi S, Kaka A, Behan AA, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:305367.
    PMID: 25695060 DOI: 10.1155/2015/305367
    Effects of ketamine and lidocaine on electroencephalographic (EEG) changes were evaluated in minimally anaesthetized dogs, subjected to electric stimulus. Six dogs were subjected to six treatments in a crossover design with a washout period of one week. Dogs were subjected to intravenous boluses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg, ketamine 3 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg, morphine 0.2 mg/kg and loading doses of lidocaine 2 mg/kg followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of 50 and 100 mcg/kg/min, and ketamine 3 mg/kg followed by CRI of 10 and 50 mcg/kg/min. Electroencephalogram was recorded during electrical stimulation prior to any drug treatment (before treatment) and during electrical stimulation following treatment with the drugs (after treatment) under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with halothane at a stable concentration between 0.85 and 0.95%. Pretreatment median frequency was evidently increased (P < 0.05) for all treatment groups. Lidocaine, ketamine, and morphine depressed the median frequency resulting from the posttreatment stimulation. The depression of median frequency suggested evident antinociceptive effects of these treatments in dogs. It is therefore concluded that lidocaine and ketamine can be used in the analgesic protocol for the postoperative pain management in dogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/pharmacology*
  17. Khalid S, Shaik Mossadeq WM, Israf DA, Hashim P, Rejab S, Shaberi AM, et al.
    Med Princ Pract, 2010;19(4):255-9.
    PMID: 20516700 DOI: 10.1159/000312710
    To study the effects of Tamarindus indica L. aqueous fruit extract on the antinociceptive activities in rodent models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/pharmacology
  18. Malini M, Kwan TK, Perumal R
    Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int., 1994 Feb;32(2):279-90.
    PMID: 8019433
    In vivo studies involved monitoring the effect of morphine administration on catecholamine biosynthesis by the brain while in vitro studies involved studying the effect of morphine on the uptake of tritiated tyrosine by synaptosomes and its subsequent incorporation into the catecholamines. The extremely low levels of these endogenous compounds required the use of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with electrochemical detection. Intra-peritoneal injection of morphine at a dosage of 10 mg/kg did not produce appreciable changes in the catecholamine levels but a dosage of 30 mg/kg morphine was found to elevate dihydroxy phenylacetic acid content. At a dosage of 60 mg/kg, dopamine levels were elevated while noradrenaline was depleted. Morphine, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-5)M increases the incorporation of tritiated tyrosine into dopamine and dihydroxy phenylacetic acid in synaptosomal preparations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/pharmacology*
  19. Vijayan R, Delilkan AE
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):385-400.
    PMID: 7545779
    An Acute Pain Service (APS) was started in University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur by the Department of Anaesthesiology in October 1992 for more effective control of postoperative pain. The main modalities of treatment included patient controlled analgesia (PCA) using morphine or pethidine with PCA devises, epidural opiate analgesia (EOA) using tramadol or fentanyl/bupivacaine mixture and subcutaneous administration of morphine or pethidine. Five hundred and fifty-one patients were managed in the first year, with an overall patient satisfaction score of 83%. The majority (98.5%) of them were after abdominal or major orthopaedic surgery. Eighty per cent of patients scored < 3 on the verbal numeric pain scale, where 0 is no pain and 10 is the worst imaginable pain, on the first postoperative day. Nausea and vomiting was an unpleasant side effect in 20% of patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Morphine/therapeutic use
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