RESULTS: A total of 1599 Anopheles specimens were collected in the village, of which about 90% were An. balabacensis. Anopheles balabacensis was present throughout the year and was the dominant Anopheles species in all habitat types. The shrub bushes habitat had the highest Anopheles species diversity while forest edge had the greatest number of Anopheles individuals caught. GLMM analysis indicated that An. balabacensis abundance was not affected by the type of habitats, and it was more active during the early and late night compared to predawn and dawn. PCR assay showed that 1.61% of the tested An. balabacensis were positive for malaria parasites, most of which were caught in oil palm estates and infected with one to two Plasmodium species.
CONCLUSIONS: The identification of infected vectors in a range of habitats, including agricultural and farming areas, illustrates the potential for humans to be exposed to P. knowlesi outside forested areas. This finding contributes to a growing body of evidence implicating environmental changes due to deforestation, expansion of agricultural and farming areas, and development of human settlements near to forest fringes in the emergence of P. knowlesi in Sabah.
METHODS: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes were identified to species level using PCR techniques. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility bioassays were carried out to detect resistance to deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%) and bendiocarb (0.1%). TaqMan assays were performed on random samples of deltamethrin-resistant phenotyped and pyrethrum spray collected individuals to determine Vgsc-1014 knockdown resistance mutations.
RESULTS: Anopheles arabiensis accounted for 99.9% of any anopheline species collected across all sites. Bioassay screening indicated that mosquitoes remained susceptible to bendiocarb but were resistance to deltamethrin and DDT in all areas. There were significant increases in deltamethrin resistance over the four years, with overall mean percent mortality to deltamethrin declining from 81.0% (95% CI: 77.6-84.3%) in 2011 to 47.7% (95% CI: 43.5-51.8%) in 2014. The rate of increase in phenotypic deltamethrin-resistance was significantly slower in the LLIN + IRS arm than in the LLIN-only arm (Odds ratio 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02-1.77). The frequency of Vgsc-1014F mutation varied spatiotemporally with highest frequencies in Galabat (range 0.375-0.616) and New Halfa (range 0.241-0.447). Deltamethrin phenotypic-resistance correlated with Vgsc-1014F frequency.
CONCLUSION: Combining LLIN and IRS, with different classes of insecticide, may delay pyrethroid resistance development, but the speed at which resistance develops may be area-specific. Continued monitoring is vital to ensure optimal management and control.
Methods: : Extensive surveys were carried out from November 2017 to January 2018 (post-monsoon season) randomly in the nine inhabited islands of Lakshadweep for conducting faunastic studies on mosquitoes and to know the basic binomics like breeding and resting preference of mosquitoes. The study islands included, Kavaratti, Agatti, Chetlat, Bitra, Amini, Kadmath, Andrott, Kalpeni and Kiltan. Both immature and adult collections were carried out by standard/appropriate sampling techniques. The obtained data were calculated and analysed in terms of different entomological indices.
Results: : A total of 3356 mosquitoes were collected during the study period which comprised of 16 species from nine genera. Out of the 16 species, six belonged to mosquito vectors. The collection included malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi; Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus; Bancroftian filariasis vector, Cx. quinquefasciatus; Brugian filariasis vector, Mansonia uniformis; and dengue and chikungunya vectors, Stegomya albopicta and St. aegypti. Stegomya albopicta was the most predominant species observed constituting 54% of the catch, followed by Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and St. aegypti constituting 10.5, 6, 3 and 1.2%, respectively. Apart from vector species many non-vectors such as Heizmannia chandi, An. subpictus, An. varuna, Cx. sitiens, Cx. minutissimus, Cx. rubithoracis, Fredwardsius vittatus, Lutzia fuscana, Malaya genurostris and Armigeres subalbatus were also present in the study area. In Kavaratti Island, the capital of Lakshadweep, a non-vector species of sandfly, Sergentomyia (Parrotomyia) babu was observed during the indoor resting collection. The major breeding sites which supported various mosquito species included, discarded plastic containers, tree holes, open sintex tanks (water storage tanks), unused wells, discarded tyres, discarded iron pots, unused and damaged boats, cement tanks, pleated plastic sheets, coral holes, pits and irrigation canals, discarded washing machines, and Colocasia plant leaf axils. Breteau index ranged between 65.3 and 110, CI ranged between 63.64 and 72.41; and HI ranged between 38.46 and 70 among the various islands.
Interpretation & conclusion: : Entomological indices such as house index (HI), breteau index (BI) and pupal index (PI) were high in all the nine islands and exceeded the threshold levels specified by WHO, indicating high risk for dengue virus transmission in case of outbreaks. Occurrence of vector as well as non-vector species indicates that the global change in climate is causing notable changes in terms of breeding of vector and non-vector species in the islands. With the reported cases of VBDs and the presence of vectors species in Lakshadweep Islands, a stringent control measure needs to be implemented at the Lakshadweep Islands.