Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. Ainsah O, Nabishah BM, Osman CB, Khalid BA
    PMID: 10595599
    Normal rats, on being repetitively stressed by being restrained in a tight container for two hours, had higher levels of plasma corticosterone compared to pre stress values. These rats also reacted to the stress by a behavioral response in which there was marked decrease in locomotor activity assessed by the open field test (pre stress: 71.3 +/- 2.6 squares crossed versus post stress: 14.3 +/- 2.5 squares crossed) by counting the number of squares entered by the rat over 5 minutes. By the 6th to 7th exposures to the repetitive stress, the rats adapted to the stress and had normal plasma corticosterone levels and locomotor activity scores comparable to the pre stress values. These responses to stress were completely blocked by the administration of 0.32 microg/100 g BW of naloxone i.p at 10 minutes prior to the stress. In rats fed with rat chow supplemented with 90 mg/kg rat chow or 150 mg/kg rat chow of vitamin E, there was significant reduction of the plasma corticosterone levels and improvement in the locomotor activity. Stress thus caused opioid mediated increase in plasma corticosterone and reduction in locomotor activity which could be blocked by naloxone. These stress responses probably also involved generation of oxygen free radicals which were scavenged by the vitamin E, thus reducing the effects of repetitive stress on locomotor activity and serum corticosterone levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  2. Sattar MA, Gan EK, Loke SE, Mah KF, Wong WH
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1989 Apr;25(2):217-20.
    PMID: 2747256
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  3. Muir CK, Chan KL
    Med J Malaysia, 1980 Mar;34(3):279-80.
    PMID: 7191048
    The presence, in the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit), of a depressant agent with properties similar to those of tranquilizers was demonstrated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  4. Muir CK
    Med J Malaysia, 1981 Jun;36(2):119-21.
    PMID: 7201065
    The effect of an aqueous extract of Vernonia cinerea (VX) on mice was determined. It is suggested that VX contains a depressant agent whose primary effect is that of analgesia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  5. Lutterodt GD, Maleque A
    J Ethnopharmacol, 1988 Dec;24(2-3):219-31.
    PMID: 3253493
    Studies were carried out on the suppression of both exploratory and spontaneous locomotor activities in the mouse by a non-polar fraction from a methanol extract of the dried leaves of Psidium guajava. Shortly after intraperitoneal administration of this fraction, typical narcotic-like effects were observed, including catalepsy, analgesia, Straub tail, shallow respiratory movements and exophthalmos. The dose for 90% suppression of exploratory activity was between 3.3 and 6.6 mg/kg intraperitoneally and the onset of action was 6-8 min. The duration of activity was dose-dependent and, for a dose of 13.2 mg/kg given intraperitoneally, it was found to be more than 6 h. Qualitatively similar results on exploratory activity were obtained when the extract was administered orally. Doses of 3.3-6.6 mg/kg i.p. depressed spontaneous locomotor activity and tunnel running was curtailed. Higher doses abolished the spontaneous locomotor reflex action. A flavonoid compound or compounds appear to account for the activity seen.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  6. Rahim NS, Lim SM, Mani V, Abdul Majeed AB, Ramasamy K
    Pharm Biol, 2017 Dec;55(1):825-832.
    PMID: 28118770 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2017.1280688
    CONTEXT: Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has been reported to possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-stress properties.

    OBJECTIVE: Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes.

    RESULTS: VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p  33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT.

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.

    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  7. Pandy V, Wai YC, Amira Roslan NF, Sajat A, Abdulla Jallb AH, Vijeepallam K
    Biomed Pharmacother, 2018 Nov;107:368-373.
    PMID: 30099340 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.08.008
    The first objective of the present study was to determine the appropriate dose of methamphetamine (Meth) to induce a successful conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. The next objective was to examine the effect of a methanolic extract of M. citrifolia unripe fruit (MMC) against Meth-induced CPP in mice. In answering to the first objective, following the preconditioning test, an intraperitoneal injection of a fixed dose of Meth (0.5 or 1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (10 ml/kg, i.p.) was given on alternate days during the 10 days conditioning period followed by a postconditioning test conducted in Meth-free state. The first experiment revealed that 0.5 mg/kg of Meth could be an appropriate fixed low dose to induce CPP in mice. Meanwhile, in other experiments, the effect of MMC and bupropion (BUPR) against the expression, extinction, and reinstatement of Meth (0.5 mg/kg)-induced CPP in mice, respectively, was investigated. In a separate set of studies on each phase, an oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or BUPR (20 mg/kg, p.o.) was given 60 min prior to CPP postconditioning testing or extinction testing or reinstatement testing in mice. Extinction trials were conducted in Meth-free state to weaken CPP over the next 5 days. Reinstatement test was conducted by a single low dose priming injection of Meth (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). The present study, however, failed to establish a successful extinction and reinstatement of Meth-CPP in mice. Further studies using other doses of Meth are warranted for a successful establishment of all phases of Meth CPP in mice. This study also demonstrates that MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and BUPR (20 mg/kg, p.o.) could attenuate the expression of Meth-induced CPP in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  8. Abu Bakar N, Mohd Sata NS, Ramlan NF, Wan Ibrahim WN, Zulkifli SZ, Che Abdullah CA, et al.
    Neurotoxicol Teratol, 2017 Jan-Feb;59:53-61.
    PMID: 27919701 DOI: 10.1016/j.ntt.2016.11.008
    Chronic exposure to mercury (Hg) can lead to cumulative impairments in motor and cognitive functions including alteration in anxiety responses. Although several risk factors have been identified in recent year, little is known about the environmental factors that either due exposure toward low level of inorganic mercury that may led to the developmental disorders. The present study investigated the effects of embryonic exposure of mercury chloride on motor function and anxiety-like behavior. The embryo exposed to 6 different concentrations of HgCl2 (7.5, 15, 30, 100, 125, 250nM) at 5hpf until hatching (72hpf) in a semi-static condition. The mortality rate increased in a dose dependent manner where the chronic embryonic exposure to 100nM decreased the number of tail coiling, heartbeat, and swimming activity. Aversive stimulus was used to examine the effects of 100nM interferes with the development of anxiety-related behavior. No elevation in both thigmotaxis and avoidance response of 6dpf larvae exposed with 100nM were found. Biochemical analysis showed HgCl2 exposure affects proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids of the zebrafish larvae. These results showed that implication of HgCl2 on locomotor and biochemical defects affects motor performance and anxiety-like responses. Yet, the potential underlying mechanisms these responses need to be further investigated which is crucial to prevent potential hazards on the developing organism due to neurotoxicant exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  9. Mansur F, Luoga W, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Lowe A, Behnke JM
    Vet Parasitol, 2014 Mar 17;201(1-2):48-58.
    PMID: 24462509 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.12.018
    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 μM, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 μM, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  10. Mitra NK, Goh TE, Bala Krishnan T, Nadarajah VD, Vasavaraj AK, Soga T
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol, 2013;6(8):1505-15.
    PMID: 23923068
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of idiopathic etiology. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the proposed hypotheses causing progressive death of motor neurons. We aimed to develop an experimental animal model of this disease to enhance the knowledge of pathophysiological mechanism of ALS. Male Wistar rats were infused with Kainic acid (KA) intra-cisternally for 5 days at the dosage of 50 fmol/day and 150 fmol/day. Locomotor activity, sensory function and histological changes in cervical and lumbar sections of spinal cord were evaluated. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and Neurofilament Protein (NFP) were used as immunohistochemical marker for reactive astrogliosis and neuronal damage respectively. Specific Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity of spinal cord was estimated. The locomotor activity in the parameter of observed mean action time remained reduced on 14(th) day after administration of KA. Spinal motor neurons under Nissl stain showed pyknosis of nucleus and vacuolation of neuropil. GFAP expression increased significantly in the lumbar section of the spinal cord with high dose of KA treatment (p<0.05). NFP was expressed in axonal fibres around the neurons in KA-treated rats. A significant increase in specific SOD activity in both cervical and lumbar sections of the spinal cord was found with low dose of KA treatment (p<0.05). This study concludes that spinal cord damage with some features similar to ALS can be produced by low dose intra-cisternal administration of KA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  11. Apryani E, Hidayat MT, Moklas MA, Fakurazi S, Idayu NF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2010 Jun 16;129(3):357-60.
    PMID: 20371280 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.03.036
    AIM OF THE STUDY: Mitragyna speciosa Korth from Rubiaceae family is a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia particularly in Thailand, Peninsular of Malaysia and Indonesia. The leaves have been used by natives for their opium-like effect and cocaine-like stimulant ability to combat fatigue and enhance tolerance to hard work. However there is no scientific information about the effect of mitragynine on the cognitive performances. This study is designed to examine the working memory effects of mitragynine which is extracted from Mitragyna speciosa mature leaves.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cognitive effect was studied using object location task and the motor activity in open-field test. Mitragynine 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg and were administered by intraperitoneal (IP) for 28 consecutive days and evaluated on day 28 after the last dose treatment. Scopolamine was used as the control positive drug.

    RESULTS: In this study there is prominent effects on horizontal locomotor activity was observed. Mitragynine significantly reduced locomotor activity in open-field test compared with vehicle. In object location task mitragynine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not showed any significances discrimination between the object that had changed position than the object that had remain in a constant position.

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that chronic administration of mitragynine can altered the cognitive behavioral function in mice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  12. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Abdul Rahman A, Mohamad AS, Desa MN, Stanslas J, et al.
    Biol Res Nurs, 2010 Jan;11(3):293-301.
    PMID: 19689990 DOI: 10.1177/1099800409343311
    The current study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties of andrographolide isolated from the leaves of Andrographis paniculata using two animal models. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid- induced writhing and the hot-plate tests, while antiedematogenic activity was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of andrographolide (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) did not affect the motor coordination of the experimental animals but produced significant (p < .05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using both tests. However, 2 mg/kg naloxone failed to affect the 25 mg/kg andrographolide activity in both tests, indicating that the activity was modulated via nonopioid mechanisms. Furthermore, andrographolide showed significant (p < .05) antiedematogenic activity. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that andrographolide has antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities; it may be useful for treating pain and inflammation once human studies are conducted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  13. Zaridah MZ, Idid SZ, Omar AW, Khozirah S
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2001 Nov;78(1):79-84.
    PMID: 11585692
    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  14. Farah Naquiah MZ, James RJ, Suratman S, Lee LS, Mohd Hafidz MI, Salleh MZ, et al.
    Behav Brain Funct, 2016 Aug 31;12(1):23.
    PMID: 27582026 DOI: 10.1186/s12993-016-0107-y
    Heroin addiction is a growing concern, affecting the socioeconomic development of many countries. Little is known about transgenerational effects on phenotype changes due to heroin addiction. This study aims to investigate changes in level of anxiety and aggression up to four different generations of adult male rats due to paternal exposure to heroin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  15. Kamarudin N, Hisamuddin N, Ong HM, Ahmad Azmi AF, Leong SW, Abas F, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 21;23(9).
    PMID: 30134576 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092099
    Curcuminoids derived from turmeric rhizome have been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We evaluated the peripheral and central antinociceptive activities of 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)penta-2,4-dien-1-one (DHHPD), a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue at 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal), through chemical and thermal models of nociception. The effects of DHHPD on the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems were evaluated through the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. Results showed that DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the writhing response produced by the 0.8% acetic acid injection. In addition, 1 and 3 mg/kg of DHHPD significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the licking time spent by each mouse in both phases of the 2.5% formalin test and increased the response latency of mice on the hot-plate. However, the effect produced in the latter was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. Despite this, DHHPD decreased the licking latency of mice in the capsaicin- and glutamate-induced paw licking tests in a dose response manner. In conclusion, DHHPD showed excellent peripheral and central antinociceptive activities possibly by attenuation of the synthesis and/or release of pro-inflammatory mediators in addition to modulation of the vanilloid and glutamatergic systems without an apparent effect on the opioidergic system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  16. Sanchez-Bezanilla S, Åberg ND, Crock P, Walker FR, Nilsson M, Isgaard J, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Jan 17;21(2).
    PMID: 31963456 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21020606
    Motor impairment is the most common and widely recognised clinical outcome after stroke. Current clinical practice in stroke rehabilitation focuses mainly on physical therapy, with no pharmacological intervention approved to facilitate functional recovery. Several studies have documented positive effects of growth hormone (GH) on cognitive function after stroke, but surprisingly, the effects on motor function remain unclear. In this study, photothrombotic occlusion targeting the motor and sensory cortex was induced in adult male mice. Two days post-stroke, mice were administered with recombinant human GH or saline, continuing for 28 days, followed by evaluation of motor function. Three days after initiation of the treatment, bromodeoxyuridine was administered for subsequent assessment of cell proliferation. Known neurorestorative processes within the peri-infarct area were evaluated by histological and biochemical analyses at 30 days post-stroke. This study demonstrated that GH treatment improves motor function after stroke by 50%-60%, as assessed using the cylinder and grid walk tests. Furthermore, the observed functional improvements occurred in parallel with a reduction in brain tissue loss, as well as increased cell proliferation, neurogenesis, increased synaptic plasticity and angiogenesis within the peri-infarct area. These findings provide new evidence about the potential therapeutic effects of GH in stroke recovery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  17. Ainsah O, Nabishah BM, Osman CB, Khalid BA
    Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 1999 7 1;26(5-6):444-8.
    PMID: 10386236
    1. This study was carried out to determine the effect of short-term and long-term ingestion of glycyrrhizic acid on the response to 2 h of restraint stress by measuring locomotor activity and plasma corticosterone levels. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into four groups, each group having eight rats. Group 1 (control) was given ordinary tap water, while groups 2 (short term), 3 and 4 (both long term) were given tap water containing 1 mg/mL glycyrrhizic acid to drink for 10 days, 4 weeks and 9 weeks, respectively. All the rats were subjected to 2 h of restraint stress and the locomotor activity assessed using an activity test in an open field arena followed by blood sampling to determine the plasma corticosterone level. These procedures were repeated daily for 14 days. 3. The basal locomotor activity scores for rats given glycyrrhizic acid for 10 days or 4 weeks were similar to those of controls; however, that of the rats treated long term with glycyrrhizic acid was significantly lower (21.0 +/- 3.0 squares crossed; P < 0.0005). Following the first period of restraint stress there was a highly significant decrease in locomotor activity, which remained significantly lower until the seventh and subsequent periods, indicating an adaptation to the repeated stress had occurred. Although the decrease in locomotor activity was partially blocked and adaptation to repetitive stress was enhanced in the rats given glycyrrhizic acid for 10 days, this was not seen in rats treated with glycyrrhizic acid for 4 or 9 weeks. The corticosterone levels in control rats were significantly elevated for 4-5 days following the exposure to repetitive stress but decreased gradually from day 7 onwards. However, both short- and long-term glycyrrhizic acid-treated rats had higher plasma corticosterone levels than the controls (P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, repetitive restraint stress caused decreased locomotor activity associated with increased plasma corticosterone levels, both of which, in normal rats, decreased with adaptation to stress. The stress response was partially blocked and adaptation enhanced in rats given glycyrrhizic acid for 10 days, but not in rats given glycyrrhizic acid for 4 and 9 weeks. Glycyrrhizic acid ingestion caused high plasma corticosterone.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  18. Hestermann D, Temel Y, Blokland A, Lim LW
    Behav Brain Res, 2014 Oct 15;273:155-65.
    PMID: 25043730 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.003
    Serotonergic (5-HT) drugs are widely used in the clinical management of mood and anxiety disorders. However, it is reported that acute 5-HT treatment elicits anxiogenic-like behavior. Interestingly, the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain structure which regulates anxiety behavior - has robust 5-HT fibers and reciprocal connections with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although the HPA axis and the 5-HT system are well investigated, the relationship between the stress hormones induced by 5-HT drug treatment and the PAG neural correlates of the behavior remain largely unknown. In this study, the effects of acute and chronic treatments with buspirone (BUSP) and escitalopram (ESCIT) on anxiety-related behaviors were tested in an open-field (OF). The treatment effects on PAG c-Fos immunoreactivity (c-Fos-ir) and corticosterone (CORT) concentration were measured in order to determine the neural-endocrine correlates of anxiety-related behaviors and drug treatments. Our results demonstrate that acute BUSP and ESCIT treatments induced anxiogenic behaviors with elevation of CORT compared to the baseline. A decrease of c-Fos-ir was found in the dorsomedial PAG region of both the treatment groups. Correlation analysis showed that the CORT were not associated with the OF anxiogenic behavior and PAG c-Fos-ir. No significant differences were found in behaviors and CORT after chronic treatment. In conclusion, acute BUSP and ESCIT treatments elicited anxiogenic response with activation of the HPA axis and reduction of c-Fos-ir in the dorsomedial PAG. Although no correlation was found between the stress hormone and the PAG c-Fos-ir, this does not imply the lack of cause-and-effect relationship between neuroendocrine effects and PAG function in anxiety responses. These correlation studies suggest that the regulation of 5-HT system was probably disrupted by acute 5-HT treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
  19. Hazim AI, Ramanathan S, Parthasarathy S, Muzaimi M, Mansor SM
    J Physiol Sci, 2014 May;64(3):161-9.
    PMID: 24464759 DOI: 10.1007/s12576-014-0304-0
    The effects of mitragynine on anxiety-related behaviours in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests were evaluated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally treated with mitragynine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) 60 min before behavioural testing. Mitragynine doses used in this study were selected on the basis of approximately human equivalent doses with reference to our previous literature reports. Acute administration of mitragynine (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) or diazepam (10 mg/kg) increased central zone and open arms exploration in the open-field and elevated plus-maze tests respectively. These anxiolytic-like effects of mitragynine were effectively antagonized by intraperitoneal administration of naloxone (2 mg/kg), flumazenil (10 mg/kg), sulpiride (0.5 mg/kg) or SCH 23390 (0.02 mg/kg) 15 min before mitragynine treatments. These findings reveal that the acute administration of mitragynine produces anxiolytic-like effects and this could be possibly attributed to the interactions among opioidergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic systems in brain regions involved in anxiety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects*
  20. Kumar J, Hapidin H, Bee YT, Ismail Z
    Behav Brain Funct, 2013;9:43.
    PMID: 24279870 DOI: 10.1186/1744-9081-9-43
    Abstinence from chronic ethanol consumption leads to the manifestation of a variety of symptoms attributed to central nervous system hyperexcitability, such as increased irritability, anxiety, and restlessness. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in addictive behaviours. This study investigates the effects of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) on ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety using two behavioural paradigms. Male Wistar rats were fed a Modified Liquid Diet (MLD) containing low fat cow milk, sucrose, and maltodextrin with a gradual introduction of 2.4%, 4.8% and 7.2% ethanol for 20 days. Six hours into ethanol withdrawal, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline and MPEP (2.5, 5.0, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) and were assessed for ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety-like syndrome using an automated elevated plus maze and an open field. MPEP at 10 mg/kg significantly attenuated ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety without any compromising effects on locomotor activities. Despite reversing several indices of ethanol withdrawal induced anxiety in both the elevated plus maze and the open field, low doses of MPEP (2.5, 5 mg/kg) significantly compromised the locomotor activities of ethanol withdrawn rats. High doses of MPEP (20 and 30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated withdrawal anxiety when tested in the elevated plus maze but not in the open field. Administration of MPEP (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg) has no significant compromising effect on the locomotor activities of ethanol naïve rats. Despite significantly reducing withdrawal anxiety in both behavioural paradigms at 10 mg/kg, the compromising effects of low and high doses of MPEP must be further explored along with the therapeutic efficiency of this drug for relieving withdrawal induced anxiety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Motor Activity/drug effects
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