OBJECTIVE: Capitalizing on these therapeutic effects, this study investigated for the first time the potential of VCO on memory improvement in vivo.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats (7-8 weeks old) were randomly assigned to five groups (n = six per group). Treatment groups were administered with 1, 5 and 10 g/kg VCO for 31 days by oral gavages. The cognitive function of treated-rats were assessed using the Morris Water Maze Test. Brains were removed, homogenized and subjected to biochemical analyses of acetylcholine (ACh) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), antioxidants [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRx)], lipid peroxidase [malondialdehyde (MDA)] as well as nitric oxide (NO). α-Tocopherol (αT; 150 mg/kg) was also included for comparison purposes.
RESULTS: VCO-fed Wistar rats exhibited significant (p 33%) and NO (≥ 34%). Overall, memory improvement by VCO was comparable to αT.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: VCO has the potential to be used as a memory enhancer, the effect of which was mediated, at least in part, through enhanced cholinergic activity, increased antioxidants level and reduced oxidative stress.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cognitive effect was studied using object location task and the motor activity in open-field test. Mitragynine 5, 10 and 15 mg/kg and were administered by intraperitoneal (IP) for 28 consecutive days and evaluated on day 28 after the last dose treatment. Scopolamine was used as the control positive drug.
RESULTS: In this study there is prominent effects on horizontal locomotor activity was observed. Mitragynine significantly reduced locomotor activity in open-field test compared with vehicle. In object location task mitragynine (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) did not showed any significances discrimination between the object that had changed position than the object that had remain in a constant position.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that chronic administration of mitragynine can altered the cognitive behavioral function in mice.