METHODS: EMA detection was performed by flow cytometry in monocytes and monoblasts. EMA expression was compared with other known markers of monocytic-macrophage lineage (CD11c, CD14 and intracellular CD68). Samples of purified monocytes were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. Twenty-two cases of monocytic AML (M4 and M5) were studied and controls were selected from 20 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 18 cases of non-monocytic AML (M0, M1, M2, M3, and M7).
RESULTS: EMA was shown to be expressed strongly on the surface of all purified monocytes. EMA expression was observed on blast cells in 18/22 (81.8%) cases of AML M4 and M5, but not in that of non-monocytic AML or ALL. In this study EMA monoclonal antibody has demonstrated a strong association (P<0.001) with all the other known markers of monocytic-macrophage lineage in acute leukaemia subtypes. EMA had also shown 100% specificity and 81.8% sensitivity in the diagnosis of AML M4 and M5.
CONCLUSIONS: The monoclonal antibody EMA (clone E29) is a useful marker in the classification of acute myeloid leukaemia and can be used as a supplementary analysis for the diagnosis of acute leukemia with monocytic involvement.
METHODS: We developed mouse models representing three different phenotypes of allergic airway inflammation-eosinophilic, mixed, and neutrophilic asthma via different methods of house dust mite sensitization and challenge. Transcriptomic analysis of the lungs, followed by the RT-PCR, western blot, and confocal microscopy, was performed. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells cultured in air-liquid interface were used to study the mechanisms revealed in the in vivo models.
RESULTS: By whole-genome transcriptome profiling of the lung, we found that airway tight junction (TJ), mucin, and inflammasome-related genes are differentially expressed in these distinct phenotypes. Further analysis of proteins from these families revealed that Zo-1 and Cldn18 were downregulated in all phenotypes, while increased Cldn4 expression was characteristic for neutrophilic airway inflammation. Mucins Clca1 (Gob5) and Muc5ac were upregulated in eosinophilic and even more in neutrophilic phenotype. Increased expression of inflammasome-related molecules such as Nlrp3, Nlrc4, Casp-1, and IL-1β was characteristic for neutrophilic asthma. In addition, we showed that inflammasome/Th17/neutrophilic axis cytokine-IL-1β-may transiently impair epithelial barrier function, while IL-1β and IL-17 increase mucin expressions in primary human bronchial epithelial cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that differential expression of TJ, mucin, and inflammasome-related molecules in distinct inflammatory phenotypes of asthma may be linked to pathophysiology and might reflect the differences observed in the clinic.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the potential of F3 from S. crispus to prevent metastasis in breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The antimetastatic effects of F3 were first investigated on murine 4T1 and human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell (BCC) lines using cell proliferation, wound healing and invasion assays. A 4T1-induced mouse mammary carcinoma model was then used to determine the expression of metastasis tumor markers, epithelial (E)-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, mucin (MUC)-1, nonepithelial (N)-cadherin, Twist, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vimentin, using immunohistochemistry, following oral treatment with F3 for 30 days.
RESULTS: Significant growth arrest was observed with F3 IC50 values of 84.27 µg/ml (24 h) and 74.41 µg/ml (48 h) for MDA-MB-231, and 87.35 µg/ml (24 h) and 78.75 µg/ml (48 h) for 4T1 cells. F3 significantly inhibited migration of both BCC lines at 50 μg/ml for 24 h (p = 0.018 and p = 0.015, respectively). Similarly, significant inhibition of invasion was demonstrated in 4T1 (75 µg/ml, p = 0.016) and MDA-MB-231 (50 µg/ml, p = 0.040) cells compared to the untreated cultures. F3 treatment resulted in reduced tumor growth compared to untreated mice (p