Lispe orientalis Wiedemann, 1824 is recorded for the first time in peninsular Malaysia. Specimens were collected from a mushroom cultivation farm in Genting Highlands, Pahang (3°25'18"N 101°47'48"E). Previously, this species had been recorded from Azerbaijin, India, Russia, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkey and South Korea. The male of Lispe orientalis can be determined by the following characteristics: body non-metallic, ashy gray, third antennal segment black, R5 cell not narrow apically, hind metatarsus normal, legs entirely black, femora with long bristle-like hairs on av and pv surfaces, hind tibia without av and pv seta and the palpi orangish in colour.
Three new species of Rhinophoridae (Aporeomyia elaphocerasp. nov., Baniassa pennatasp. nov. from the Oriental Region, and Phyto mambillasp. nov. from the Afrotropical Region) are described, illustrated and compared with congeners. Genus-level affiliation of the new species is based on a morphology-based phylogeny, preliminarily accepting a paraphyletic Phyto Robineau-Desvoidy awaiting incorporation of molecular data. Keys to the species of the genus Aporeomyia Pape & Shima as well as to the Afrotropical species of the genus Phyto Robineau-Desvoidy are given.
Fannia prisca Stein, 1918 is newly recorded from peninsular Malaysia. This record is based on 4 male specimens from Mount Berembun, Brinchang, Cameron Highland, Pahang state, peninsular Malaysia. It is previously recorded from China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Bonin Island, Thailand and oriental region. The male of Fannia prisca can be differentiated from male Fannia scalaris by the following features: for F. prisca, mid-coxa without spine; mid-tibia normal or without stout triangular ventral projection; and hind tibia usually with 2 av, while F. scalaris has several stout hook-like spines on the anterior margin; mid-tibia with stout triangular ventral projection and hind tibia usually with 3 av. Both F. prisca and F. scalaris can be differentiated from Fannia leucosticta by looking at its hind tibia, which only has 1 av.
The life history of the male and female of the indoor forensic fly, Synthesiomyia nudiseta was studied under fluctuating temperature of indoor environments and analysed based on the age-stage and two sex life table. The life cycle of S. nudiseta was 14.0±1.0 days from the egg stage to adult emergence. The population parameters calculated were; net reproduction rate (R(o)= 108.6), mean generation time (T(o)= 12.2), intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)= 0.38), and finite rate of increase (λ= 1.46). The pre-oviposition period (APOP) was 6.0± 0.1 days. All population parameters suggested that S. nudiseta exhibits the r-strategist characteristics.
This is the first report of Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) on a human corpse discovered in a high-rise building in Malaysia. On 5 March 2008, a decomposing body of an adult female was found on the top floor of a thirteen-story building in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Her body was colonized by S. nudiseta larvae, which were normally associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. The post-mortem interval (PMI) was estimated at approximately 5 to 9 days. This case is significant as it demonstrates that this species can locate a dead body even in a high-rise building. Further findings of fly distribution especially in high-rise buildings should be reported to assist entomologists in PMI analysis.
Larvae of the Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) were collected from a decomposed human corpse at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Penang Hospital. A colony of this species was established and the eggs were collected for rearing. The developmental times, rearing temperatures, and relative humidity were recorded twice daily from the time the eggs collected until adult emergence. An average of 5 larvae were randomly collected from the rearings twice daily, warm-water killed and preserved in Kahle's solution. The larval instar stages were determined by observing the number of posterior spiracular slits and the length of the preserved larvae were measured. When the larval life cycle was completed, the accumulated developmental times were calculated. A total of 8 replicates were carried out. The temperature of the rearing room was 28.5+/-1.5 degrees Celcius while the relative humidity was within 67-85%. The total developmental time for S. nudiseta was 322+/-19 hours (13.4+/-0.8 days).
This dataset investigated the diversity, the geographic and spatial distribution of haematophagous flies collected from cattle farms in Peninsular Malaysia. Biting flies were trapped from 25 cattle farms over a one-year period. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to establish the presence/absence of statistical differences in the number of flies caught in relation to the different geographic distributions (zones). Three thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine haematophagous flies comprising of 36 different species, including Musca species (3189; 82.0%), Stomoxys species (588; 15.1%), Tabanus species (58; 1.5%), Chrysops species (19; 0.5%), Haematopota javana (3; 0.1%), Haematobosca species (29; 0.7%) and Haematobia exigua (3; 0.1%) were collected using three different types of fly traps. More biting flies were trapped in the southwest (1070; 27.5%) and south (1045; 26.9%) zones compared to other arbitrary zones of Peninsular Malaysia. Haematophagous flies were spatially distributed both in the inland and coastal parts of the country. The difference in the catch of Stomoxys species within zones was not significant (F = 1.299; df = 5; p = 0.306), although it was highest in the southwest zone. The number of Musca species caught was highest in the south zone compared to other zones, the differences was not significant (F = 0.770; df = 5; p = 0.583). Tabanidae fly species were most abundant in the southwest zone, the differences among zones was not significant (F = 1.179; df = 5; p = 0.356).
A multilocus sequence analysis using mitochondria-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome B (CytB), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5); nuclear encoded 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and 28S ribosomal RNA (28S) genes was performed to determine the levels of genetic variation between the closely related species Haematobia irritans Linnaeus and Haematobia exigua de Meijere. Among these five genes, ND5 and CytB genes were found to be more variable and informative in resolving the interspecific relationships of both species. In contrast, the COI gene was more valuable in inferring the intraspecific relationships. The ribosomal 18S and 28S sequences of H. irritans and H. exigua were highly conserved with limited intra- and inter-specific variation. Molecular evidence presented in this study demonstrated that both flies are genetically distinct and could be differentiated based on sequence analysis of mitochondrial genes.
A forensic entomological study was conducted using monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) that were placed in either an outdoor or indoor environment at a coastal area in Tanjung Sepat, Selangor, Malaysia during May until August 2008. We collected pupae of Chrysomya rufifacies (Marquart) from the carcasses and kept them individually. The emergence of 13 parasitic microhymenopteran, from one of the pupae occurring within a week were identified as Exoristobia philippinensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Another observation was made whereby a pupa of C. rufifacies was predated by a muscid larva, Ophyra spinigera (Stein). The larva squeezed into the pupa and consumed the contents. This paper report C. rufifacies as a new host record for E. philippinensis in Malaysia and highlighted the predatory behavior of O. spinigera larva in natural environment.
Forensic entomological specimens received by the Unit of Medical Entomology, IMR., from hospitals and the police in Malaysia in the last 3 decades (1972 - 2002) are reviewed. A total of 448 specimens were received. From these, 538 identifications were made with the following results: Eighteen species of cyclorrphaga flies were identified consisting of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) 215 cases (47.99%), Ch. rufifacies (Masquart) 132 (29.46%), Ch. villeneuvi Patton 10 (2.23%), Ch. nigripes Aubertin 7 (1.56%), Ch. bezziana Villeneuve 4 (0.89%), Ch. pinguis (Walker) 1 (0.22%), Chrysomya sp. 47 (10.49%), Sarcophaga sp. 28 (6.25%), Lucilia sp. 21 (4.69%), Hermetia sp. 15 (3.35%), He. illucens (Linnaeus) 1 (0.22%), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) 3 (0.67%), Hemipyrellia sp. 2 (0.45%), Ophyra spinigera 1 (0.22%), Ophyra sp. 6 (1.34%), Calliphora sp. 24 (5.36%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) 1 (0.22%) and Eristalis sp. 1 (0.22%). Other non - fly insect specimens are Pthirus pubis (Linnaeus) (Pubic louse) 2 (0.45%) and Coleoptera (Beetles) 1 (0.22%). Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in cadavers from different ecological habitats. Sy. nudiseta is an uncommon species, thus far found only on cadavers from indoors. Sy. nudiseta is reported for the second time in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 329 cases (73.44%) had a single fly infestation, 109 cases (24.33%) had double fly infestation and 10 cases (2.23%) had triple fly infestation. Five cases (1.12%) had eggs and 3 cases (0.67%) had larval stages that were not identifiable. No arthropods were retrieved from cadavers in 8 cases (1.79%). In conclusion, although large number of fly species were found on human cadavers, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.
Flies from the family Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae are usually found on human cadavers or animal carcasses. However, there are many other families of Diptera and Coleoptera that were found associated with animal carcasses, which have not been reported in Malaysia. In this paper, we report dipterans from the family Micropezidae: Mimegralla albimana Doleschall, 1856, Neriidae: Telostylinus lineolatus (Wiedemann 1830); Sepsidae: Allosepsis indica (Wiedemann 1824), Ulidiidae: Physiphora sp. and a beetle (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridium sp.) as opportunist species feeding on oozing fluid during the decomposition process. They did not oviposit on the pig carcasses, therefore, their role in estimation of time of death is of little importance. However, they could provide clues such as locality and types of habitats of the crime scene.
The world Rhinophoridae are catalogued, recognising 33 genera and 177 species. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country. A key to the world genera is presented. Four new genera are erected to accommodate five new species, which do not fit within any of the current generic concepts in Rhinophoridae, according to the results of a morphology-based phylogenetic analysis: Marshallicona Cerretti & Pape with type species Marshallicona quitu Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Ecuador); Maurhinophora Cerretti & Pape with type species Maurhinophora indoceanica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Mauritius); Neotarsina Cerretti & Pape with type species Neotarsina caraibica Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Trinidad and Tobago) and Neotarsina andina Cerretti & Pape, sp. nov. (Peru); Kinabalumyia Cerretti & Pape with type species Kinabalumyia pinax Cerretti & Pape, gen. et sp. nov. (Malaysia, Sabah). The genus Aporeomyia Pape & Shima (type species Aporeomyia antennalis Pape & Shima), originally assigned to Tachinidae, is here reassigned to Rhinophoridae based on a reassessment of the homologies of the male terminalia. The following five species-group names, which were previously treated as junior synonyms or nomina dubia, are recognised as valid species names: Acompomintho caucasica (Villeneuve, 1908), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia bertei (Rondani, 1865), stat. rev. [from nomen dubium to valid species]; Stevenia sardoa Villeneuve, 1920, stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]; Stevenia subalbida (Villeneuve, 1911), stat. rev. [from junior synonym of Rhinophora deceptoria Loew, 1847 to valid species]. Reversal of precedence is invoked for the following case of subjective synonymy to promote stability in nomenclature: Rhinophora lepida (Meigen, 1824), nomen protectum, and Musca parcus Harris, 1780: 144, nomen oblitum. New generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following two names: Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935, junior synonym of Tromodesia Rondani, 1856, syn. nov. and Ptilocheta tacchetti Rondani, 1865, junior synonym of Stevenia obscuripennis (Loew, 1847), syn. nov. The following new combinations are proposed: Acompomintho sinensis (Villeneuve, 1936), comb. nov. [transferred from Tricogena Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830]; Tromodesia guzari (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia intermedia (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia lindneriana (Rohdendorf, 1961), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia magnifica (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia obscurior (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia pallidissima (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935]; Tromodesia setiventris (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935] and Tromodesia shachrudi (Rohdendorf, 1935), comb. nov. [transferred from Mimodexia Rohdendorf, 1935].
Uncovering the hidden diversity and evolutionary history of arthropods of medico-veterinary importance could have significant implications for vector-borne disease control and epidemiological intervention. The buffalo fly Haematobia exigua is an obligate bloodsucking ectoparasite of livestock. As an initial step towards understanding its population structures and biogeographic patterns, we characterized partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cytb) sequences of H. exigua from three distinct geographic regions in Southeast Asia. We detected two distinct mitochondrial haplogroups of H. exigua in our surveyed geographic regions. Haplogroup I is widespread in the Southeast Asian mainland whereas haplogroup II is generally restricted to the type population Java Island. Both haplogroups were detected co-occurring on Borneo Island. Additionally, both haplogroups have undergone contrasting evolutionary histories, with haplogroup I exhibited a high level of mitochondrial diversity indicating a population expansion during the Pleistocene era dating back to 98,000 years ago. However, haplogroup II presented a low level of mitochondrial diversity which argues against the hypothesis of recent demographic expansion.
Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the diversity of forensically important scuttle flies and coexisting dipterans in enclosed environments in Malaysia.
Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.