Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Hejazi SM, Engkasan JP, Qomi MS
    J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil, 2012;25(4):231-4.
    PMID: 23220804 DOI: 10.3233/BMR-2012-0340
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Polymyositis (PM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy manifested by proximal limb muscles weakness, elevated creatinin kinase, electromyography changes, and muscle inflammation in biopsy. We report an instance of intensive rehabilitation therapy in a patient with clinically active polymyositis.
    CASE REPORT: A 19-year-old female patient, diagnosed with 'electromyography and biopsy proven' polymyositis for 5 years, suffered from worsening limbs weakness and dysphagia. In her history, she had upper and lower limbs weakness accompanied by dysphagia which was further complicated by right bronchial aspiration 9 months ago. A four-week trial of intensive training and exercise rehabilitation, concurrently accompanied by medications was prescribed for this patient. At the end of therapy she achieved significant improvement in muscle strength, activities of daily living, and ambulation without any disease exacerbation.
    CONCLUSION: We concluded that short-term intensive training and exercise may lead to improvements in patients with PM, without causing a progress in the disease. Due to the rarity of PM and difficulty of conducting well-controlled studies to examine the risks and benefits of exercise in these patients, further research is necessary to investigate benefits of exercise training in active phase of disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/physiopathology; Muscle Weakness/rehabilitation; Muscle Weakness/therapy
  2. Goh KJ, Wong KT, Tan CT
    J Clin Neurosci, 2000 Jul;7(4):334-6.
    PMID: 10938615
    We report two patients with myopathic dropped head syndrome, a rare and interesting neuromuscular syndrome characterised by a predominant weakness of the neck extensor muscles. The first patient, a middle aged Chinese man, presented with progressive weakness of neck extension but his clinical course later stabilised despite a lack of response to corticosteroids. Muscle biopsy revealed a necrotising myopathy with no evidence of inflammation. This patient supports the existence of an idiopathic restricted non-inflammatory myopathy, a so called isolated neck extensor myopathy syndrome which is recognised to pursue a less progressive, more benign course. Our second patient had histopathological evidence for polymyositis; there was a favourable response to steroids. Our cases underscore the fact that there may be a spectrum of pathological processes associated with the myopathic dropped head syndrome ranging from non-inflammatory muscle necrosis to a full blown inflammatory myositis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/etiology*; Muscle Weakness/pathology*; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology
  3. Hairi NN, Cumming RG, Naganathan V, Handelsman DJ, Le Couteur DG, Creasey H, et al.
    J Am Geriatr Soc, 2010 Nov;58(11):2055-62.
    PMID: 21054284 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03145.x
    To determine the association between loss of muscle strength, mass, and quality and functional limitation and physical disability in older men.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/physiopathology*
  4. Hamidon BB
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):245-7.
    PMID: 16898323 MyJurnal
    Acute Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is characterized by an acute onset of limb weakness and areflexia. There are a few rare variants that have been described and one of them is the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant (oropharynx, neck, and proximal upper limb muscles). However, in this patient, the only presentation was bulbar involvement with fast recovery within days. This is likely to be the milder form of PCB that has rarely been described before. A 19-year-old Malay lady presented with progressive dysphagia associated with nasal voice for one week duration. There was no limb weakness. Examination showed generalized areflexia. Pharyngeal and palatal muscles were markedly weak. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed raised protein level. Nerve conduction studies revealed generalized demyelinating motor polyneuropathy consistent with GBS. The patient fully recovered within three days and was discharged well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/diagnosis*; Muscle Weakness/etiology
  5. Loi, H.D.K., Wong, K.T., Choo, K.E.
    MyJurnal
    An eight-year-old Chinese girl presented with a slowly progressive generalized muscle weakness and wasting, complicated by respiratory failure. She had many hospital admissions requiring ventilator support. Eventually tracheostomy tube was inserted. Initial investigations failed to elicit a diagnosis but a muscle biopsy and histological study confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile acid maltase deficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  6. Karisnan K, Mahzabin T, Bakker AJ, Song Y, Noble PB, Pillow JJ, et al.
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2018 04 01;314(4):R523-R532.
    PMID: 29212808 DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00150.2017
    The preterm diaphragm is functionally immature compared with its term counterpart. In utero inflammation further exacerbates preterm diaphragm dysfunction. We hypothesized that preterm lambs are more vulnerable to in utero inflammation-induced diaphragm dysfunction compared with term lambs. Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) injections of saline or 10 mg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 or 7 days before delivery at 121 days (preterm) or ∼145 days (term) of gestation. Diaphragm contractile function was assessed in vitro. Plasma cytokines, diaphragm myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms, and oxidative stress were evaluated. Maximum diaphragm force in preterm control lambs was significantly lower (22%) than in term control lambs ( P < 0.001). Despite similar inflammatory cytokine responses to in utero LPS exposure, diaphragm function in preterm and term lambs was affected differentially. In term lambs, maximum force after a 2-day LPS exposure was significantly lower than in controls (by ~20%, P < 0.05). In preterm lambs, maximum forces after 2-day and 7-day LPS exposures were significantly lower than in controls (by ~30%, P < 0.05). Peak twitch force after LPS exposure was significantly lower in preterm than in controls, but not in term lambs. In term lambs, LPS exposure increased the proportion of MHC-I fibers, increased twitch contraction times, and increased fatigue resistance relative to controls. In preterm diaphragm, the cross-sectional area of embryonic MHC fibers was significantly lower after 7-day versus 2-day LPS exposures. We conclude that preterm lambs are more vulnerable to IA LPS-induced diaphragm dysfunction than term lambs. In utero inflammation exacerbates diaphragm dysfunction and may increase susceptibility to postnatal respiratory failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/blood; Muscle Weakness/chemically induced*; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology
  7. Singh DK, Bailey M, Lee R
    PMID: 23875830 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-14-215
    Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/physiopathology*
  8. Julia PE, Mazlina M, Nazirah H
    Spinal Cord, 2011 Oct;49(10):1082-3.
    PMID: 20877330 DOI: 10.1038/sc.2010.137
    Case report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/etiology; Muscle Weakness/physiopathology
  9. Tan, C.L., Anne Yee, H.A., Majid, S.M., Koh, O.H., Ng, C.G.
    MyJurnal
    Steroid is commonly used for various connective tissue diseases and immunological related disorders. Psychiatric side effects are common in patient with systematic treatment of steroid. The reported prevalence ranges from 6% to 28%. Antidepressant-induced mania occurs when the mood of a patient switches to manic or hypomanic from depression after the use of antidepressant. We reported a case of a 55 year old lady, who presented with agitation and grandiosity after the treatment with antidepressant. She was initially diagnosed as having Bell’s palsy with unilateral facial muscle weakness. Oral prednisolone was prescribed for seven days where she became depressed, having auditory hallucination and delusion of guilt. She was then started on antidepressant where she became irritable, agitated and developed grandiose delusion. The antidepressant was withheld and she was started on atypical antipsychotic. Her condition improved and discharged well after three days of stay in the ward.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  10. Vijay, A.P., Tan, A.T.B., Suhaida, A.M., Chan, S.P.
    JUMMEC, 2010;13(1):63-68.
    MyJurnal
    Tumour-induced or oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by bone pain and muscle weakness. A biochemical profile consisting of normocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia, phosphaturia, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and inappropriately low serum levels of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin-D is diagnostic. OOM is usually caused by an osseous or soft-tissue tumour of mesenchymal origin that secretes phosphaturic substances leading to increased urinary phosphate wasting. These tumours are small and slow growing. The diagnosis continues to be easily missed and when eventually made, localization of the tumour can be difficult. We describe the case of a young man who presented with severe generalized pain associated with muscle weakness. He was extensively investigated and eventually diagnosed to have OOM 3 years after initial presentation. Specialized investigations were necessary to localize the offending tumour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  11. Bala U, Leong MP, Lim CL, Shahar HK, Othman F, Lai MI, et al.
    PLoS One, 2018;13(5):e0197711.
    PMID: 29795634 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197711
    BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by presence of extra copy of human chromosome 21. It is characterised by several clinical phenotypes. Motor dysfunction due to hypotonia is commonly seen in individuals with DS and its etiology is yet unknown. Ts1Cje, which has a partial trisomy (Mmu16) homologous to Hsa21, is well reported to exhibit various typical neuropathological features seen in individuals with DS. This study investigated the role of skeletal muscles and peripheral nerve defects in contributing to muscle weakness in Ts1Cje mice.

    RESULTS: Assessment of the motor performance showed that, the forelimb grip strength was significantly (P<0.0001) greater in the WT mice compared to Ts1Cje mice regardless of gender. The average survival time of the WT mice during the hanging wire test was significantly (P<0.0001) greater compared to the Ts1Cje mice. Also, the WT mice performed significantly (P<0.05) better than the Ts1Cje mice in the latency to maintain a coordinated motor movement against the rotating rod. Adult Ts1Cje mice exhibited significantly (P<0.001) lower nerve conduction velocity compared with their aged matched WT mice. Further analysis showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher population of type I fibres in WT compared to Ts1Cje mice. Also, there was significantly (P<0.01) higher population of COX deficient fibres in Ts1Cje mice. Expression of Myf5 was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in triceps of Ts1Cje mice while MyoD expression was significantly (P<0.05) increased in quadriceps of Ts1Cje mice.

    CONCLUSION: Ts1Cje mice exhibited weaker muscle strength. The lower population of the type I fibres and higher population of COX deficient fibres in Ts1Cje mice may contribute to the muscle weakness seen in this mouse model for DS.

    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/complications; Muscle Weakness/metabolism*; Muscle Weakness/pathology
  12. Kwa, Siew Kim, Zainab Abdul Majeed, Tan, Kah Nian
    MyJurnal
    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune disorder
    characterised by fluctuating and variable combination
    of muscle weakness and fatigue. Most cases are due to
    T-cell mediated autoantibodies against post-synaptic
    acetylcholine receptors (AChR-Ab), thus preventing
    acetylcholine from binding and signalling skeletal
    muscle to contract.1
    The annual incidence is 7-23 new cases per million.1
    It can occur at any age but with two peaks; an earlyonset
    (20-40 years) female-predominant and a late-onset
    (60-80 years) male-predominant peak. MG is classified
    into ocular and generalised (80%). More than half the
    patients initially present with ptosis and diplopia but half
    will progress to generalised disease with involvement of
    bulbar, limb and respiratory weakness. Those presenting
    as generalised MG can also develop eye signs later.1
    It is important to recognise MG early because it is
    highly treatable. Untreated disease leads to permanent
    weakness.2 Treatment reduces mortality from lifethreatening
    myasthenic crisis.1,3 Misdiagnosis leads to
    potentially harmful interventions and inappropriate
    management.4,5 Diagnosis in late-onset MG is easily
    missed2,3,4,5 because of overlapping symptoms with
    other diseases common in the elderly. We report a case
    of delay and misdiagnosis in an elderly patient with
    co-morbidities. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  13. Khoo HY, Tan WJ, Cheong YT
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 Feb;73(1):44-45.
    PMID: 29531202 MyJurnal
    Patients with breast cancer normally present with breast lump or abnormal mammogram. Dermatomyositis is rarely the first presentation. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who had generalised dermatitis, progressive fatigue and muscle weakness. She was first diagnosed as dermatomyositis and subsequently breast cancer. Her rash and muscle weakness progressed drastically over a month. Tumescent mastectomy and axillary surgery was performed, which led to gradual regression of her dermatomyositis over six months. This case report emphasized in the benefit of early diagnosis and treatment of dermatomyositis and breast cancer. Pros and cons of tumescent mastectomy is discussed as well.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  14. Padmakumar V, Premkala Raveendran K, Abdulla AM, Ganapathy S, Sainudeen S, Nasim VS, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2019 May;11(Suppl 2):S397-S401.
    PMID: 31198376 DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_44_19
    Background: Mercury is a naturally occurring metal that exists in three forms: elemental (metallic), inorganic, and organic mercury. Amalgam, which is an alloy of inorganic mercury, is used as a restorative material in dentistry. Organic mercury gets ingested in the body mainly by the consumption of seafood. Mercury is also stated to cause various adverse health effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances, dermatitis, muscle weakness, and neurological disorders. In recent years, the use of amalgam has become a controversy stating the various adverse effects of mercury. Hence, the study was conducted to determine and compare the variation in levels of organic and inorganic mercury in fish-eating children before and after placement of amalgam restoration.

    Materials and Methods: Seventy-five subjects, 42 males (56%) and 35 females (44%) of age group ranging 7-13 years, living in South Canara district of Karnataka, India, were selected as a part of the study. Hair and urine samples were collected for estimation of organic and inorganic levels of mercury, respectively. Informed consent was collected from all the participating subjects.

    Results: On comparison between organic and inorganic mercury levels during the study period, the concentration of organic mercury in hair samples was greater irrespective of amalgam restorations present (1.172 and 0.085, respectively; P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Thus inorganic levels of mercury do not seem to pose a threat as much as the organic levels observed in hair, which remain fairly constant for a longer period of time. Hence in a coastal region where this study was undertaken and fish being a staple food, the risk could probably be attributed to more of an organic toxicity than an inorganic one. Thus amalgam is relatively safe to be practiced and the controversy against it should be reevaluated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  15. Seng, Wee Cheo, Rosdina Zamrud Ahmad Akbar, Tee, Tat Khoo, Kuo, Zhau Teo, Carwen Siaw, Qin, Jian Low
    MyJurnal
    Inflammatory myopathies (IM) is a rare inflammatory muscle disorder, which can be broadly divided into 5 subgroups. The accurate diagnosis of subtype of IM can be challenging due to a diverse presentation of the disease. On the other hand, skeletal muscle complication is common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the form of myalgia or myopathy. Inflammatory myopathy is a rare association of SLE and the diagnosis and treatment can be quite challenging. A 43-year-old lady with underlying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), presented with subacute onset progressively worsening muscle weakness involving upper limbs and lower limbs. Neurological examination showed findings consistent with proximal myopathy, with proximal power of 3/5 and distal power of 4/5. She has elevated creatinine kinase, ALT and AST level. Her myositis-specific autoantibodies were positive for anti-Ku antibodies. Her electromyography showed evidence of active myopathy of the upper and lower limb. Here, we would like to report a case of polymyositis in a patient with SLE.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  16. Chu ECP, Lo FS, Bhaumik A
    J Family Med Prim Care, 2019 Nov;8(11):3742-3744.
    PMID: 31803683 DOI: 10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_839_19
    Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized by progressive muscle weakness and pathognomonic skin eruptions. Systemic corticosteroid with or without an immunosuppressive agent is the current treatment of choice in most cases. Cutaneous disease in DM is often refractory and can become the most challenging component to manage effectively. Here, we report a case of recalcitrant DM in a 66-year-old female who sought chiropractic attention for recent episodes of pain and paresthesia in the neck and exacerbation of joint pain. As expected, the musculoskeletal complaints including neck pain, peripheral arthralgia, and muscle weakness that resolved within 1 month after starting treatment. Unexpectedly, dramatic remission of the characteristic skin rashes occurred concurrently. The underlying therapeutic mechanisms of chiropractic remain elusive. This case highlights the importance of family physicians becoming familiar with diagnosing the condition and using a multidisciplinary team approach to treat recalcitrant DM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  17. Hanizah Ngadiron, Razrim Rahim, Firdaus Hayati, Nornazirah Azizan, Affirul Chairil Ariffin
    MyJurnal
    Hypophosphataemia occurs in an abnormally low serum phosphate level. Three main mechanisms are postulated: decreased intestinal absorption, increased renal excretion, and extracellular shifts to intracellular compartments. It is potentially a fatal disease if not intervene. The management is merely treating the underlying disorder, giving phosphate supplement and requiring close biochemical monitoring. The incidence of symptomatic isolated hypophosphataemia is extremely rare. In this case report, a 33-year-old man presented with three days history of dysphagia, inability to complete sentences and generalized muscle weakness. He developed blurred vision especially upon exposure to bright light. He had a history of single parathyroidectomy for parathyroid adenoma 2 years ago. Physical examinations were unremarkable. Laboratory investigations were normal except for phosphate level of 0.30 mmol/L. Intravenous KH2PO4 with a dosage of 10 mmol was administered in slow bolus in 3 hours. His symptoms resolved slowly after correction. Although isolated hypophosphataemia is rare but need to recognize the symptoms and signs of hypophosphataemia and treat accordingly.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness
  18. Hameed HK, Wan Hasan WZ, Shafie S, Ahmad SA, Jaafar H, Inche Mat LN
    J Med Eng Technol, 2020 Apr;44(3):139-148.
    PMID: 32396756 DOI: 10.1080/03091902.2020.1753838
    To make robotic hand devices controlled by surface electromyography (sEMG) signals feasible and practical tools for assisting patients with hand impairments, the problems that prevent these devices from being widely used have to be overcome. The most significant problem is the involuntary amplitude variation of the sEMG signals due to the movement of electrodes during forearm motion. Moreover, for patients who have had a stroke or another neurological disease, the muscle activity of the impaired hand is weak and has a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, muscle activity detection methods intended for controlling robotic hand devices should not depend mainly on the amplitude characteristics of the sEMG signal in the detection process, and they need to be more reliable for sEMG signals that have a low SNR. Since amplitude-independent muscle activity detection methods meet these requirements, this paper investigates the performance of such a method on people who have had a stroke in terms of the detection of weak muscle activity and resistance to false alarms caused by the involuntary amplitude variation of sEMG signals; these two parameters are very important for achieving the reliable control of robotic hand devices intended for people with disabilities. A comparison between the performance of an amplitude-independent muscle activity detection algorithm and three amplitude-dependent algorithms was conducted by using sEMG signals recorded from six hemiparesis stroke survivors and from six healthy subjects. The results showed that the amplitude-independent algorithm performed better in terms of detecting weak muscle activity and resisting false alarms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/physiopathology*
  19. Chan LG, Parashar UD, Lye MS, Ong FG, Zaki SR, Alexander JP, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2000 Sep;31(3):678-83.
    PMID: 11017815
    From April through June 1997, 29 previously healthy children aged <6 years (median, 1.5 years) in Sarawak, Malaysia, died of rapidly progressive cardiorespiratory failure during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused primarily by enterovirus 71 (EV71). The case children were hospitalized after a short illness (median duration, 2 days) that usually included fever (in 100% of case children), oral ulcers (66%), and extremity rashes (62%). The illness rapidly progressed to include seizures (28%), flaccid limb weakness (17%), or cardiopulmonary symptoms (of 24 children, 17 had chest radiographs showing pulmonary edema, and 24 had echocardiograms showing left ventricular dysfunction), resulting in cardiopulmonary arrest soon after hospitalization (median time, 9 h). Cardiac tissue from 10 patients showed normal myocardium, but central nervous system tissue from 5 patients showed inflammatory changes. Brain-stem specimens from 2 patients were available, and both specimens showed extensive neuronal degeneration, inflammation, and necrosis, suggesting that a central nervous system infection was responsible for the disease, with the cardiopulmonary dysfunction being neurogenic in origin. EV71 and possibly an adenovirus, other enteroviruses, or unknown cofactors are likely responsible for this rapidly fatal disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/etiology
  20. Johan A, Chan CC, Chia HP, Chan OY, Wang YT
    Eur Respir J, 1997 Dec;10(12):2825-8.
    PMID: 9493668
    Maximal static inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PI,max and PE,max, respectively) enable the noninvasive measurement of global respiratory muscle strength. The aim of this study was primarily to obtain normal values of PI,max and PE,max for adult Chinese, Malays and Indians and, secondarily, to study their effect on lung volumes in these subjects. Four hundred and fifty two healthy subjects (221 Chinese, 111 Malays, 120 Indians) were recruited. Measurements of PI,max from residual volume (RV), PE,max from total lung capacity (TLC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained in the seated position. There were significant ethnic differences in PI,max and PE,max measurements obtained in males, and FVC measurements in both males and females. Chinese males had higher PI,max values (mean (+/-SD) 88.7+/-32.5 cmH2O) and higher PE,max values (113.4+/-41.5) than Malay males (PI,max 74.0+/-22.7 cmH2O, PE,max 94.7+/-23.4 cmH2O). Chinese males had higher PE,max than Indian males (PI,max = 83.7+/-30.0 cmH2O, PE,max 98.4+/-29.2 cmH2O). There were no significant differences among Chinese females (PI,max 53.6+/-2.3 cmH2O, PE,max 68.3+/-24.0 cmH2O), Malay females (PI,max 50.7+/-18.3 cmH2O, PE,max 63.6+/-21.6 cmH2O) and Indian females (PI,max 50.0+/-15.2 cmH2O, PE,max 60.7+/-20.4 cmH2O). In both sexes, the Chinese had a higher FVC compared with Malays and Indians. After adjusting for age, height and weight, race was still a determinant for PE,max in males, and FVC in both sexes. The FVC only correlated weakly with PI,max and PE,max in both sexes. Ethnic differences in respiratory muscle strength, and lung volumes, occur among Asians. However, respiratory muscle strength does not explain the differences in lung volumes in healthy Asian subjects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muscle Weakness/ethnology*
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