Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Kannan TP, Nik Ahmad Shah NL, Azlina A, Samsudin AR, Narazah MY, Salleh M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:115-6.
    PMID: 15468845
    This study evaluates the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (source: School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the bone marrow cells of mice. Mice are exposed to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules, the bone marrow cells are collected and observed for chromosome aberrations. No chromosome aberrations were noticed in the animals exposed to distilled water (negative control) and to the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (treatment) groups. Chromosome aberrations were observed in the animals exposed to Mitomycin C (positive control group). There was no indication of cytotoxicity due to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules in the animals as revealed by the mitotic index. Hence, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules are considered non-mutagenic under the prevailing test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  2. Azlina A, Samsudin AR
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:166-7.
    PMID: 15468870
    In Malaysia, the field of genomics in toxicology is still in infancy. The purpose of this study is to focus on the use of toxicogenomics for determination of gene expressions changes in cultured human fibroblast cells treated with genotoxicology free biomaterial (using Ames test), a locally produced hyroxyapatite. Dose and time response is similar to Ames test with time interval up to 21 days. mRNA is extracted, followed with RT-PCR and polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. Changes of the gene expressions compared to the non-treated fibroblast mRNA would suggest some gene interactions in the molecule level associated with the exposure of the fibroblast cell line to the biomaterials. Further analysis (cloning & sequencing) shall be carried out to investigate the genes involved as simple changes might not signified toxicity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  3. Musa M, Ponnuraj KT, Mohamad D, Rahman IA
    Nanotechnology, 2013 Jan 11;24(1):015105.
    PMID: 23221152 DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/1/015105
    Nanocomposite is used as a dental filling to restore the affected tooth, especially in dental caries. The dental nanocomposite (KelFil) for tooth restoration used in this study was produced by the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and is incorporated with monodispersed, spherical nanosilica fillers. The aim of the study was to determine the genotoxic effect of KelFil using in vitro genotoxicity tests. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KelFil was evaluated using MTT assay, comet assay and chromosome aberration tests with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using the human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. In the comet assay, no comet formation was found in the KelFil groups. There was a significant difference in tail moment between KelFil groups and positive control (p < 0.05). Similarly, no significant aberrations in chromosomes were noticed in KelFil groups. The mitotic indices of treatment groups and negative control were significantly different from positive controls. Hence, it can be concluded that the locally produced dental restoration nanocomposite (KelFil) is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests/methods*
  4. Yuet Ping K, Darah I, Yusuf UK, Yeng C, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 26;17(7):7782-91.
    PMID: 22735780 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077782
    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests/methods*
  5. Rajab NF, Yaakob TA, Ong BY, Hamid M, Ali AM, Annuar BO, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:170-1.
    PMID: 15468872
    Hydroxyapatite is the main component of the bone which is a potential biomaterial substance that can be applied in orthopaedics. In this study, the biocompatibility of this biomaterial was assessed using an in vitro technique. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect of HA2 and HA3 against L929 fibroblast cell was evaluated using the MTT Assay and Alkaline Comet Assay respectively. Both HA2 and HA3 compound showed low cytotoxicity effect as determined using MTT Assay. Cells viability following 72 hours incubation at maximum concentration of both HA2 and HA3 (200 mg/ml) were 75.3 +/- 8.8% and 86.7 +/- 13.1% respectively. However, the cytotoxicity effect of ZnSO4.7H2O as a positive control showed an IC50 values of 46 mg/ml (160 microM). On the other hand, both HA2 and HA3 compound showed a slight genotoxicity effect as determined using the Alkaline Comet Assay following incubation at the concentration 200 mg/ml for 72 hours. This assay has been widely used in genetic toxicology to detect DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile site. The percentage of the cells with DNA damage for both substance was 27.7 +/- 1.3% and 15.6 +/- 1.0% for HA2 and HA3 respectively. Incubation of the cells for 24 hours with 38 microg/ml (IC25) of positive control showed an increase in percentage of cells with DNA damage (67.5 +/- 0.7%). In conclusion, our study indicated that both hydroxyapatite compounds showed a good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  6. Kannan TP, Nik Ahmad Shah NL, Azlina A, Samsudin AR, Narazah MY, Salleh M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:168-9.
    PMID: 15468871
    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  7. Fateh AH, Mohamed Z, Chik Z, Alsalahi A, Md Zain SR, Alshawsh MA
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2019 May 10;235:88-99.
    PMID: 30738113 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.007
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditionally, Verbena officinalis L. has been used for reproductive and gynaecological purposes. However, the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of V. officinalis have not been extensively investigated.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the in vitro mutagenicity and in vivo genotoxicity of aqueous extract of V. officinalis leaves using a modified Ames test and rat bone marrow micronucleus assay according to OECD guidelines.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro Ames test was carried out using different strains of Salmonella (TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535) and Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA (pKM101) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (S9 mixture). For micronucleus experiment, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6/group) were received a single oral daily dose of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of V. officinalis extract for three days. Negative and positive control rats were received distilled water or a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, respectively. Following dissection, femurs were collected and bone marrow cells were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa solution for micronucleus assessment.

    RESULTS: Ames test results demonstrated that 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of V. officinalis extract induced a significant mutagenic effect against TA100 and TA98 strains (with and without metabolic activation). Findings of the animal study showed there were no significant increase in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) and no significant alterations in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) to normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) ratio of treated rats as compared with their negative control. Meanwhile, significantly increased in the MNPEs was seen in the cyclophosphamide-treated group only.

    CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of V. officinalis has mutagenic effect against TA98 and TA100 strains as demonstrated by Ames test, however, there is no in vivo clastogenic and myelotoxic effect on bone marrow micronucleus of rats indicating that the benefits of using V. officinalis in traditional practice should outweigh risks.

    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests/methods*
  8. Busra FM, Chowdhury SR, Saim AB, Idrus RB
    Saudi Med J, 2011 Dec;32(12):1311-2.
    PMID: 22159390
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  9. Umar-Tsafe N, Mohamed-Said MS, Rosli R, Din LB, Lai LC
    Mutat. Res., 2004 Aug 8;562(1-2):91-102.
    PMID: 15279832
    Goniothalamin (GTN) is a styrylpyrrone derivative from Goniothalamus umbrosus and other Annonaceae species. It has been shown to have anti-cancer and apoptosis-inducing properties against various human tumour and animal cell lines. The compound has also been shown to be active in vivo against DMBA-induced rat mammary tumours and was reported as an anti-fertility agent in rats. The aim of our study was to assess the genotoxicity of GTN in CHO cells using the UKEMS guidelines. A metabolic activation fraction (S9) was prepared according to standard methods. The methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) screening assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50) of GTN. The average IC50 value was 12.45 (+/- 3.63)microM. The mitotic index (MI) assay was then performed to determine the clastogenicity indices (MI(C25), MI(C50) and MI(C100)) of GTN. The chromosome aberration (CA) induction assay using air-dried metaphase spread was then performed to investigate the clastogenic effects of goniothalamin. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) were used as positive controls in the presence and absence of S9 metabolic activation, respectively. The anti-genotoxicity effect of GTN was also assessed using a combination of GTN and EMS, and GTN and BaP. Dose-responses of CA frequencies were determined for both, the genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity effects. GTN on its own and when combined with positive controls, was found to induce and enhance CA, respectively. Chromatid and whole chromosome breaks/gaps, as well as interchanges, endoreduplications and ring chromosomes were the main types of aberration induced by GTN. The overall clastogenic effect of GTN was statistically significant. In conclusion, GTN is potentially a genotoxic or clastogenic substance without any anti-genotoxic properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  10. D'Souza UJ, Narayana K, Zain A, Raju S, Nizam HM, Noriah O
    Folia Morphol. (Warsz), 2006 Feb;65(1):6-10.
    PMID: 16783728
    The effects of exposure to low doses of paraquat, a herbicide, via the dermal route were studied on the spermatozoa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat (1, 1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was administered once a day for five days, at intervals of 24 h at 0, 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg, and the rats were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 28, and 42 after the last exposure. The sperm suspensions were obtained by mincing the caudae epididymes and ductus deferens for the purpose of performing a sperm morphology test, sperm count and analysis of sperm mortality and sperm motility, as per the standard procedures. The sperm count was decreased (p < 0.05) only on days 7 and 14 but sperm abnormalities increased on all days (p < 0.05). Sperm mortality increased at higher dose-levels (p < 0.05) except on day 42, and motility was affected by 30 mg/kg only on day 42. In conclusion, paraquat is a genotoxic and cytotoxic agent to germ cells in the male rat.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests/methods
  11. Suzina AH, Azlina A, Shamsuria O, Samsudin AR
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:105-6.
    PMID: 15468840
    Mutagenicity of CORAGRAF (natural coral) and REKAGRAF (hydroxyapatite) was tested in Ames test with and without an external metabolic activation system (S9). The test revealed no mutagenic activity of both locally produced osseous substitutes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  12. Chen TI, Zhuang HW, Chiao YC, Chen CC
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Aug 26;149(1):70-4.
    PMID: 23773827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.001
    Lignosus rhinocerotis mushroom is widely used as traditional medicine and as soup ingredient in Malaysia and Hong Kong. Its sclerotium is the part of edibility and is traditionally used for the treatment of fever, cough, asthma and cancer. In view of its safety profile, very little information is found in scientific literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests/methods
  13. Shafaei A, Esmailli K, Farsi E, Aisha AF, Abul Majid AM, Ismail Z
    PMID: 26467526 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0885-z
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) Benth is a medicinal plant and native in Southeast Asia. Pharmacological effects of OS are attributed to the presence of lipophilic flavones. However; lipophilic compounds suffer from poor aqueous solubility which limits the OS oral bioavailability and therapeutic applications. Therefore, OS was prepared in nano formulation form using liposomes from soybean phospholipids. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo oral toxicity of nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract (OS-EL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests*
  14. Al-Shami SA, Rawi CS, Ahmad AH, Nor SA
    Toxicol Ind Health, 2012 Sep;28(8):734-9.
    PMID: 22025505 DOI: 10.1177/0748233711422729
    The genotoxic effects of increasing concentrations (below lethal concentration [LC₅₀]) of cadmium ([Cd] 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/L), copper ([Cu] 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/L) and zinc ([Zn] 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L) on Chironomus kiiensis were evaluated using alkaline comet assay after exposure for 24 h. Both the tail moment and the olive tail moment showed significant differences between the control and different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The highest concentration of Cd was associated with higher DNA damage to C. kiiensis larvae compared with Cu and Zn. The potential genotoxicity of these metals to C. kiiensis was Cd > Cu > Zn.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  15. Noushad M, Kannan TP, Husein A, Abdullah H, Ismail AR
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2009 Sep;23(6):1145-50.
    PMID: 19505568 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.05.025
    The aim of this study was to determine the genotoxicity of a locally produced dental porcelain (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia) using the Ames and Comet assays. In the Ames assay, four genotypic variants of the Salmonella strains (TA98, TA100, TA1537 and TA1535) carrying mutations in several genes were used. The dental porcelain was incubated with these four strains in five different doses both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9) and the result was assessed based on the number of revertant colonies. Concurrently, appropriate positive controls were used so as to validate the test. The average number of revertant colonies per plate treated with locally produced dental porcelain was less than double as compared to that of negative control. In the Comet assay, L929 (CCL-1 ATCC, USA) mouse fibroblast cells were treated with the dental porcelain in three different concentrations along with concurrent negative and positive controls. The tail moment which was used as a measurement of DNA damage was almost equal to that of the negative control, suggesting that the locally produced dental porcelain did not induce any DNA damage. The results indicated that the locally produced dental porcelain is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  16. Loh DS, Er HM, Chen YS
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2009 Dec 10;126(3):406-14.
    PMID: 19778596 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.025
    Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta) is a weed commonly found in tropical countries and has been used traditionally for asthma, bronchitis and conjunctivitis. However, one of the constituents in this plant, quercetin, was previously reported to be mutagenic. This work aimed to determine the level of quercetin in the aqueous and methanol plant extracts and to investigate the mutagenic effects of quercetin and the extracts in the Ames test utilising the mutant Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. The antimutagenic activity of Euphorbia hirta aqueous and methanol extracts was also studied in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. HPLC analyses showed that quercetin and rutin, a glycosidic form of quercetin, were present in the acid-hydrolysed methanol extract and non-hydrolysed methanol extract respectively. The quercetin concentration was negligible in both non-hydrolysed and acid-hydrolysed aqueous extracts. The total phenolic contents in Euphorbia hirta were determined to be 268 and 93 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per gram of aqueous and methanol extracts, respectively. Quercetin (25 microg/mL) was found to be strongly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. However, both the aqueous and methanol extracts did not demonstrate any mutagenic properties when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains at concentrations up to 100 microg/mL in the absence and presence of S-9 metabolic activation. In the absence of S-9 metabolic activation, both the extracts were unable to inhibit the mutagenicity of the known mutagen, 2-nitrofluorene, in Salmonella typhimurium TA98. On the other hand, the aqueous extracts at 100 microg/mL and methanol extracts at 10 and 100 microg/mL exhibited strong antimutagenic activity against the mutagenicity of 2-aminoanthracene, a known mutagen, in the presence of S-9 metabolic activating enzymes. The results indicated that these extracts could modulate the xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in the liver at the higher concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  17. Mohd-Fuat AR, Kofi EA, Allan GG
    Trop Biomed, 2007 Dec;24(2):49-59.
    PMID: 18209708 MyJurnal
    Three popular medicinal plants regarded as improving human sexual function in some parts of Southeast Asia were analysed for their mutagenic properties using modified Ames test (fluctuation test). Extract of one of the plants, Tacca integrifolia Ker-Gawl., was found to be mutagenic using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100. Extract of T. integrifolia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Helmintostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook were cytotoxic to human cell lines, Hep2 and HFL1, with IC50 ranging from 11 mug/ml to 55 mug/ml. Extract of E. longifolia was the most cytotoxic with IC50 of 11 mug/ml and 13 mug/ml on Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines respectively. Combined extract of T. integrifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on both Hep2 and HFL1 cell lines while combined extract of E. longifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than single extract on Hep2 cell lines. Under the conditions of this study it can be concluded that T. integrifolia is mutagenic and the combined extracts of the medicinal plants was highly cytotoxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  18. How V, Hashim Z, Ismail P, Md Said S, Omar D, Bahri Mohd Tamrin S
    J Agromedicine, 2014;19(1):35-43.
    PMID: 24417530 DOI: 10.1080/1059924X.2013.866917
    Children are the vulnerable group in the agricultural community due to their early exposure to pesticides through the dynamic interplay between genetic predisposition, environment, and host-related factors. This study aims to identify the possible association between the depression in blood cholinesterase level and genotoxic effect among farm children. The results of micronuclei assay and comet assay showed that the reduced blood cholinesterase level from organophosphate pesticide exposure is significantly associated with an increase in chromosome breakage and DNA strand breaks. These genotoxicity end points suggest that farm children's cells experience early DNA damage that may lead to uncontrolled cell proliferation during their adulthood. Thus, farm children who grow up near pesticide-treated farmland have a higher probability of developing cancer than children with minimal or zero exposure to pesticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  19. Matsumoto T, Kitagawa T, Teo S, Anai Y, Ikeda R, Imahori D, et al.
    J. Nat. Prod., 2018 10 26;81(10):2187-2194.
    PMID: 30335380 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00341
    A methanol extract of the dried leaves of Lansium domesticum showed antimutagenic effects against 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5 H-pyrido[4,3- b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- bI]pyridine (PhIP) using the Ames assay. Nine new onoceranoid-type triterpenoids, lansium acids I-IX (1-9), and nine known compounds (10-16) were isolated from the extract. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. The absolute stereostructures of the new compounds were determined via their electronic circular dichroism spectra. Several isolated onoceranoid-type triterpeneoids showed antimutagenic effects in an in vitro Ames assay. Moreover, oral intake of a major constituent, lansionic acid (10), showed antimutagenic effects against PhIP in an in vivo micronucleus test.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
  20. Siew EL, Rajab NF, Osman AB, Sudesh K, Inayat-Hussain SH
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2009 Dec;91(3):786-94.
    PMID: 19051306 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32290
    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are naturally occurring biopolyesters that have great potential in the medical field. However, the leachables resulting from sterilization process of the biomaterials may exert toxic effect including genetic damage. Here, we demonstrate that although gamma-irradiation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-50 mol % 4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] did not cause any change in the morphology by scanning electron microscopy, there was a significant degradation of this copolymer where the molecular weight was reduced by 37% after sterilization indicating the generation of leachables. Therefore, further investigation on the ability of the extract of this poststerilized copolymer to induce mutagenic effect was performed using Ames test (S. typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1537) and umu test (S. typhimurium strain TA1535/pSK1002). Additionally, the capability of the extract to induce clastogenic effect was determined using Chinese hamster lung V79 fibroblast cells. Our results showed that with and without the presence of S9 metabolic activation, no mutagenic effects were observed in both Ames and umu tests when treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) extract. Similarly, treatment of P(3HB-co-4HB) extract in V79 fibroblast cells showed no significant production of micronuclei when compared with the positive control (Mitomycin C). Together, these results indicate that leachables of poststerilized P(3HB-co-4HB) cause no mutagenic and clastogenic effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mutagenicity Tests
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