METHOD: Multiple methods were used to determine molecular cognizance of AA in T2DM rats, when treated with different dosage levels. Histopathological and histomorphometry analysis was conducted using masson trichrome and H&E stains. While, protein and mRNA expressions of TLR-4/Wnt and insulin signaling were assessed using automated Western blotting (jess), immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Histopathological findings revealed that AA had reversed back the T2DM-induced apoptosis and necrosis caused to rats pancreas. Molecular findings exhibited prominent effects of AA in downregulating the elevated level of TLR-4, MyD88, NF-κB, p-JNK, and Wnt/β-catenin by blocking TLR-4/MyD88 and canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic pancreas, while IRS-1, PI3K, and pAkt were all upregulated by altering the NF-κB and β-catenin crosstalk during T2DM.
CONCLUSION: Overall results, indicate that AA has potential to develop as an effective therapeutic in the treatment of T2DM associated meta-inflammation. However, future preclinical research at multiple dose level in a long-term chronic T2DM disease model is warranted to understand its clinical relevance in cardiometabolic disease.
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the cardioprotective effects of arjunolic acid (AA) via MyD88-dependant TLR4 downstream signaling marker expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MTT viability assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of AA. LPS induced in vitro cardiovascular disease model was developed in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes. The treatment groups were designed such as control (untreated), LPS control, positive control (LPS + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-25 µM), and treatment groups were co-treated with LPS and three concentrations of AA (50, 75, and 100 µM) for 24 h. The changes in the expression of TLR4 downstream signaling markers were evaluated through High Content Screening (HCS) and Western Blot (WB) analysis.
RESULTS: After 24 h of co-treatment, the expression of TLR4, MyD88, MAPK, JNK, and NF-κB markers were upregulated significantly (2-6 times) in the LPS-treated groups compared to the untreated control in both HCS and WB experiments. Evidently, the HCS analysis revealed that MyD88, NF-κB, p38, and JNK were significantly downregulated in the H9C2 myotube in the AA treated groups. In HCS, the expression of NF-κB was downregulated in C2C12. Additionally, TLR4 expression was downregulated in both H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes in the WB experiment.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: TLR4 marker expression in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes was subsequently decreased by AA treatment, suggesting possible cardioprotective effects of AA.
METHOD: Male SD rats were divided into five groups (n = 8), injected with LPS and thereafter treated with LA (50 and 100 mg/kg) or vehicle orally for 14 days. After fourteen days of LA treatment, all the groups were humanely killed to investigate biochemical parameters followed by pro-inflammatory cytokine markers; tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β. Moreover, liver tissues were harvested for histopathological studies and evaluation of targeted protein expression with western blot and localisation through immunohistochemistry (IHC).
RESULTS: The study results showed that treatment of LA 50 and 100 mg/kg for 14 days were able to reduce the elevated level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, liver inflammation, and downregulated the expression of TLR4/NF-κB mediating proteins in liver tissues.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that treatment of LA has a protective role against LPS-induced liver inflammation in rats, thus, warrants further in-depth investigation through mechanistic approaches in different study models.